• Title, Summary, Keyword: Immune Cells

Search Result 2,729, Processing Time 0.054 seconds

Construction of Glomerular Epithelial Cells Expressing Both Immune Tolerance and GFP Genes and Application to Cell Therapy by Cell Transplantation

  • Ohga, Masahiro;Ogura, Mariko;Matsumura, Mastoshi;Wang, Pi-Chao
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
    • /
    • v.7 no.5
    • /
    • pp.303-310
    • /
    • 2002
  • Cell therapy applied to wound healing or tissue regeneration presents a revolutionary realm to which principles of gene engineering and delivery may be applied. One promising application is the transplantation of cells into the wounded tissue to help the tissue repair. However, when cells are transplanted from in vitro to in vivo, immune rejection occurs due to the immune response triggered by the activation of T-cell, and the transplanted cells are destroyed by the attack of activated T-cell and lose their function. Immune suppressant such as FK506 is commonly used to suppress immune rejection during transplantation. However, such kind of immune suppressants not only suppresses immune rejection in the periphery of transplanted cells but also suppresses whole immune response system against pathogenic infection. In order to solve this problem, we developed a method to protect the desired cells from immune rejection without impairing whole immune system during cell transplantation. Previously, we reported the success of constructing glomerular epithelial cells for removal of immune complex, in which complement receptor of type 1 (CR1) was over-expressed on the membrane of renal glomerular epithelial cells and could bind immune complex of DNA/anti-DNA-antibody to remove immune complex through phagocy-tosis [1]. Attempting to apply the CR1-expressing cells to cell therapy and evade immune rejection during cell transplantation, we constructed three plasmids containing genes encoding a soluble fusion protein of cytolytic T lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (CTLA4Ig) and an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The plasmids were transfected to the above-mentioned glomerular epithelial cells to express both genes simultaneously. Using the clone cells for cell transplantation showed that mice with autoimmune disease prolonged their life significantly as compared with the control mice, and two injections of the cells at the beginning of two weeks resulted in remarkable survivability, whereas it requires half a year and 50 administrations of proteins purified from the same amount of cells to achieve the same effect.

Study on the Immune Mechanism using Primary-cultured Immune Cells (생체분리 면역세포를 이용한 면역기전 연구)

  • Kim, Changhwan;Park, Sangjin
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Military Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.16 no.3
    • /
    • pp.390-397
    • /
    • 2013
  • Primary-cultured immune cells are widely used in research to elucidate the mechanism of inflammation including chemotaxis, production of reactive oxygen species, cytokine release and antigen presenting. Mice are one of the species of experimental animals commonly used for such studies. Immune cells can be isolated and cultured from various organs such as bone marrow, peritoneal cavity, lung, spleen. For elaborated experimental studies, immune cells should be elicited with inflammatory substances or proliferated in vitro with special media. This paper details methods of obtaining immune cells from various organs of mice and investigating immune mechanism using isolated immune cells. It contains standard protocols of isolating and culturing immune cells from bone marrow, peritoneal cavity and lymphoid organs. It also covers the methods of investigating immune mechanism such as ELISA, western blotting, confocal microscopy and ELISPOT assay. With the works in this study, we established the standardized isolation and analysis methods of primary-cultured immune cells.

Immune Cells in the Female Reproductive Tract

  • Lee, Sung Ki;Kim, Chul Jung;Kim, Dong-Jae;Kang, Jee-Hyun
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
    • /
    • v.15 no.1
    • /
    • pp.16-26
    • /
    • 2015
  • The female reproductive tract has two main functions: protection against microbial challenge and maintenance of pregnancy to term. The upper reproductive tract comprises the fallopian tubes and the uterus, including the endocervix, and the lower tract consists of the ectocervix and the vagina. Immune cells residing in the reproductive tract play contradictory roles: they maintain immunity against vaginal pathogens in the lower tract and establish immune tolerance for sperm and an embryo/fetus in the upper tract. The immune system is significantly influenced by sex steroid hormones, although leukocytes in the reproductive tract lack receptors for estrogen and progesterone. The leukocytes in the reproductive tract are distributed in either an aggregated or a dispersed form in the epithelial layer, lamina propria, and stroma. Even though immune cells are differentially distributed in each organ of the reproductive tract, the predominant immune cells are T cells, macrophages/dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells, neutrophils, and mast cells. B cells are rare in the female reproductive tract. NK cells in the endometrium significantly expand in the late secretory phase and further increase their number during early pregnancy. It is evident that NK cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells are extremely important in decidual angiogenesis, trophoblast migration, and immune tolerance during pregnancy. Dysregulation of endometrial/decidual immune cells is strongly related to infertility, miscarriage, and other obstetric complications. Understanding the immune system of the female reproductive tract will significantly contribute to women's health and to success in pregnancy.

Regulation of Intestinal Immune System by Dendritic Cells

  • Ko, Hyun-Jeong;Chang, Sun-Young
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
    • /
    • v.15 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-8
    • /
    • 2015
  • Innate immune cells survey antigenic materials beneath our body surfaces and provide a front-line response to internal and external danger signals. Dendritic cells (DCs), a subset of innate immune cells, are critical sentinels that perform multiple roles in immune responses, from acting as principal modulators to priming an adaptive immune response through antigen-specific signaling. In the gut, DCs meet exogenous, non-harmful food antigens as well as vast commensal microbes under steady-state conditions. In other instances, they must combat pathogenic microbes to prevent infections. In this review, we focus on the function of intestinal DCs in maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. Specifically, we describe how intestinal DCs affect IgA production from B cells and influence the generation of unique subsets of T cell.

Ginseng, the 'Immunity Boost': The Effects of Panax ginseng on Immune System

  • Kang, Soo-Won;Min, Hye-Young
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
    • /
    • v.36 no.4
    • /
    • pp.354-368
    • /
    • 2012
  • Thousands of literatures have described the diverse role of ginseng in physiological processes such as cancer, neurodegenera tive disorders, insulin resistance, and hypertension. In particular, ginseng has been extensively reported to maintain homeostasis of the immune system and to enhance resistance to illness or microbial attacks through the regulation of immune system. Immune system comprises of different types of cells fulfilling their own specialized functions, and each type of the immune cells is differentially influenced and may be simultaneously controlled by ginseng treatment. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the effects of ginseng on immune system. We discuss how ginseng regulates each type of immune cells including macrophages, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, T cells, and B cells. We also describe how ginseng exhibits beneficial effects on controlling inflammatory diseases and microbial infections.

Stimulatory effects of Bordetella bronchiseptica antigen on bone marrow cells and immune memory responses (골수세포에 대한 Bordetella bronchiseptica 항원의 자극 효과 및 면역기억반응)

  • Yim, Seol-Hwa;Joo, Hong-Gu
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
    • /
    • v.54 no.4
    • /
    • pp.203-208
    • /
    • 2014
  • Bone marrow is a hematological and immunological organ that provides multiple immune cells, including B lymphocytes, and thus plays a critical role in the efficacy of vaccine. We previously demonstrated that Bordetella (B.) bronchiseptica antigen has high immunogenicity in spleen cells, a peripheral immune organ. In this study, we investigated the immunogenicity of B. bronchiseptica antigen in bone marrow cells, a central immune organ. B. bronchiseptica antigen increased the cellular activity of bone marrow cells and significantly enhanced the production of nitric oxide, IL-6, and TNF-${\alpha}$. Bone marrow cells primed with B. bronchiseptica antigen in vivo were harvested and stimulated with the same antigen in vitro. The stimulation of B. bronchiseptica antigen significantly increased the cellular activity and proliferation rate of the primed cells. B. bronchiseptica antigen also greatly induced the production of antigen-specific antibody in the primed cells. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that B. bronchiseptica antigen can stimulate bone marrow cells, a central immune organ, and recall the immune response of the primed bone marrow cells.

Optimization of Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems Based on Artificial Immune Systems

  • Hwang, Chul-Min;Park, Chang-Hyun;Sim, Kwee-Bo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.220-223
    • /
    • 2003
  • In this paper, we optimize distributed autonomous robotic system based on artificial immune system. Immune system has B-cell and T-cell that are two major types of lymphocytes. B-cells take part in humoral responses that secrete antibodies and T-cells take part in cellular responses that stimulate or suppress cells connected to the immune system. They have communicating network equation, which have many parameters. The distributed autonomous robotics system based on this artificial immune system is modeled on the B-cells and T-cells system. So performance of system is influenced by parameters of immune network equation. We can improve performance of Distributed autonomous robotics system based on artificial immune system.

  • PDF

Cellular and Molecular Links between Autoimmunity and Lipid Metabolism

  • Ryu, Heeju;Kim, Jiyeon;Kim, Daehong;Lee, Jeong-Eun;Chung, Yeonseok
    • Molecules and Cells
    • /
    • v.42 no.11
    • /
    • pp.747-754
    • /
    • 2019
  • The incidence of atherosclerosis is higher among patients with several autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It is well documented that innate immune cells including macrophages and dendritic cells sense lipid species such as saturated fatty acids and oxidized low-density lipoprotein and produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. However, whether a hyperlipidemic environment also impacts autoimmune T cell responses has been unclear. Among $CD4^+$ T cells, Th17 and follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are known to play pathogenic roles in the development of hyperlipidemia-associated autoimmune diseases. This review gives an overview of the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which dysregulated lipid metabolism impacts the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, with specific emphasis on Th17 and Tfh cells.

Dead cell phagocytosis and innate immune checkpoint

  • Yoon, Kyoung Wan
    • BMB Reports
    • /
    • v.50 no.10
    • /
    • pp.496-503
    • /
    • 2017
  • The human body loses several billions of cells daily. When cells die in vivo, the corpse of each dead cell is immediately cleared. Specifically, dead cells are efficiently recognized and cleared by multiple types of neighboring phagocytes. Early research on cell death focused more on molecular mechanisms of cell death regulation while the cellular corpses were merely considered cellular debris. However, it has come to light that various biological stimuli following cell death are important for immune regulation. Clearance of normal dead cells occurs silently in immune tolerance. Exogenous or mutated antigens of malignant or infected cells can initiate adaptive immunity, thereby inducing immunogenicity by adjuvant signals. Several pathogens and cancer cells have strategies to limit the adjuvant signals and escape immune surveillance. In this review, we present an overview of the mechanisms of dead cell clearance and its immune regulations.

Regulation of Tumor Immune Surveillance and Tumor Immune Subversion by TGF-$\beta$

  • Park, Hae-Young;Wakefield, Lalage M;Mamura, Mizuko
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
    • /
    • v.9 no.4
    • /
    • pp.122-126
    • /
    • 2009
  • Transforming growth factor-$\beta$ (TGF-$\beta$) is a highly pleiotropic cytokine playing pivotal roles in immune regulation. TGF-$\beta$ facilitates tumor cell survival and metastasis by targeting multiple cellular components. Focusing on its immunosuppressive functions, TGF-$\beta$ antagonists have been employed for cancer treatment to enhance tumor immunity. TGF-$\beta$ antagonists exert anti-tumor effects through #1 activating effector cells such as NK cells and cytotoxic $CD8^+$ Tcells (CTLs), #2 inhibiting regulatory/suppressor cell populations, #3 making tumor cells visible to immune cells, #4 inhibiting the production of tumor growth factors. This review focuses on the effect of TGF-$\beta$ on T cells, which are differentiated into effector T cells or newly identified tumor-supporting T cells.