• Title, Summary, Keyword: Income Insecurity

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Associations of Household Food Insecurity with Socioeconomic Measures, Health Status and Nutrient Intake in Low Income Elderly (저소득층 노인에서 식품불안정과 사회경제적 지표, 건강상태, 영양소 섭취와의 관련성)

  • Kwon, Sung-Ok;Oh, Se-Young
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.40 no.8
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    • pp.762-768
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    • 2007
  • This study examined household food insecurity and the associations of food insecurity with socioeconomic conditions, food behaviors, and nutrient intakes among 458 older adults(mean age=$73.2{\pm}4.5$) from 5 clusters of low-income areas in Seoul, Korea. Using an adapted version of the USDA short form household food insecurity scale, 63.4% of the households were food insecure(40.7% for food insecure without hunger and 22.7% for food insecure with hunger). The proportion of household was lower on the items measured more severe level of food insecurity. Food insecurity was linearly and negatively associated with food expenditure, food secured period and the degree of nutrition management skills, health status and depression. Food secure older adults had mere of energy and other nutrients from animal resources(riboflavin and animal protein, fat and calcium), but less of carbohydrates than those from the food insecure households. These results suggest household food insecurity measures used in this study was valid as well as food insecurity was prevalent and an important indicator of nutrition well-being among low income elderly persons.

Household food insecurity, diet quality, and weight status among indigenous women (Mah Meri) in Peninsular Malaysia

  • Pei, Chong Su;Appannah, Geeta;Sulaiman, Norhasmah
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.135-142
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This cross-sectional study assessed household food security status and determined its association with diet quality and weight status among indigenous women from the Mah Meri tribe in Peninsular Malaysia. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity Instrument and the Malaysian Healthy Eating Index (HEI) were used to assess household food security status and diet quality, respectively. Information on socio-demographic characteristics and 24-hour dietary recall data were collected through face-to-face interview, and anthropometric measurements including weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) were obtained from 222 women. RESULTS: Majority of households (82.9%) experienced different levels of food insecurity: 29.3% household food insecurity, 23.4% individual food insecurity, and 30.2% fell into the child hunger group. The food-secure group had significantly fewer children and smaller household sizes than the food-insecure groups (P < 0.05). The mean household income, income per capita, and food expenditure significantly decreased as food insecurity worsened (P < 0.001). The food-secure group had significantly higher Malaysian HEI scores for grains and cereals (P < 0.01), as well as for meat, poultry, and eggs (P < 0.001), than the food-insecure groups. The child-hunger group had significantly higher fat (P < 0.05) and sodium (P < 0.001) scores than the food-secure and household food-insecure groups. Compared to the individual food-insecure and child-hunger groups, multivariate analysis of covariance showed that the food-secure group was significantly associated with a higher Malaysian HEI score while the household food-insecure group was significantly associated with a higher BMI after controlling for age (P < 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of indigenous households faced food insecurity. Food insecurity at the individual and child levels was associated with lower quality of diet, while food insecurity at the household level was associated with higher body weight. Therefore, a substantial effort by all stakeholders is warranted to improve food insecurity among poorer households. The results suggest a pressing need for nutritional interventions to improve dietary intake among low income households.

The relationship between precarious work and unmet dental care needs in South Korea: focus on job and income insecurity (한국 노동시장 불안정성과 미충족 치과의료의 관련성: 고용과 소득 불안정성을 중심으로)

  • Che, Xianhua;Park, Hee-Jung
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.167-174
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the accessibility of dental care services among individuals with precarious employment in South Korea. Methods: We used the $9^{th}$ wave of the Korean Health Panel data (2015) and included 7,736 wage and non-wage earners in our study. We determined precariousness in the labor market as a combination of employment relationship and job income, and categorized individuals based on this into the following four groups: Group A comprising those who report job and income security, Group B comprising those who experience job insecurity alone, Group C comprising those who report a stable job but low income, and Group D comprising those who experience both job and income insecurity. Accessibility to dental care services was determined by experience of unmet dental care needs and unmet dental care needs caused primarily by financial burden. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the effect of precarious work on access to dental care services. Results: Individuals with job insecurity (Group B; OR=1.445; 95% CI=1.22-1.70) and both job and income insecurity (Group D; OR=1.899; 95% CI=1.61-2.24) were more likely to have unmet needs than the comparison group. Both groups B and D were also 2.048 (95% CI=1.57-2.66) times and 4.435 (95% CI =3.46-5.68) times more likely, respectively, to have unmet dental care needs caused by financial burden. Education status, health insurance, and health status were all also effective factors influencing unmet dental care needs. Conclusions: Unstable employment and low income resulted in diminished access to dental care services. Therefore, governments should consider health policy solutions to reduce barriers preventing individuals with employment and income instability from accessing adequate dental care.

Association between household food insecurity and nutritional outcomes among children in Northeastern of Peninsular Malaysia

  • Naser, Ihab Ali;Jali, Rohana;Wan Muda, Wan Manan;Wan Nik, Wan Suriati;Shariff, Zalilah Mohd;Abdullah, Mohamed Rusli
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.304-311
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    • 2014
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between household food insecurity and nutritional status of children in low-income households. A cross sectional study involved a survey of households (n = 223) receiving the financial assistance. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Eligible mothers that fulfilled the inclusion criteria such as non-pregnant, non-lactating mothers, aged 18 to 55 years with their youngest children aged 2 to 12 years, were purposively selected. The Radimer/Cornell hunger and food-insecurity instrument was administered and children's height and weight were measured. RESULTS: About 16.1% of the households were food secure, while 83.9% experienced some kind of food insecurity. Out of food insecure category, 29.6% households were food insecure, 19.3% women were individual food insecure and 35.0% fell into the child hunger category. Education of the mother (P = 0.047), household size (P = 0.024), number of children (P = 0.024), number of children going to school (P = 0.048), total monthly income (P < 0.001), income per capital (P < 0.001), number of household members contributing to the income (P = 0.018) and food expenditure (P = 0.006) were significant risk factors for household food insecurity. The prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting in children were 61.0%, 61.4% and 30.6% respectively. Based on multinomial logistic regression, children in food-insecure households were 2.15 times more likely to be underweight and three times to be stunted than children in the food-secure households. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that household food insecurity is associated with the nutritional status of the children in the rural area of Northeastern Peninsular Malaysia.

The Influence of Community Characteristics on Food Insecurity Korean Adults (지역사회의 특성이 우리나라 성인의 식품불안정에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Jun;Kang, Gilwon;Tak, Yangju;Chang, Sounghoon;Lee, Kunsei;Kim, Hyeongsu
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.226-232
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    • 2016
  • Background: This study was conducted to analyze the influence of socioeconomic characteristics of community on the food insecurity under the control of personal socioeconomic factors which may be influence to the food security. Methods: Food insecurity and individual socioeconomic characteristics were obtained from 2012 community health survey. Socioeconomic characteristics of communities were extracted from the data of Statistics Korea and local governments. Personal socioeconomic factors were sex, age, educational status, job, and monthly family income. Socioeconomic characteristics of communities were administrative district (urban vs. rural), senior population rate, degree of financial self reliance, degree of financial independence, portion of welfare budget, number of welfare facilities, and unemployment rate. We analysed the relationships between the food insecurity and socioeconomic characteristics of community using multi-level analysis under the control of personal characteristics. Results: On personal level age, sex, education status, and monthly family income were related with food insecurity. On community level administrative district (urban vs. rural), degree of financial independence, unemployment rate, and proportion of welfare budget among local general government accounts were related to individual food insecurity. Rural area, district with low levels of financial independence, low portion of welfare budget, and greater unemployment rate showed a higher level of food insecurity. Conclusion: To reduce the level of food insecurity in a community it is necessary to decrease the unemployment rate, in addition to providing support from the central government by increasing the proportion of the welfare budget so that both factors contribute to raising the degree of financial independence.

Factors contributing to participation in food assistance programs in the elderly population

  • Hong, Seo Ah;Kim, Kirang
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.425-431
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    • 2014
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The study objectives were to examine the participation rate in food assistance programs and explore the factors that contribute to such participation among the Korean elderly population. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study sample comprised 3,932 respondents aged 65 years or older who were selected from a secondary data set, the fourth Korean Welfare Panel Study (KoWePS). The factors, related to participation in programs were examined based on the predisposing, enabling and need factors of the help-seeking behavior model. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to select the best contributors among the factors related to program participation. RESULTS: The predisposing rate in food assistance programs was 8.5% (7.1% for men and 10.4% for women). When all variables were included in the model, living without spouse, no formal education, low income, having social security benefits and food insecurity in elderly men, and age, low income, having social security benefits and feeling poor in elderly women were significantly related to a higher tendency to program participation. CONCLUSIONS: The predisposing and need factors, such as living without spouse, low education level, food insecurity and feeling poor were important for program participation, as well as enabling factors, such as household income and social security benefits. A comprehensive approach considering these factors to identify the target population for food assistance programs is needed to increase the effectiveness and target population penetration of these programs.

Effect of Job Insecurity on Job related Depression and Anxiety: Large- and Small-sized Company Employees (근로자의 직업불안정성이 직업 관련 우울감 및 불안감에 미치는 영향: 대규모와 소규모 사업장 근로자를 중심으로)

  • Ha, Yeongmi;Park, Hyunju
    • Korean Journal of Occupational Health Nursing
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.329-339
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of job insecurity on job related depression and anxiety in large- and small-sized company employees. Methods: Data of the third Korean Working Condition Survey in 2011 were used. Subjects were 2,050 large-sized company employees and 18,924 small-sized company workers. $x^2$ test and multiple logistic regression using SAS 9.2 were conducted. Results: Large- and small-sized company employees showed significant differences in terms of demographic, health-related, and job-related characteristics. From the bivariate analysis, gender, income, self-rated health, occupation, working hours per week, job-related stress, workplace violence, and job insecurity were significantly related to job-related depression/anxiety in large-sized company employees. From the multivariate analysis, higher income (AOR: 0.22, 95%CI: 0.07~0.71), better health perception (AOR: 0.05, 95%CL: 0.01~0.18), 40 or more working hours per week (AOR: 0.20, 95%CI: 0.05~0.79) showed lower risk for job-related depression/anxiety. From the bivariate and multivariate analysis, better health perception (AOR: 0.32, 95%CI: 0.20~0.53), higher job-related stress (AOR: 2.57, 95%CI: 1.68~3.93, workplace violence experience (AOR: 4.26; 95%CI: 2.88~6.30), and job insecurity experience (AOR: 1.90, 95%CI: 1.18~3.05) were significantly related to job-related depression/anxiety in small-sized company employees. Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that job insecurity experience was significantly related to job-related depression/anxiety in small-sized company employees but not in large-sized company employees. Therefore, small-sized company workers who have experienced feeling of job insecurity are vulnerable population in terms of job-related depression/anxiety.

Intrahousehold discrepancy regarding food insecurity within intermarried couples of Vietnamese wives and Korean husbands in South Korea

  • Choi, Ha-Ney;Chung, Hye-Won;Hwang, Ji-Yun;Chang, Nam-Soo
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.5 no.5
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    • pp.471-480
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    • 2011
  • Our previous studies have demonstrated the inadequate nutritional status of Vietnamese female marriage immigrants in Korea. Major possible reasons include food insecurity due to economic problems as well as a lack of adjustment to unfamiliar Korean foods and limited access to Vietnamese foods; however, no study has investigated food insecurity among such intermarried couples. This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of food insecurity in Korean-husband-Vietnamese-wife couples and to determine whether they exhibit an intrahousehold discrepancy regarding food insecurity. A cross-sectional analysis of the Cohort of Intermarried Women in Korea study was performed with 84 intermarried couples. Among the 84 Vietnamese immigrants, 48.8% and 41.7% had food insecurity due to economic problems and a lack of foods appealing to their appetite, respectively. There was a marked discrepancy in reporting food insecurity between Vietnamese wives (22.6-38.1%) and their Korean husbands (6.0-15.5%). Vietnamese wives were five and two times more food-insecure due to economic problems and no foods appealing to their appetite, respectively, than their Korean spouses. A follow-up study is needed to investigate the causes of this discrepancy and ways of reducing food insecurity among female marriage immigrants living in low-income, rural communities.

Food Insecurity and Related Risk Factors in the Elderly: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013 Data (우리나라 노인의 식품불안정성 및 관련 요인: 2013년 국민건강영양조사자료)

  • Lee, Hye-Sang
    • Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.308-319
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to assess risk factors associated with food insecurity in the Korean elderly aged over 65 years using data from the Korea National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey 2013 (KNHANES VI). A total of 1,200 subjects were analyzed among the participants of the KNHANES 2013 by using SPSS statistics complex samples (ver. 21.0). Food insecurity was measured by using the modified US Household Food Security/Hunger Survey Module. Thirteen percent of subjects lived in food insecure households. There were differences in the prevalence of food insecurity according to sex, educational level, income level, and household structure. Mean age of the food insecurity group was significantly higher than that of the food security group. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that food insecurity was significantly associated with alcohol intake (OR: 1.82), prevalence of melancholy (OR: 2.07) and suicidal thoughts (OR: 2.67), and intake deficiency of energy (OR: 1.60), calcium (OR: 1.97), iron (OR: 1.97), potassium (OR: 1.96), riboflavin (OR: 1.76), and niacin (OR: 1.64), while not with smoking, physical activity, chronic diseases including obesity, anemia, diabetes, and osteoarthritis, and deficiency of protein, vitamin A, thiamin and vitamin C. These findings suggest that food insecurity is strongly related to mental health and certain nutrient intakes. Prospective research is needed to establish the effects of food insecurity on chronic diseases.

Changes in Income Inequality and Income Mobility Associated with a Transition to Old Age (노년기로의 이행에 따른 소득불평등 변화와 소득이동성)

  • Lee, Won-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.64 no.2
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    • pp.185-212
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    • 2012
  • This study examines changes in income inequality and income mobility associated with a transition to old age. In understanding the dynamics of income distribution over the later life course, it is important to explore the changes in income dispersion and the changes in relative income positions jointly. Data come from Korean Labor and Income Panel Study(KLIPS) 2nd, 7th, 12th wave. The results are as follows. First, a transition to old age is associated with an increase in income inequality. The Gini index of inequality increased steadily over the life course. Second, a transition to old age is associated with substantial income mobility. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between two periods was the lowest at the time of the transition. Increasing income dispersion and significant income mobility can be conceptualized as "income insecurity", since the older population are less likely to cope with income fluctuations. Third, in explaining such changes over time, changes in work life during old age and a subsequent decrease in earnings seem to be the most influential factor.

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