• Title, Summary, Keyword: Immune Tissues

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Expression and regulation of avian beta-defensin 8 protein in immune tissues and cell lines of chickens

  • Rengaraj, Deivendran;Truong, Anh Duc;Lillehoj, Hyun S.;Han, Jae Yong;Hong, Yeong Ho
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.9
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    • pp.1516-1524
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    • 2018
  • Objective: Defensins are a large family of antimicrobial peptides and components of the innate immune system that invoke an immediate immune response against harmful pathogens. Defensins are classified into alpha-, beta-, and theta-defensins. Avian species only possess beta-defensins (AvBDs), and approximately 14 AvBDs (AvBD1-AvBD14) have been identified in chickens to date. Although substantial information is available on the conservation and phylogenetics, limited information is available on the expression and regulation of AvBD8 in chicken immune tissues and cells. Methods: We examined AvBD8 protein expression in immune tissues of White Leghorn chickens (WL) by immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). In addition, we examined AvBD8 expression in chicken T-, B-, macrophage-, and fibroblast-cell lines and its regulation in these cells after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment by immunocytochemistry and RT-qPCR. Results: Our results showed that chicken AvBD8 protein was strongly expressed in the WL intestine and in macrophages. AvBD8 gene expression was highly upregulated in macrophages treated with different LPS concentrations compared with that in T- and B-cell lines in a time-independent manner. Moreover, chicken AvBD8 strongly interacted with other AvBDs and with other antimicrobial peptides as determined by bioinformatics. Conclusion: Our study provides the expression and regulation of chicken AvBD8 protein in immune tissues and cells, which play crucial role in the innate immunity.

Heterogeneity of IL-22-producing Lymphoid Tissue Inducer-like Cells in Human and Mouse

  • Kim, Soochan;Han, Sinsuk;Kim, Mi-Yeon
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.115-119
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    • 2010
  • Lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells have been characterized in mouse as a key cell when secondary lymphoid tissues are organized during development and memory T cells are formed after birth. In addition to their involvement in adaptive immune responses, recent studies show that they contribute to innate immune responses by producing large amount of interleukin (IL)-22 against microbial attack. Here, we compare IL-22-producing LTi and LTi-like cells in human and mouse and discuss their heterogeneity in different tissues.

Molecular Mechanisms Governing IL-24 Gene Expression

  • Sahoo, Anupama;Im, Sin-Hyeog
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2012
  • Interleukin-24 (IL-24) belongs to the IL-10 family of cytokines and is well known for its tumor suppressor activity. This cytokine is released by both immune and nonimmune cells and acts on non-hematopoietic tissues such as skin, lung and reproductive tissues. Apart from its ubiquitous tumor suppressor function, IL-24 is also known to be involved in the immunopathology of autoimmune diseases like psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. Although the cellular sources and functions of IL-24 are being increasingly investigated, the molecular mechanisms of IL-24 gene expression at the levels of signal transduction, epigenetics and transcription factor binding are still unclear. Understanding the specific molecular events that regulate the production of IL-24 will help to answer the remaining questions that are important for the design of new strategies of immune intervention involving IL-24. Herein, we briefly review the signaling pathways and transcription factors that facilitate, induce, or repress production of this cytokine along with the cellular sources and functions of IL-24.

Crosstalk between Adipocytes and Immune Cells in Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Metabolic Dysregulation in Obesity

  • Huh, Jin Young;Park, Yoon Jeong;Ham, Mira;Kim, Jae Bum
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.365-371
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    • 2014
  • Recent findings, notably on adipokines and adipose tissue inflammation, have revised the concept of adipose tissues being a mere storage depot for body energy. Instead, adipose tissues are emerging as endocrine and immunologically active organs with multiple effects on the regulation of systemic energy homeostasis. Notably, compared with other metabolic organs such as liver and muscle, various inflammatory responses are dynamically regulated in adipose tissues and most of the immune cells in adipose tissues are involved in obesity-mediated metabolic complications, including insulin resistance. Here, we summarize recent findings on the key roles of innate (neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, eosinophils) and adaptive (regulatory T cells, type 1 helper T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells) immune cells in adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic dysregulation in obesity. In particular, the roles of natural killer T cells, one type of innate lymphocyte, in adipose tissue inflammation will be discussed. Finally, a new role of adipocytes as antigen presenting cells to modulate T cell activity and subsequent adipose tissue inflammation will be proposed.

The Mucosal Immune System for the Development of New Generation Vaccine

  • Yuki, Yoshikazu;Kiyono, Hiroshi
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Applied Microbiology Conference
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    • pp.55-62
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    • 2003
  • The mucosal immune system provides a first line of defense against invasion of infectious agents via inhalation, ingestion and sexual contact. For the induction of protective immunity at these invasion sites, one must consider the use of the CMIS, which interconnects inductive tissues, including PP and NALT, and effector tissues of the intestinal, respiratory and genitourinary tracts. In order for the CMIS to induce maximal protective mucosal immunity, co-administration of mucosal adjuvant or use of mucosal antigen delivery vehicle has been shown to be essential. When vaccine antigen is administered via oral or nasal route, antigen-specific Th 1 and Th2 cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes(CTLs) and IgA B cell responses are effectively induced by the CMIS. In the early stages of induction of mucosal immune response, the uptake of orally or nasally administered antigens is achieved through a unique set of antigen-sampling cells, M cells located in follicle-associated epithelium(FAE) of inductive sites. After successful uptake, the antigens are immediately processed and presented by the underlying DCs for the generation of antigen-specific T cells and IgA committed B cells. These antigen-specific lymphocytes are then home to the distant mucosal effector tissues for the induction of antigen-specific humoral(e.g., IgA) and cell-mediated (e.g., CTL and Th1) immune responses in order to form the first line of defense. Elucidation of the molecular/cellular characteristics of the immunological sequence of mucosal immune response beginning from the antigen sampling and processing/presentation by M cells and mucosal DCs followed by the effector phase with antigen-specific lymphocytes will greatly facilitate the design of a new generation of effective mucosal antigen-specific lymphocytes will greatly facilitate the design of a new generation of a new generation of effective mucosal adjuvants and of a vaccine deliver vehicle that maximizes the use of the CMIS.

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Immunoelectron microscopic localization of partially purified antigens in adult Paragonimus iloktsuenensis

  • Lee, Ok-Ran;Chung, Pyung-Rim
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.119-132
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    • 2001
  • An immunoelectron microscopy employing immunogold labeling method was performed to detect tissue origin of Dl fraction (DIA) among 5 antigenic protein fractions partially purified by DEAE- anion exchange chromatography from water- soluble crude antigen (PIWA) of adult Paragonimus iloktsuenensis. Immune reactions of adult worm tissues with rabbit serum immunoglobulin immunized with crude antigen (PI-Ig) and D1 antigen (D1-Ig), as well as rat serum immunoglobulin infected with P. iloktsuenensis were observed. DlA showed strong antigenicity in the intestinal epithelium of the worms during the early infection period of 2-4 weeks after infection. The vitellaria also showed stronger antigenicity than the other tissue sites in immune reaction of tissues against all immunoglobulins from 4 to 33 weeks after vitelline development. Therefore, it is suggested that DlA was mainly originated from the intestinal epithelial tissues before the development of vitelline gland of the parasites. Immune-reactivity of two immunoglobulins (PI-Ig, Dl-Ig) was significantly different in intestinal epithelial cytoplasmic protrusions (CP) and intestinal epithelial secretory granules (SG). In the experimental group with Dl-Ig, gold particles were labeled significantly in CP than in SG when compared to the PI-Ig group. Thus, the major antigenic materials in Dl antigen having a strong antigenicity in the early infection period was considered to be originated from the intestinal epithelial tissue .

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Anti-inflammatory Activity of Chihyo-san to Protect Respiratory Tissues from Asthmatic Damage

  • Cho, Ju-Hyung;NamGung, Uk;Kim, Dong-Hee
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.710-718
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    • 2006
  • The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of Chihyo-san (CHS) administration on asthma induced by Alum/OVA treatment in the mice. In CHS-treated animal group, lung weight, which was increased after asthma induction, was significantly decreased, and total number of cells in the lung, peripheral lymph node (PLN) and spleen tissue was significantly decreased in CHS-treated group compared to the asthma control group. The number of immune cells including natural killer (NK) cells in asthmatic animals was largely regulated by CHS treatment, showing a similar pattern as that of CsA-treated positive control group. Levels of mRNAs encoding inflammatory cytokines IL-5, IL-13, $TNF-{\alpha}$, and eotaxin were determined by RT-PCR in the lung tissue and showed decreases in CHS-treated group to the similar levels of CsA-treated control group, Histamine level in the serum was significantly lower in CHS-treated group than asthma-induced control group. Both haematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson's trichrome staining results showed decreased number of inflammatory cells, reduced immune cell infiltration, and normalized epithelial cell layering in the bronchial tissue of CHS-treated mouse group. Thus, the present findings suggest that CHS may be useful for protecting bronchial tissues from consistent inflammatory damages that occur in asthma patients.

Characterization and expression profiles of aquaporins (AQPs) 1a and 3a in mud loach Misgurnus mizolepis after experimental challenges

  • Lee, Sang Yoon;Nam, Yoon Kwon;Kim, Yi Kyung
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.20 no.9
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    • pp.23.1-23.9
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    • 2017
  • Two distinct cDNAs encoding aquaporins (mmAQPs 1a and 3a) were isolated and characterized from mud loach Misgurnus mizolepis. The identified mud loach AQP cDNAs encode for polypeptides of 260 and 302 amino acids. Topology predictions confirmed six putative membrane-spanning domains connected by five loops and the N- and C-terminal domains being cytoplasmic. The mud loach AQPs 1a and 3a showed broad distribution in multiple tissues including immune-responsive tissues as well as osmoregulatory tissues. Hence, the diversity of AQP distribution and expression possibly indicated its differential functions in the regulation of fluid movement in response to environmental stimuli. The transcription of mmAQP genes was differentially modulated by immune challenges. In particular, the mmAQP3a expression level in the liver was more responsive to immune challenges than that of mmAQP1a. Taken together, fish stimulation or infection resulted in significant modulation of mud loach AQP genes, suggesting potential functional roles of these proteins in piscine pathophysiological process.

구강내 면역계에 대한 기본 고찰

  • Kim, Seong-Min
    • The journal of the Korean dental association
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    • v.40 no.8
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    • pp.620-627
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    • 2002
  • Oral health depends on the intergrity of the oral mucosa for prevention of the penetration of microbes and macromolecules that might be infectious, allergenic or antigenic. The intraoral immune systems include the tonsils, adenoids and nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoreticular tissue, or NALT. Mucosal inductive sites of the gastrointestinal tract(Peyer's patches and the appendix) and solitary lymph nodes collectively compose the gut-associated lymphoreticualr tissue, or GALT system. Both NALT and GALT are inductive regions where foreign antigens derived from viruses, bacteria, yeast and other molecules are encountered. The integration of tissues in NALT and GALT as part of the mucosal immune system, is very important to keep the oral immune system.

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Development of A New Herbal Composition HemoHIM as An Immune-Improving Agent Using Irradiated Animal Models (방사선조사 동물모델 이용 면역기능개선-생약복합물 헤모힘(HemoHIM)개발)

  • Jo, Seong-Gi
    • Radioisotope journal
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.38-45
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    • 2006
  • A new herbal composition. HemoHIM, was developed using irradiated animal models and was successfully applied as an immune-improving agent. In a view that the protection and recovery of immune, hematopoietic and self-renewal tissues are essential for radioprotective agents, HemoHIM was developed based on a novel combination of three edible herbs (Angelica Radix, Cnidii Rhizoma. Paeonin Radix) that meet all those requirements. HemoHIM significantly protected the immune and hematopoietic system and enhanced their recovery in y-irradiated mice. For the application of HemoHIM as a health functional food and a supplementary agent for the cancer patients, the efficacy of HemoHIM to improve the immune functions was further evaluated in immune-depressed animals and humans. Animal studies demonstrated that HemoHIM significantly improved the immune functions in cyclophosphamide-treated mice, aged mice, and dexamethasone-treated mice. In human studies, HemoHIM enhanced the immune activity and cytokine secretion in sub-healthy volunteers, and alleviated the severe leukocyre depression in cancer patients during radiation and chemotherapy. Based on these results, HemoHIM was approved by Korea FDA as a material of health functional food for immune function improvement and will be commercially available soon. This case of HemoHIM research and development suggested that irradiated animals can be good models for biological degenerations such as immune depression, self-renewal tissue damage, and aging for the development of biological modulators.

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