• Title, Summary, Keyword: Immune Organ Indices

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Effect of Chito-oligosaccharide Supplementation on Immunity in Broiler Chickens

  • Deng, Xingzhao;Li, Xiaojing;Liu, Pai;Yuan, Shulin;Zang, Jianjun;Li, Songyu;Piao, Xiangshu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.11
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    • pp.1651-1658
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of either 100 mg/kg chito-oligosaccharide (COS) or chlortetracycline (CTC) with corn-soybean-fish meal on immunity in broiler chickens. A total of 147 one-day old male broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 3 treatments with 7 replicate pens per treatment and 7 birds per pen. The experimental diets consisted of a control diet based on corn, soybean and fish meal without COS and any antibiotic supplement and similar diets supplemented with either CTC (80 mg/kg from d 1 to 21 and 50 mg/kg from d 22 to 42) or COS (100 mg/kg from d 1 to 42). During the entire experimental period, all birds had ad libitum access to diets and water. The main immune organ indices, T-lymphocyte proliferation, serum cytokine concentrations, serum NO level and serum iNOS activity were measured on d 21 and d 42. On d 21, broilers fed 100 mg/kg COS had improved (p<0.01) indices of spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius compared with the control and CTC birds. Birds receiving 100 mg/kg COS had higher (p<0.05) serum concentrations of $IL-1{\beta}$, IL-6, IgM, NO and iNOS than birds on the control treatment. Serum $Ca^{2+}$ level of birds fed 100 mg/kg COS tended to be higher (p = 0.049) than in birds fed CTC. On d 42, the birds fed 100 mg/kg COS had higher (p<0.05) concentrations of TNF-${\alpha}$ and IgM in serum than birds in both the CTC and control treatments. Birds fed 100 mg/kg COS had a higher concentration of IFN-$\gamma$ than the control group. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of COS appeared to improve the immunity of broilers by promoting the weight of the main immune organs, increasing IgM secretion, stimulating microphages to release $TNF-{\alpha}$, $IL-1{\beta}$, IL-6 and IFN-$\gamma$, and activating iNOS to induce NO.

Effects of Fermented Milk with Hot Water Extract from Acanthopanax senticosus and Codonopsis lanceolata on the Immune Status of Mouse (가시오가피와 더덕 추출물을 첨가한 발효유가 마우스의 면역기능에 미치는 영향)

  • Lim, Sang-Dong;Seong, Ki-Seung;Kim, Kee-Sung;Han, Dong-Un
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.323-329
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    • 2007
  • We investigated the immunomodulatory actions of water extract from Acanthopanax senticosus in male ICR mice. The mice were treated with fermented milk containing three added doses of freeze dried extract: 3 mg/kg (A), 9 mg/kg (B), and 27 mg/kg (C) of body weight with Acanthopanax senticosus: Codonopsis lanceolata (8:2) for 7 and 10 weeks, respectively. Organ weights, plaque-forming cell tests, agglutination tests, IgG tests, differential white cell counts, and histological tests were performed at the 7th and 10th weeks of dietary treatment. There were no significant differences in body weight and organ weight. The spleen indices of group B at 7 weeks and group C at 10 weeks were significantly higher than those of the control group (p<0.05). For the plaque-forming cell test, groups B and C at 7 weeks, and group C at 10 weeks, showed significant increases over the control group (p<0.05). The agglutination test decreased with an extended experimental period. Groups A, B, and C at 7 weeks, and groups B and C at 10 weeks, had greater antibody responses to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) than the control group. The IgG antibody production of group C at 7 weeks and groups B and C at 10 weeks were significantly higher than the control group (p<0.05). In groups B and C, lymphocyte percentage was higher than the control group, and their spleen and thymus tissues showed active immune reactions.

Construction of Recombinant Pichia pastoris Carrying a Constitutive AvBD9 Gene and Analysis of Its Activity

  • Tu, Jian;Qi, Kezong;Xue, Ting;Wei, Haiting;Zhang, Yongzheng;Wu, Yanli;Zhou, Xiuhong;Lv, Xiaolong
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.25 no.12
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    • pp.2082-2089
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    • 2015
  • Avian beta-defensin 9 (AvBD9) is a small cationic peptide consisting of 41 amino acids that plays a crucial rule in innate immunity and acquired immunity in chickens. Owing to its wide antibacterial spectrum, lack of a residue, and failure to induce bacterial drug resistance, AvBD9 is expected to become a substitute for conventional antibiotics in the livestock and poultry industries. Using the preferred codon of Pichia pastoris, the mature AvBD9 peptide was designed and synthesized, based on the sequence from GenBank. The P. pastoris constitutive expression vector pGHKα was used to construct a pGHKα-AvBD9 recombinant plasmid. Restriction enzyme digestion was performed using SacI and BglII to remove the ampicillin resistance gene, and the plasmid was electrotransformed into P. pastoris GS115. High-expression strains with G418 resistance were screened, and the culture supernatant was analyzed by Tricine-SDS-PAGE and western blot assay to identify target bands of about 6 kDa. A concentrate of the supernatant containing AvBD9 was used for determination of antimicrobial activity. The supernatant concentrate was effective against Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella pullorum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterobacter cloacae. The fermentation product of P. pastoris carrying the recombinant AvBD9 plasmid was adjusted to 1.0 × 108 CFU/ml and added to the drinking water of white feather broilers at different concentrations. The daily average weight gain and immune organ indices in broilers older than 7 days were significantly improved by the AvBD9 treatment.

Immune-modulation Effect of Ulmus macrocarpa Hance Water Extract on Balb/c Mice (왕느릅나무 껍질 열수 추출물의 마우스에서의 in vivo 면역조절 효과)

  • Lee, Inhwan;Kwon, Da Hye;Lee, Sun Hee;Lee, Sung Do;Kim, Deok Won;Lee, Jong-Hwan;Hyun, Sook Kyung;Kang, Kyung-Hwa;Kim, CheolMin;Kim, Byoung Woo;Hwang, Hye Jin;Chung, Kyung Tae
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.10
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    • pp.1151-1156
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    • 2014
  • Traditional medicinal plants are widely used to treat many diseases, such as inflammation, infections, and even cancer. Ulmus macrocarpa Hance, a Chinese elm species, is distributed in Korea, China, and Japan. The stem bark is widely employed in Korean traditional medicine to treat dermatitis, mastitis, and edema. The aim of this study was to investigate whether water extract of U. macrocarpa Hance bark (Ulmus cortex) has a immune-modulating function in a mouse model. Three different concentrations (30 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 300 mg/kg) of Ulmus cortex water extract (UCWE) were orally administered to mice for 14 days, and their immune responses were analyzed. Cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, and IFN-${\gamma}$, increased in the blood of UCWE-fed groups when compared with a control group. In contrast, the IL-4 level did not change in any of the UCWE-fed groups Cell-mediated cytotoxicity was also assayed using lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAK). LAK showed greater cytotoxicity in the UCWE-fed groups than LAK in the control group. Internal organ indices, such as liver, kidney, spleen, and thymus, were similar in all the groups, including the control group, indicating that UCWE may have been nontoxic in the experimental animals. These data suggest that UCWE has an immune-modulating function in a mouse model.

Schedule-Dependent Effects of Kappa-Selenocarrageenan in Combination with Epirubicin on Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • Ji, Yu-Bin;Ling, Na;Zhou, Xiao-Jun;Mao, Yun-Xiang;Li, Wen-Lan;Chen, Ning
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.3651-3657
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    • 2014
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a relatively higher incidence in many countries of Asia. Globally, HCC has a high fatality rate and short survival. Epirubicin, a doxorubicin analogue, may be administered alone or in combination with other agents to treat primary liver cancer and metastatic diseases. However, the toxic effects of epirubicin to normal tissues and cells have been one of the major obstacles to successful cancer chemotherapy. Here, we investigated the effects of epirubicin in combination with kappa-selenocarrageenan on mice with H22 implanted tumors and HepG-2 cell proliferation, immune organ index, morphology, cell cycle and related protein expressions in vivo and in vitro with sequential drug exposure. The inhibitory rate of tumor growth in vivo was calculated. Drug sensitivity was measured by MTT assay, and the King's principle was used to evaluate the interaction of drug combination. Morphological changes were observed by fluorescent microscopy. Cell cycle changes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Expression of cyclin A, Cdc25A and Cdk2 were detected by Western blotting. In vivo results demonstrated that the inhibitory rate of EPI combined with KSC was higher than that of KSC or EPI alone, and the Q value indicated an additive effect. In addition, KSC could significantly raise the thymus and spleen indices of mice with H22 implanted tumors. In the drug sensitivity assay in vitro, exposure to KSC and EPI simultaneously was more effective than exposure sequentially in HepG-2 cells, while exposure to KSC prior to EPI was more effective than exposure to EPI prior to KSC. Q values showed an additive effect in the simultaneous group and antagonistic effects in the sequential groups. Morphological analysis showed similar results to the drug sensitivity assay. Cell cycle analysis revealed that exposure to KSC or EPI alone arrested the cells in S phase in HepG-2 cells, exposure to KSC and EPI simultaneously caused accumulation in the S phase, an effect caused by either KSC or EPI. Expression of cyclin A, Cdc25A and Cdk2 protein was down-regulated following exposure to KSC and EPI alone or in combination, exposure to KSC and EPI simultaneously resulting in the lowest values. Taken together, our findings suggest that KSC in combination with EPI might have potential as a new therapeutic regimen against HCC.