Panda, Rajmohan;Mathur, Manu Raj;Divya, Persai;Srivastava, Swati;Ramachandra, Srikrishna Sulgodu
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Introduction: Andhra Pradesh (AP) is one of the largest tobacco producing states in India. About 29% of adults in AP currently use tobacco in some form. Almost 24% of males and 4% of females are smokers. The prevalence of tobacco use in the state is higher than the national average of 15% for male and 2% for female smokers. However, few attempts have been made to understand the current situation of tobacco control resources, activities and strategies in the context of such a high tobacco prevalence state. The present study aimed to identify the gaps in existing tobacco control program and areas where tobacco control efforts can be integrated. Methods: Data were collected using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a total of 95 key officials of state health departments, program managers, and project directors in six districts to understand ongoing tobacco control efforts. To facilitate the interviews, semi-structured guides were developed. Simple descriptive statistical analysis was conducted on the quantitative data using SPSS version 17. Results: The results of the situational analysis suggest that a sufficient health workforce and infrastructure with the potential to integrate tobacco control activities is available in the surveyed districts. However, lack of integration of the tobacco control program intothe tuberculosis control program and the National Rural Health Mission was observed. Information, education and communication activities were lacking at block level health facilities. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that lack of trained health professionals, paucity of dedicated funds, lack of information, education and communication materials and low priority given to tobacco control activities are some of the factors which impede integration of tobacco control into existing health and developmental programmes in the districts of Andhra Pradesh, India.
Jena, Pratap Kumar;Bandyopadhyay, Chandan;Mathur, Manu Raj;Das, Sagarika
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Background: The term 'hardcore' has been applied to use of smoking tobacco and generally referred to as the inability or unwillingness of regular smokers to quit. The component constructs of hardcore except nicotine dependence are product neutral. With the use of 'time to first chew' as a measure of nicotine dependence, hardcore definition can be extended to characterize smokeless tobacco users. Hardcore users respond less to tobacco cessation interventions, and are prone to tobacco induced diseases including cancer. Thus identifying hardcore users would help in estimate the burden of high risk population for tobacco induced diseases. Smokeless tobacco use is predominant and accounts for more than 50% of oral cancer in India. Hence, hardcore chewing information could be used for planning of tobacco and cancer control interventions. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of hardcore smokeless tobacco use in India. Materials and Methods: Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)-India 2010 data were analyzed to quantify hardcore smokeless tobacco use in India with following five criteria: (1) current daily smokeless tobacco use; (2) no quit attempt in the past 12 months of survey or last quit attempt of less than 24 hours duration; (3) no intention to quit in next 12 months or not interested in quitting; (4) time to first use of smokeless tobacco product within 30 minutes of waking up; and (5) knowledge of smokeless tobacco hazards. Results: The number of hardcore smokeless tobacco users among adult Indians is estimated to be 5% (39.5 million). This group comprises 23.2% of daily smokeless tobacco users. The population prevalence varied from 1.4-9.1% across different national regions of India. Logistic regression modeling indicated age, education and employment status to be the major predictors of hardcore smokeless tobacco use in India. Conclusions: The presence of a huge number (39.5 million) of hardcore smokeless tobacco users is a challenge to tobacco control and cancer prevention in India. There is an unmet need for a universal tobacco cessation programme and intensification of anti-tobacco education in communities.
Context: Tobacco is the single largest cause of preventable death among adults globally, as it is in India. Despite this alarming situation, there is very minimal inclusion of tobacco in formal education systems, including the medical discipline, in India. Aims: The present study analyzed the extent of integration of tobacco control related content in Masters of Public Health (MPH) curricula of various institutes in India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during January 2011 to May 2011 in all colleges of the country offering a MPH course. The colleges were enlisted using various internet search engines (Google Scholar, Pubmed, Medline), other published literature and snowball technique. A 50 items semi-structured questionnaire was designed, posted and e-mailed (followed by hard copy) to the Person-In-Charge of the MPH program. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were used to profile the tobacco control content in respective institutions. All data entry and analysis was conducted using SPSS (version 16) for windows. Results: The duration of the MPH course was two years in all institutes and had accreditation with some affiliated body. Tobacco related diseases were covered under 'non communicable diseases' section by every institute. However, a mere 41.4% of institute's had faculty who had received specialized training in tobacco control. More coverage was given to health risks and effects of smoking as compared to cessation interventions (5 A's), symptoms of withdrawal and pharmacological treatments. Only 25% of institutes were in process of introducing tobacco courses into their curricula. Lack of expertise and administrative barriers were cited as perceived major problems in inclusion of tobacco control in MPH curricula. Conclusions: It can be concluded that tobacco control is not receiving adequate attention in public health curricula in India. There is a need for coordinated efforts in the area of tobacco control so as to reduce morbidity and mortality from tobacco induced diseases.
Background: The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was carried out for systematically monitoring tobacco use and for tracking key tobacco control indicators. Materials and Methods: A total of 70,802 households, including 42,647 in rural areas and 28,155 in urban areas, were covered with a three stage sampling design. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practices of tobacco consumption.Results: GATS-India highlighted that total tobacco use among its residents is overall 34.6%, varying for males (47.9%) and females (20.7%). The rural areas of the country exhibit comparatively higher prevalence rates (38.4%) in comparison to urban areas (25.3%). Overall, Khaini, a smokeless tobacco product (12.0%), is the most popular form of tobacco use among males and females, followed by bidi smoking (9.0%). Conclusion: Results of GATS data can be used as baseline for evaluation of new tobacco control approaches in India integrating culturally acceptable and cost effective measures.
Sharma, Shailja;Singh, Mitasha;Lal, Pranay;Goel, Sonu
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Background: Early initiation of smoking and chewing of diverse forms of tobacco among youth in India is a significant driver for tobacco epidemic in India. Several socio-demographic factors are predictors of tobacco use in populations, especially among youth. Interventions which address these socio-demographic factors can help policy makers to curb new initiations and avert morbidity and mortality due to tobacco use. Objective: To study the various sociodemographic variables associated with tobacco use among youth in India. Materials and Methods: Secondary analysis of data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey-India 2009-10 for the age group of 15-24 years was performed and predictors of smoking and smokeless tobacco were analyzed using data on occupation, education, and other sociodemographic factors. Results: In India there are a total of 51.3 million (22.1%) youth (15-24 years) tobacco users. Of these 35.1 million consumes chewable tobacco (15.1%), 16.2 million smoke (7%) and 1.6 million are dual users (3.1%). Males, urban, less educated, un-employed and those belonging to middle class preferred smoking over chewing; whereas, females, rural, students and those belonging to low socio-economic class are predictors of smokeless tobacco use. The major determinants of dual users are male sex, poor socio-economic strata and student class. The overall tobacco use was higher among males, rural populations, lower socioeconomic strata and un-employed class. Conclusions: India's youth is more susceptible to the tobacco addiction, especially of smokeless tobacco. Youth from rural India especially students, girls and those from poor socio-economic strata prefer to use smokeless tobacco products whereas urban, male and those less educated prefer smoking tobacco products. More population-based and region-focused research is needed to understand initiation patterns into tobacco use among youth so as to inform policymakers to devise new policy measures to curb the growing epidemic.
Background: Section 5 of India's tobacco control legislation "Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA), 2003"comprehensively prohibits all kinds of tobacco advertisement, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS), but permits advertisments at the point-of-sale (POS) under certain conditions. This provision has been exploited by the tobacco companies to promote their products. Objective: To measure compliance with the provisions of Section 5 of Indian tobacco control legislation (COTPA, 2003) at point of sale. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey using an observation checklist was conducted in 1860 POS across three jurisdictions (Chennai city, District Vadodara and District Mohali) in India. Results: The most common mode of advertisement of tobacco products was product showcasing (51.1%), followed by dangles (49.6%), stickers (33.8%) and boards (27.1%). More than one fourth of POS were found violating legal provisions for displaying advertisement boards in one or other forms (oversized, extended to full body lenth of POS, displayed brandname/packshot and promotional messages). Advertisement boards (16.3%) without health warnings were also found and wherever found, more than 90% health warning were not as per the specification in respect to size, font and background color. Conclusions: Point of sale advertising is aggressively used by the tobacco industry to promote their products. There is an urgent need of effective implementation of a comprehensive ban on tobacco product advertisement, promotion and sponsorship at point of sale.
Panda, Rajmohan;Persai, Divya;Mathur, Manu;Sarkar, Bidyut Kanti
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Background: Smokeless tobacco use in South Asia is believed to be a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality. In India, only a few studies involving health educational intervention by health care providers have demonstrated reduction in smokeless tobacco usage. In the present study we assessed the cessation efforts towards smokeless tobacco by physicians in two high tobacco prevalence states of India. The study also identified opportunities and barriers for integration of tobacco cessation services in routine practices of physicians. Materials and Methods: This mixed method study involved qualitative (phase I) and quantitative research study (phase II). In phase I, 59 in-depth interviews with physicians were conducted. In phase II, a quantitative study conducted among 238 physicians. An inductive approach was followed to analyze qualitative data using ATLAS. Ti software. The Chi-square test was employed to test the association between different variables of interest using SPSS version 17. Results: The majority of physicians related only respiratory problems and cancer with smokeless tobacco. Other major health effects like cardio-vascular problems, oral diseases, and effects on reproductive and neonatal health were recognized only by a few physicians. The age-group of 10-19 years was identified as most vulnerable to smokeless tobacco use. Less than one-third of physicians reported recording smokeless tobacco history of all patients. Findings indicated that less than half of physicians provided information on harmful health effects of smokeless tobacco with regard to specific diseases. Conclusions: The study revealed a low level of knowledge of physicians about harmful effects of tobacco and their suboptimal engagement in tobacco control practices. The study indicates the need of capacity building initiatives to equip physicians with skills in tobacco cessation.
Gajalakshmi, V.;Kanimozhi, C.V.;Sinha, D.N.;Rahman, K.;Warren, C.W.;Asma, S.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Background: The results of the Global School Personnel Survey (GSPS) conducted in India in 2009 are compared with 2006 GSPS to assess any change in 2009 on tobacco use and knowledge and attitudes to tobacco use, training and availability of tobacco control teaching material in schools and the existence of school tobacco control policies. Methods: GSPS is a cross sectional survey conducted twice (2006 and 2009) in entire India. A total of 180 schools were surveyed each time. Results: Of the participating school personnel, 2660 in 2006 and 2575 in 2009, about 95% were teachers and the balance administrators. In 2009, compared to 2006 the prevalence of current smoking of cigarettes (19.6% in 2006 and 10.3% in 2009) and bidis (21.5% in 2006 and 13.9% in 2009) was found to be significantly lower; the percentage of teachers receiving training on preventing youth tobacco use has significantly reduced (16.7% in 2006 and 10.1% in 2009); access of teachers to educational materials on tobacco use and how to prevent its use among youth had not increased (34.6% in 2006 and 37.8% in 2009); there was no change in policy prohibiting tobacco use among students and school personnel; however, ever use of any tobacco on school premises was significantly lower (15.6% in 2006 and 9.6% in 2009). Conclusions: The prevalence of current smoking (cigarettes/bidis) among school personnel and use of any tobacco on school premises were significantly decreased in 2009 as compared to 2006. Necessary action should be planned to increase the number of teachers trained and the availability of teaching materials on preventing youth tobacco use in order to have effective prevention of tobacco use among students.
Introduction: Tobacco use is a leading cause of deaths and disabilities in India, killing about 1.2 lakh people in 2010. About 29% of adults use tobacco on a daily basis and an additional 5% use it occasionally. In Odisha, non-smoking forms are more prevalent than smoking forms. The habit has very high opportunity cost as it reduces the capacity to seek better nutrition, medical care and education. In line with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA) is a powerful Indian national law on tobacco control. The Government of Odisha has shown its commitment towards enforcement and compliance of COTPA provisions. In order to gauge the perceptions and practices related to tobacco control efforts and level of enforcement of COTPA in the State, this cross-sectional study was carried out in seven selected districts. Materials and methods: A semi-structured interview schedule was developed, translated into Odiya and field-tested for data collection. It mainly contained questions related to knowledge on provisions of section 4-7 of COTPA 2003, perception about smoking, chewing tobacco and practices with respect to compliance of selected provisions of the Act. 1414 samples were interviewed. Results: The highest percentage of respondents was from the government departments. 73% of the illiterates consumed tobacco as compared to 34% post graduates. 52.1% of the respondents were aware of Indian tobacco control laws, while 80.8% had knowledge about the provision of the law prohibiting smoking in public places. However, 36.6% of the respondents reported that they had 'very often' seen tobacco products being sold 'to a minor', while 31.2% had seen tobacco products being sold 'by a minor'. In addition, 24.8% had 'very often' seen tobacco products being sold within a radius of 100 yards of educational institutions.
Sarkar, Bidyut K.;Arora, Monika;Gupta, Vinay K.;Reddy, K. Srinath
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Background: This study was undertaken to identify the socio-demographic determinants of quit attempts among smokers and smokeless tobacco users to identify correlates of tobacco cessation behaviour in India Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study for the outcome of quit attempts made by current tobacco users in last 12 months in twelve districts in two states. Simple and multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to obtain the odds ratios (ORs) of socio-demographic variables (age, gender, education, occupation, socio-economic status, community, area, type of family) and tobacco user status (smoker/smokeless). Results: In the combined analysis, a smoker had higher predicted probability of attempting quitting (OR-1.41,CI 1.14-1.90), in comparison to a smokeless tobacco user and a tobacco user in the state of Gujarat was less likely to attempt quitting than a user in Andhra Pradesh (OR-0.60, CI 0.47-0.78). The probability of making a quit attempt was higher among tobacco users who were more educated (OR-1.40, CI 1.04-1.94), having a higher socio-economic status (SES) (OR-2.39, CI 1.54-3.69), and belonging to non-agricultural labourer occupational group (OR-1.90, CI 1.29-2.78). The effects were maintained even after adjusting for all other variables. In disaggregated analysis, findings were similar except in smokeless as a separate group, education level was not significantly associated with quit attempts and with lower odds (OR-0.91, CI 0.58-1.42). Conclusions: This is one of the first studies to provide useful insight into potential determinants for quit attempts of tobacco users in India including smokeless tobacco users, exploring the socio-demographic patterning of correlates of quit attempts.
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