• Title, Summary, Keyword: Inbreeding

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Evaluation of Optimum Genetic Contribution Theory to Control Inbreeding While Maximizing Genetic Response

  • Oh, S.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.299-303
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    • 2012
  • Inbreeding is the mating of relatives that produce progeny having more homozygous alleles than non-inbred animals. Inbreeding increases numbers of recessive alleles, which is often associated with decreased performance known as inbreeding depression. The magnitude of inbreeding depression depends on the level of inbreeding in the animal. Level of inbreeding is expressed by the inbreeding coefficient. One breeding goal in livestock is uniform productivity while maintaining acceptable inbreeding levels, especially keeping inbreeding less than 20%. However, in closed herds without the introduction of new genetic sources high levels of inbreeding over time are unavoidable. One method that increases selection response and minimizes inbreeding is selection of individuals by weighting estimated breeding values with average relationships among individuals. Optimum genetic contribution theory (OGC) uses relationships among individuals as weighting factors. The algorithm is as follows: i) Identify the individual having the best EBV; ii) Calculate average relationships ($\bar{r_j}$) between selected and candidates; iii) Select the individual having the best EBV adjusted for average relationships using the weighting factor k, $EBV^*=EBV_j(1-k\bar{{r}_j})$ Repeat process until the number of individuals selected equals number required. The objective of this study was to compare simulated results based on OGC selection under different conditions over 30 generations. Individuals (n = 110) were generated for the base population with pseudo random numbers of N~ (0, 3), ten were assumed male, and the remainder female. Each male was mated to ten females, and every female was assumed to have 5 progeny resulting in 500 individuals in the following generation. Results showed the OGC algorithm effectively controlled inbreeding and maintained consistent increases in selection response. Difference in breeding values between selection with OGC algorithm and by EBV only was 8%, however, rate of inbreeding was controlled by 47% after 20 generation. These results indicate that the OGC algorithm can be used effectively in long-term selection programs.

Effects of Inbreeding on Lamb Survival in a Flock of Muzaffarnagari Sheep

  • Mandal, Ajoy;Pant, K.P.;Rout, P.K.;Roy, R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.594-597
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    • 2004
  • A pedigree file of 4,628 records of Muzaffarnagari sheep, maintained at Central Institute for Research on Goats (CIRG), Makhdoom, was used to calculate the inbreeding coefficient of the flock. The flock had been closed for about 25 years (1978 to 2002). The investigation was aimed to study the effects of inbreeding on survivability of lambs. The cumulative survivability of lambs i.e., lambs survived up to 3, 7 and 15 days, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after birth was considered for the study. The average level of inbreeding of lambs was 1.60%, ranging from 0 to 26.4%. The average inbreeding coefficient of dam over the periods was 1.00% and it ranged from 0 to 25.0%. Significant (p<0.05) adverse effect of lamb's inbreeding was observed on survivability of lambs at all ages except up to 3 and 7 days after birth. On an average, 1% increase in individual inbreeding coefficient should reduce the 0.31, 0.34, 0.32, 0.31, 0.33, 0.44 and 0.49 percent lamb survival up to the age of 15 day and 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, respectively. Ewes inbreeding had non-significant effects on lamb survival at all ages.

Studies on Inbreeding and Its Effects on Growth and Fleece Traits of Muzaffarnagari Sheep

  • Mandal, Ajoy;Pant, K.P.;Notter, D.R.;Rout, P.K.;Roy, R.;Sinha, N.K.;Sharma, N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.10
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    • pp.1363-1367
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    • 2005
  • A pedigree file of 4,738 records of a purebred flock of Muzaffarnagari sheep, maintained at Central Institute for Research on Goats (CIRG), Makhdoom, for a period of 24 years (1978 to 2001) was used to calculate inbreeding coefficients. The lambtraits studied were birth, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months weights as well as 6 and 12 months fleece yields. The lambs' and ewes' inbreeding coefficients ranged from 0 to 26.4% and 0 to 25%, respectively. The average inbreeding coefficient of lambs was higher than that of ewes in all periods as expected in a closed flock. Fluctuations in lamb and ewe inbreeding were observed in the periods under study. The percentages of animals in the higher inbred categories varied somewhat but generally were relatively constant. The mean rate of inbreeding was 0.63% per generation. The effective population size of the flock was 79.1. On average, an increase of 1% individual inbreeding significantly (p<0.05) reduced weights at birth by 0.010 kg, at 3 month by 0.048 kg, at 6 month by 0.075 kg, at 9 month by 0.129 kg and at 12 month by 0.112 kg. Ewes' inbreeding had non-significant effects on body weight at all ages. Effects of both lambs' and ewes' inbreeding had negative but non-significant effects on fleece weights at 6 and 12 months of age. Thus, inbreeding depression in lambs significantly reduced body weights from birth to 12 months of age but had a negligible effect on fleece yields.

Relationships between Distribution of Number of Transferable Embryos and Inbreeding Coefficient in a MOET Dairy Cattle Population

  • Terawaki, Y.;Asada, Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.12
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    • pp.1686-1689
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    • 2002
  • Genetic gains and inbreeding coefficients in a Holstein MOET breeding population were predicted under different conditions relating to the distribution of the number of transferable embryos collected per flush using Monte Carlo simulation. The numbers of transferable embryos collected per flush were determined using five distributions (distributions 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9) with different aspects and similar means. Distributions 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 were assumed to have gamma distribution's parameters ($\alpha$ and $\beta$) of (1 and 4.4), (3 and 1.47), (5 and 0.88), (7 and 0.63) and (9 and 0.49), respectively. Inbreeding rates were statistically significantly different among distributions but genetic gains were not. Relationships between inbreeding rates and variances of family size could be were clearly distinguished. The highest inbreeding coefficients were predicted in distribution 1 with the largest variance of family size, while distributions 5, 7 and 9 with smaller variance of family size had lower inbreeding coefficients.

Inbreeding Levels and Pedigree Structure of Landrace, Yorkshire and Duroc Populations of Major Swine Breeding Farms in Republic of Korea

  • Kim, Sidong;Salces, Agapita;Min, Hongrip;Cho, Kwanghyun;Kim, Heebal
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.9
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    • pp.1217-1224
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    • 2006
  • The registration data of 15 populations from nine major swine breeding farms were investigated to check levels of inbreeding and the current status of pedigree structures of breeding stocks. The average rate of inbreeding per generation was 0.208%, 0.209%, 0.098%, 0.307% and 0.071% for farms D, S, K, H, and Y in Duroc, 0.071%, 0.188%, 0.685%, 0.336%, and 0.449% for farms S, H, C, J, and W in Landrace, and 0.243%, 0.123%, 0.103%, 0.165%, and 0.286% for farms D, S, G, H, and J in Yorkshire, respectively. The average inbreeding rate was highest for Landrace, intermediate for Yorkshire, and lowest for Duroc farms. In Landrace and Yorkshire populations there were few immigrant animals per generation. In Duroc, however, there were quite large numbers of immigrant animals per generation compared to other breeds. The effective population sizes calculated from the average rate of inbreeding were distributed between 73.0 and 708.7. Specific values were 204.8, 239.7, 508.8, 163.0 and 708.2 for farms D, S, K, H, and Y in Duroc, 708.7, 266.5, 73.0, 148.9, and 111.3 for farms S, H, C, J, and W in Landrace, and 205.5, 406.0, 486.9, 302.6 and 175.0 for farms D, S, G, H, and J in Yorkshire, respectively. The values were acceptable for natural selection for fitness and inbreeding depression. The results showed that there was no cause for concern over the current inbreeding level of major swine breeding farm populations and the inbreeding level was within an acceptable range.

Estimation of Inbreeding Levels and Its Effect on Growth Performances of Calves in Hanwoo and Chikso (Korea Brindle) Cattle Population

  • Park, Yong-Soo;Jeong, Dae-Jin;Choy, Yun-Ho;Choi, Tea-Jeong;Lee, Chang-Woo;Choi, Jae-Woun;Lee, Ji-Hong
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.123-127
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    • 2013
  • The objective of this study was to compare the effects of the levels of inbreeding on body weight traits between two breed populations, Hanwoo and Korea Brindle cattle. Birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), body weight at 6 months of age (W6) and yearling weight (YW). Records of 1,745 calves (1,513 from Hanwoo, and 232 from Korea Brindle calves) were collected from Livestock Research Institutes in Kangwon, Gyeongbuk and Chungbuk provinces. The least squares means (LSM) and their standard errors for BW, WW, W6 and YW were $25.4{\pm}0.1$ kg, $81.0{\pm}1.8$ kg, $146.1{\pm}3.7$ kg and $291.5{\pm}2.4$ kg, respectively in Hanwoo calves and $22.6{\pm}0.3$ kg, $79.9{\pm}2.3$ kg, $137.6{\pm}4.6$ kg and $249.3{\pm}6.6$ kg, respectively in Korea Brindle calves. Pedigree data showed that 14.8% (316 out of 2131) of Hanwoo was inbred and the average inbreeding coefficient was 0.0209 (2.09%). Inbreeding coefficients of ten calves out of 316 total inbred Hanwoo calves were 12.5% or higher, whereas those of the other 306 calves were less than 12.5%. In both breeds, calves were divided into three groups of inbreeding classes - highly inbred group($F{\geq}0.125$), lowly to medially inbred group(0

Genetic parameters and inbreeding effects for production traits of Thai native chickens

  • Tongsiri, Siriporn;Jeyaruban, Gilbert M.;Hermesch, Susanne;van der Werf, Julius H.J.;Li, Li;Chormai, Theerachai
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.7
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    • pp.930-938
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    • 2019
  • Objective: Estimate genetic parameters, the rate of inbreeding, and the effect of inbreeding on growth and egg production traits of a Thai native chicken breed Lueng Hang Kao Kabinburi housed under intensive management under a tropical climate. Methods: Genetic parameters were estimated for weight measured at four weekly intervals from body weight at day 1 (BW1D) to body weight at 24 weeks (BW24) of age, as well as weight at first egg, age at first egg (AFE), egg weight at first egg, and total number of eggs (EN) produced during the first 17 weeks of lay using restricted maximum likelihood. Inbreeding depression was estimated using a linear regression of individual phenotype on inbreeding coefficient. Results: Direct additive genetic effect was significant for all traits. Maternal genetic effect and permanent environmental hen effects were significant for all early growth traits, expect for BW24. For BW24, maternal genetic effect was also significant. Permanent environmental hen effect was significant for AFE. Direct heritabilities ranged from 0.10 to 0.47 for growth traits and ranged from 0.15 to 0.16 for egg production traits. Early growth traits had high genetic correlations between them. The EN was lowly negatively correlated with other traits. The average rate of inbreeding for the population was 0.09% per year. Overall, the inbreeding had no effect on body weight traits, except for BW1D. An increase in inbreeding coefficient by 1% reduced BWID by 0.09 g (0.29% of the mean). Conclusion: Improvement in body weight gain can be achieved by selecting for early growth traits. Selection for higher body weight traits is expected to increase the weight of first egg. Due to low but unfavorable correlations with body weight traits, selection on EN needs to be combined with other traits via multi-trait index selection to improve body weight and EN simultaneously.

Population genetic structure analysis and effect of inbreeding on body weights at different ages in Iranian Mehraban sheep

  • Yavarifard, Roya;Hossein-Zadeh, Navid Ghavi;Shadparvar, Abdol Ahad
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.56 no.8
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    • pp.31.1-31.9
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    • 2014
  • The objective of this study was to describe the population structure and inbreeding, and to quantify their effects on weights at different ages of Mehraban sheep in Iran. The analysis was based on the pedigree information of 26990 animals and 10278 body weight records from birth to yearling age. Data and pedigree information were collected during 1994 to 2011 by the breeding station of Mehraban sheep. The population structure was analyzed using the CFC program. Inbreeding of all animals was calculated by INBUPGF90 program. All animals were grouped into three classes according to their inbreeding coefficients: the first class included non-inbred animals (F=0); and the second and third classes included inbred animals (0$F{\geq}0.05$, respectively). The average inbreeding in Mehraban sheep was 1.69%. Founder equivalent ($f_e$) values were estimated to be 4244, 3116 and 2965 during 1994-1999, 2000-2005 and 2006-2011, respectively. The effective population sizes ($N_e$) were 363, 5080 and 5740 during 1994-1999, 2000-2005 and 2006-2011, respectively. Generation interval was 2.15 years for this breed of sheep. Regression coefficients of birth weight, 3-month weight, 6-month weight and yearling weight on lamb inbreeding were estimated to be -6.340.69, -14.685.33, 48.009.43 and 98.6515.65, respectively. Both positive and negative inbreeding effects were found in the current study. The utilization of a program for designed mating system, in the present flock, could be a suitable approach to keep the level of inbreeding under control.

Inbreeding Coefficients in Two Isolated Mongolian Populations - GENDISCAN Study

  • Sung, Joo-Hon;Lee, Mi-Kyeong;Seo, Jeong-Sun
    • Genomics & Informatics
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.14-17
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    • 2008
  • GENDISCAN study (Gene Discovery for Complex traits in Asian population of Northeast area) was designed to incorporate methodologies which enhance the power to identify genetic variations underlying complex disorders. Use of population isolates as the target population is a unique feather of this study. However, population isolates may have hidden inbreeding structures which can affect the validity of the study. To understand how this issue may affect results of GENDISCAN, we estimated inbreeding coefficients in two study populations in Mongolia. We analyzed the status of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE), polymorphism information contents (PIC), heterozygosity, allelic diversity, and inbreeding coefficients, using 317 and 1,044 STR (short tandem repeat) markers in Orkhontuul and Dashbalbar populations. HWE assumptions were generally met in most markers (88.6% and 94.2% respectively), and single marker PIC ranged between 0.2 and 0.9. Inbreeding coefficients were estimated to be 0.0023 and 0.0021, which are small enough to assure that conventional genetic analysis would work without any specific modification. We concluded that the population isolates used in GENDISCAN study would not present significant inflation of type I errors from inbreeding effects in its gene discovery analysis.

Effects of inbreeding depression on litter size of Korean native pig (국내 품종 재래돼지 산자수에 대한 근친퇴화 효과)

  • Kim, Young-Sin;Cho, Kyu-Ho;Lee, Mi-Jin;Kim, Jeong-A;Cho, Eun-Seok;Hong, Joon-Ki
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.514-520
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    • 2019
  • The reduction in performance due to inbreeding (i.e. inbreeding depression) has long been documented in plant and animal populations. The population of Korean native pigs are small and this breed is valuable in Korea.. This study was aimed to investigate effects of inbreeding depression on total number of piglets born (TNB) and number of piglets born alive (NBA) in Korean native pigs. We used 2,806 pedigree and 303 sows's data with 483 phenotypic records. After estimating genetic parameters for each traits, inbreeding depression was estimated using a mixed model in which the inbreeding coefficient was included as a covariate. Korean native pigs had high heritability for each traits. Inbreeding coefficient constantly increased from 1998 to 2017~2018 but there is no reduction for each traits in 2017~2018 in compared with those in 1998. Significant inbreeding depression was detected for TNB (p=0.03) but not for NBA (p=0.41). In addition there are significantly positive interactions between inbreeding coefficient and breeding value for both traits (p<0.05). These results suggest that Korean native pigs are still having genetic variation for TNB and NBA, which could overcome reproductive risks from inbreeding coefficient increase.