• Title, Summary, Keyword: Immobilization

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The Effect of Soft and Rigid Cervical Collars on Head and Neck Immobilization in Healthy Subjects

  • Barati, Kourosh;Arazpour, Mokhtar;Vameghi, Roshanak;Abdoli, Ali;Farmani, Farzad
    • Asian Spine Journal
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.390-395
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    • 2017
  • Study Design: Whiplash injury is a prevalent and often destructive injury of the cervical column, which can lead to serious neck pain. Many approaches have been suggested for the treatment of whiplash injury, including anti-inflammatory drugs, manipulation, supervised exercise, and cervical collars. Cervical collars are generally divided into two groups: soft and rigid collars. Purpose: The present study aimed to compare the effect of soft and rigid cervical collars on immobilizing head and neck motion. Overview of Literature: Many studies have investigated the effect of collars on neck motion. Rigid collars have been shown to provide more immobilization in the sagittal and transverse planes compared with soft collars. However, according to some studies, soft and rigid collars provide the same range of motion in the frontal plane. Methods: Twenty-nine healthy subjects aged 18-26 participated in this study. Data were collected using a three-dimensional motion analysis system and six infrared cameras. Eight markers, weighing 4.4 g and thickened $2cm^2$ were used to record kinematic data. According to the normality of the data, a paired t-test was used for statistical analyses. The level of significance was set at ${\alpha}=0.01$. Results: All motion significantly decreased when subjects used soft collars (p<0.01). According to the obtained data, flexion and lateral rotation experienced the maximum (39%) and minimum (11%) immobilization in all six motions using soft collars. Rigid collars caused maximum immobilization in flexion (59%) and minimum immobilization in the lateral rotation (18%) and limited all motion much more than the soft collar. Conclusions: This study showed that different cervical collars have different effects on neck motion. Rigid and soft cervical collars used in the present study limited the neck motion in both directions. Rigid collars contributed to significantly more immobilization in all directions.

Polymer materials for enzyme immobilization and their application in bioreactors

  • Fang, Yan;Huang, Xiao-Jun;Chen, Peng-Cheng;Xu, Zhi-Kang
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.87-95
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    • 2011
  • Enzymatic catalysis has been pursued extensively in a wide range of important chemical processes for their unparalleled selectivity and mild reaction conditions. However, enzymes are usually costly and easy to inactivate in their free forms. Immobilization is the key to optimizing the in-service performance of an enzyme in industrial processes, particularly in the field of non-aqueous phase catalysis. Since the immobilization process for enzymes will inevitably result in some loss of activity, improving the activity retention of the immobilized enzyme is critical. To some extent, the performance of an immobilized enzyme is mainly governed by the supports used for immobilization, thus it is important to fully understand the properties of supporting materials and immobilization processes. In recent years, there has been growing concern in using polymeric materials as supports for their good mechanical and easily adjustable properties. Furthermore, a great many work has been done in order to improve the activity retention and stabilities of immobilized enzymes. Some introduce a spacer arm onto the support surface to improve the enzyme mobility. The support surface is also modified towards biocompatibility to reduce non-biospecific interactions between the enzyme and support. Besides, natural materials can be used directly as supporting materials owning to their inert and biocompatible properties. This review is focused on recent advances in using polymeric materials as hosts for lipase immobilization by two different methods, surface attachment and encapsulation. Polymeric materials of different forms, such as particles, membranes and nanofibers, are discussed in detail. The prospective applications of immobilized enzymes, especially the enzyme-immobilized membrane bioreactors (EMBR) are also discussed.

Lime based stabilization/solidification (S/S) of arsenic contaminated soils

  • Moon, Deok-Hyun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Environmental Health Society Conference
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    • pp.51-62
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    • 2004
  • Lime based stabilization/solidification (S/S) can be an effective remediation alternative for the immobilization of arsenic (As) in contaminated soils and sludges. However, the exact immobilization mechanism has not been well established, Based on previous research, As immobilization could be attributed to sorption and/or inclusion in pozzolanic reaction products and/or the formation of calcium-arsenic (Ca-As) precipitates. In this study, suspensions of lime-As were studied in an attempt to elucidate the controlling mechanism of As immobilization in lime treated soils. Aqueous lime-As suspensions (slurries) with varying Ca/As molar ratios (1:1, 1.5:1, 2:1, 2.5:1 and 4:1) were prepared and soluble As concentrations were determined. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used to establish the resulting mineralogy of crystalline precipitate formation. Depending on the redox state of the As source, different As precipitates were identified. When As (III) was used, the main precipitate formation was Ca-As-O. With As(V) as the source, Ca4(OH)2(AsO4)2${\cdot}$4H2O formed at Ca/As molar ratios greater than 1:1. A significant increase in As (III) immobilization was observed at Ca/As molar ratios greater than 1:1. Similarly, a substantial increase in As (V) immobilization was noted at Ca/As molar ratios greater than or equal to 2.5: 1. This observation was also confirmed by XRD. The effectiveness of both As (III) and As(V) immobilization in these slurries appeared to increase with increasing Ca/As molar ratios.

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Evaluation of Usefulness in New Immobilization Device with 3D CT Angiography for Lower Extremity (전산화단층촬영검사에서 하지의 3D 혈관조영검사를 위한 새로운 고정기구의 유용성 평가)

  • Jang, Keun-Jo;Kweon, Dae-Cheol
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.184-191
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    • 2007
  • Our objective was to develop and evaluate a non-invasive device for rigid immobilization and surface disease non-contact of the table in the lower extremity during CT angiography. The immobilization device consists of two components. The patient's lower limb device stabilizing elements made of polyethylene resin soft materials, and pelvis parts foam pad is used for non-contact surface. In a Prospective study the lower extremity device was used in patients who underwent a CT angiography of the lower limb. Immobilization with our device was well tolerated by all patients. The quality of the resulting images in the popliteal and infrapopliteal region was rated by five-point scale. The rigid immobilization resulted in a complete absence of motion artifacts. The new device is an effective, well tolerated and easily used immobilization that is suitable of use in 3D lower extremity CT angiography.

The p16INK4a Antibody Immobilization Method for Immonosensor Application

  • Yang, Li;Huang, Xian-He;Sun, Liang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.5115-5118
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    • 2015
  • Background: The $p16^{INK4a}$ is a protein that expressed in Liquid-based cervical cytology specimens and has been proved link to cervical cancer. The $p16^{INK4a}$ could be detection by piezoelectric immunosensor and the immobilization of the $p16^{INK4a}$ antibody influence the sensitivity of the piezoelectric immunosensor. Materials and Methods: $5{\mu}L$ mouse polyclonal antibody against $p16^{INK4a}$ was bound onto the surface of immonosensor through two methods. (directly immobilized method; protein A method). Absorb of the $p16^{INK4a}$ antibody on the surface of immonosensor caused a shift in the resonant frequency of the immunosensor and The frequency changes recorded showed a better reproducibility. The activity of the immobilization antibody with the directly method and protein A method was tested with $p16^{INK4a}$ antigen. Results: The resonant frequency for different antibody immobilization methods were different, and the sensitivity for $p16^{INK4a}$ detection also different. Conclusions: The protein A method was found to be much more better than the directly method for the immobilization of the p16INK4A antibody on the gold electrode of the quartz crystal for cervical lesion detection. The Protein A method created more reproducible and stable immobilization antibody layers with p16INK4A antigen.

Stabilization of a Raw-Starch-Digesting Amylase by Multipoint Covalent Attachment on Glutaraldehyde-Activated Amberlite Beads

  • Nwagu, Tochukwu N.;Okolo, Bartho N.;Aoyagi, Hideki
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.628-636
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    • 2012
  • Raw-starch-digesting enzyme (RSDA) was immobilized on Amberlite beads by conjugation of glutaraldehyde/polyglutaraldehyde (PG)-activated beads or by crosslinking. The effect of immobilization on enzyme stability and catalytic efficiency was evaluated. Immobilization conditions greatly influenced the immobilization efficiency. Optimum pH values shifted from pH 5 to 6 for spontaneous crosslinking and sequential crosslinking, to pH 6-8 for RSDA covalently attached on polyglutaraldehyde-activated Amberlite beads, and to pH 7 for RSDA on glutaraldehyde-activated Amberlite. RSDA on glutaraldehyde-activated Amberlite beads had no loss of activity after 2 h storage at pH 9; enzyme on PG-activated beads lost 9%, whereas soluble enzyme lost 65% of its initial activity. Soluble enzyme lost 50% initial activity after 3 h incubation at $60^{\circ}C$, whereas glutaraldehyde-activated derivative lost only 7.7% initial activity. RSDA derivatives retained over 90% activity after 10 batch reuse at $40^{\circ}C$. The apparent $K_m$ of the enzyme reduced from 0.35 mg/ml to 0.32 mg/ml for RSDA on glutaraldehyde-activated RSDA but increased to 0.42 mg/ml for the PG-activated RSDA derivative. Covalent immobilization on glutaraldehyde Amberlite beads was most stable and promises to address the instability and contamination issues that impede the industrial use of RSDAs. Moreover, the cheap, porous, and non-toxic nature of Amberlite, ease of immobilization, and high yield make it more interesting for the immobilization of this enzyme.

Immobilization of Xylanase Using a Protein-Inorganic Hybrid System

  • Kumar, Ashok;Patel, Sanjay K.S.;Mardan, Bharat;Pagolu, Raviteja;Lestari, Rowina;Jeong, Seong-Hoon;Kim, Taedoo;Haw, Jung Rim;Kim, Sang-Yong;Kim, In-Won;Lee, Jung-Kul
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.638-644
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    • 2018
  • In this study, the immobilization of xylanase using a protein-inorganic hybrid nanoflower system was assessed to improve the enzyme properties. The synthesis of hybrid xylanase nanoflowers was very effective at $4^{\circ}C$ for 72 h, using 0.25 mg/ml protein, and efficient immobilization of xylanase was observed, with a maximum encapsulation yield and relative activity of 78.5% and 148%, respectively. Immobilized xylanase showed high residual activity at broad pH and temperature ranges. Using birchwood xylan as a substrate, the $V_{max}$ and $K_m$ values of xylanase nanoflowers were 1.60 mg/ml and $455{\mu}mol/min/mg$ protein, compared with 1.42 mg/ml and $300{\mu}mol/min/mg$ protein, respectively, for the free enzyme. After 5 and 10 cycles of reuse, the xylanase nanoflowers retained 87.5% and 75.8% residual activity, respectively. These results demonstrate that xylanase immobilization using a proteininorganic hybrid nanoflower system is an effective approach for its potential biotechnological applications.

AA-GWR Water Retention Meter를 이용한 부동화 농도 측정법

  • Choe, Chang-Hak;Joy, Margaret K.;Lee, Do-Ik
    • Proceedings of the Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Conference
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    • pp.80-92
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    • 2003
  • The water retention of coating colors can be accurately measured by devices such as an AA-GWR water retention meter whose principle of measurement is based on pressure filtration of coatings under an externally applied air pressure over a certain period of time. It was hypothesized that such devices could be also used to determine the immobilization solids(IMS) of coating colors by determining a sudden drop in the rate of dewatering, that is, a sudden change in the drainage curves. To test this hypothesis, the immobilization solids of coating colors containing various thickeners and water retention additives at different levels were first accurately measured by a modified immobilization tester based on the well-known gloss drop method, and then their values were compared with those obtained by an AA-GWR water retention tester. They agreed very well and showed that the mean of the solids differences is 0.36% in the IMS points between both methods. This good agreement was not surprising because both test methods are based on the same end-point, that is, the immobilization solids point at which menisci begin to form at the coating surface. Theoretical considerations supporting this new method for measuring the immobilization solids of coating colors are presented and some recommendations for the test method are discussed. Also, the effect of various thickeners and water retention additives on the properties and printability of coated papers is discussed.

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Abdomen Immobilization with Air Injected Balloon Blanket

  • Suh, Ye-Lin;Yi, Byong-Yong;Ahn, Seung-Do;Lee, Sang-Wook;Kim, Jong-Hoon;Shin, Seung-Ai;Park, Eun-Kyung
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Medical Physics Conference
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    • pp.100-102
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    • 2002
  • The demand for a better immobilization device has been increased in the radiation oncology field. Especially, it is essential to have a reliable and practical immobilization tool for the whole body radiosurgery and the IMRT (intensity modulated radiation therapy). A useful method to immobilize the abdomen for the external beam radiation treatment is developed. The air-injected balloon blanket (AIBB) was designed as an immobilization device. As the air was injected into it, it pressed down the patient's abdomen and fixed the patient. The AIBB played a role not only to grab the patients' motion, but also to increase the patients' setup reproducibility. Patients' movements due to the respiration were reduced and the reconstruction could be maximized. The experimental results revealed that the AIBB could be used for the clinic.

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EFFECTS OF XYLAZINE (ALPHA 2-ADRENERGIC AGONIST) ON THE STRESS RESPONSE TO IMMOBILIZATION AND HEAT IN RATS

  • Fayed, A.H.;Zakaria, A.D.;Hedaya, S.A.;El-Ashmawy, I.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.397-400
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    • 1994
  • The effect of xylazine administration on plasma cortisol, prolactin, glucose and packed cell volume (PCV) responses to immobilization and heat stress was investigated. Immobilization of rats for 2 hours by ligation of the fore and hind legs strongly caused approximately two-fold increase in plasma cortisol and prolactin levels. Plasma glucose and PCV were not significantly changed. Pretreatment of immobilized rats with xylazine (20 mg/kg body weight i.m.) resulted in approximately 20% reduction in both plasma cortisol and prolactin concentrations. A marked hyperglycemia and increase in the PCV value was observed. On the other hand, rats exposed to acute heat stress ($40^{\circ}C$, and 60% relative humidity) for 2 hours, also developed two fold increase in both plasma cortisol and prolactin concentrations and the pretreatment with xylazine caused a 20% reduction in the levels of both hormones. Plasma glucose level was not significantly changed in heat stressed rats but it was markedly increased after pretreatment with xylazine. PCV was significantly incrcased under heat stress and pretreatment with xylazine induced a pronounced elevation in this value. It was suggested that stimulation of cortisol and prolactin secretion in response to immobilization or heat stress can be partially reduced by an alpha 2-adrenergic agonist.