• Title, Summary, Keyword: Immobilization

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Development of Supporting Materials with Curdlan and Activated carbon for Microbial Immobiliaztion (Curdlan과 활성탄을 이용한 미생물 고정화 담체개발)

  • 손효진;박양호;권규혁;이중헌
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.243-247
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    • 2003
  • The microbial immobilization media with curdlan and activated carbon which has great immobilization capacity has been developed. Characteristics of porosity and mechanical strength of this support media are dependent on manufacturing method. The support media showed the best cell immobilization performance when the ratio of curdlan and activated carbon was 30 g/L to 6 g/L in this study. The immobilization of iron-oxidizing bacteria on the supporting particles was photographed with a scanning electron microscope. Since cell concentration on the surface of supporting particle increased with the reaction time, the iron oxidation rate also increased.

A Simple Method for Measuring the Immobilization Solids of Coating Colors Using an AA-CWR Water Retention Meter

  • Park, Chang-hak;Lee, Do-Ik;Margaret K. Joyce
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.39-48
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    • 2002
  • The water retention of coating colors can be accurately measured by devices such as an AA-GWR water retention meter whose principle of measurement Is based on pressure filtration of coatings under an externally applied air pressure over a certain period of time. It was hypothesized that such devices could be also used to determine the immobilization solids (IMS) of coating colors by determining a sudden drop in the rate of dewatering, that is, a sudden change in the drainage curves. To test this hypothesis, the immobilization solids of coating colors containing various thickeners and water retention additives at different levels were first accurately measured by a modified immobilization tester based on the well-known gloss drop method, and then their values were compared with those obtained by an AA-GWR water retention tester. They agreed very well and showed that the standard deviation is only 0.14% in the IMS points between both methods. This good agreement was not surprising because both test methods are based on the same end-point, that is, the immobilization solids point at which menisci begin to form at the coating surface. Theoretical considerations supporting this new method for measuring the immobilization solids of coating colors are presented and some recommendations for the test method are discussed. Also, the effect of various thickeners and water retention additives on the properties and printability of coated papers is discussed.

Studies on the effect of Kamikuibitang on the Gastric Ulcer in Rats (가미귀비탕(加味歸脾湯)이 흰쥐의 위궤양(胃潰瘍)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Baek, Dong-Jin
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.277-290
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    • 1996
  • This study was aimed to evaluate the anti-pain effect of Kamikuibitang in acetic acid method and the anti-ulceration effect of Kamikuibitang in indomethacin, aspirin and immobilization stress method in rats. The results were follows; 1. The anti-pain effects of Kuibitang and Kamikuibitang were decreased compared with those of control group. 2. In indomethacin and aspirin method, the anti-ulcerative effects of experimental groups were shown compared with those of control group. 3. In immobilization stress method, the anti-ulcerative effect of experimental groups was significantly shown compared with that of control group. 4. The serum gastrin levels of Kuibitang groups showed very significant decrease in indomethacin-induced and immobilization stress-induced ulcers. The serum gastrin levels of Kamikuibitang groups showed very significant decrease in indomethacin-induced, aspirin- induced and immobilization stress-induced ulcers. 5. The serum $V_{B12}$ levels of Kuibitang groups showed very significant increase in both indomethacin-induced and immobilization stress-induced ulcers. The serum $V_{B12}$ levels of Kamikuibitang groups showed significant increase in aspirin-induced and immobilization stress-induced ulcers whereas very significant increase in indomethacin-induced ulcer. According to the above results, it was concluded that Kamikuibitang had very significant anti-ulceration effect as well as anti-pain effect on gastric ulcer in rats.

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Comparison of the Extent of Degeneration among the Normal Disc, Immobilized Disc, and Immobilized Disc with an Endplate Fracture

  • Choi, Wonki;Song, Sukkyun;Chae, Seungbum;Ko, Sangbong
    • Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.193-199
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    • 2017
  • Background: This study attempts to prove a cause and effect relationship between spine immobilization following posterior fixation for unstable burst fractures and degeneration observed following hardware removal. Methods: We enrolled 57 patients (259 intervertebral discs [IVDs]) who underwent only posterior instrumentation without fusion for thoracolumbar and lumbar unstable burst fractures. We arbitrarily named the IVD that has an endplate fracture after immobilization using pedicle screws as the fractured endplate and immobilized disc (FEID), the IVD that has no endplate fracture after immobilization using pedicle screws as the nonfractured endplate and immobilized disc (NFEID), and the IVD that has no endplate fracture and no immobilization instrumentation as the normal disc (ND). At 2 years after implant removal, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed again for comparison. The extent of disc degeneration was classified using the Pfirrmann classification system. Results: FEIDs were present in 67 levels, NFEIDs in 78 levels, and NDs in 114 levels. According to the Pfirrmann classification, 7.9% of the NDs, 32.1% of the NFEIDs, and 43.3% of the FEIDs were more degenerated at 2 years after implant removal. The FEIDs and NFEIDs were more degenerated than the NDs and the FEIDs were more degenerated than the NFEIDs at statistically significant levels (p < 0.001 for both). Conclusions: Spine immobilization with transpedicular screws has a significant influence on disc degeneration, and an endplate fracture accelerates the degeneration process.

Effects of Immobilization of the Ankle and Knee Joints on Postural Stability in Standing (바로 선 자세에서 발목과 무릎관절의 고정이 자세안정성에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwang, Su-Jin;Woo, Young-Keun;Jeon, Hye-Seon
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.30-37
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    • 2008
  • This study was designed to examine the effects of temporary immobilization of the ankle and knee joints on standing in healthy young adults with the use of a postural control mechanism. The subjects were twenty-four college students (12 males and 12 females, aged between 20 and 28). A Biodex balance system SD 950-302 and its software were used to measure indirect balance parameters in standing. Each subject underwent postural stability tests in 4-different joint conditions: free joints, ankle immobilization only, knee immobilization only, and ankle and knee immobilization. In addition, the postural stability test was conducted once with the subject's eyes open and once with the eyes closed conditions. For data analysis of the postural stability tests, the overall stability index, antero-posterior stability index, and medio-lateral stability index were recorded. The overall stability index (p=.000) and medial-lateral index (p=.003) were significantly greater different conditions with eyes closed in postural stability. Therefore, the eyes closed condition is expected to be used as an effective postural stability training for treatment planning in patients with unstable postures. In addition, training based on the dynamic multi-segment model can improve postural stability and is available to therapeutic programs, helping people with unstable balance to reduce their risk of falling.

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Experimental Study on the Antidepressant Effect of Sam-Jeong-Hwan (삼정환(三精九)의 항우울 효과에 대한 실험적 연구)

  • Lee, Sang-Taek;Kim, Geun-Woo;Koo, Byung-Soo
    • Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.101-115
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    • 2008
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of Sam-Jeong-Hwan(SJH) on the animal model of depression induced immobilization stress. Method: The subject were divided into 4 groups(l. normal 2. saline solution administered during immobilization stress treatment 3. SJH of 100mg/kg administered 4. BKJ of 400mg/kg administered). Immobilization stress was treated for 1 hours on day. During 2 days of immobilization stress treatment, they were executed forced swimming test, passive avoidance test, elevated plus maze test. Corticosterone and ACTH in blood were measured. Results: In forced swimming test, SJH of 400mg/kg group showed decreased immobilization. In passive avoidance test, SJH of 400mg/kg group showed increased learning execution. In EPM test, SJH of 400mg/kg group showed decreased anxiety. In locomotor activity test, SJH groups showed significantly increased locomotor activity. Stress group showed significantly increase in serum level of corticosterone, SJH of 400mg/kg group showed decreased serum level of corticosterone. Stress group showed significantly increase in serum level of ACTH, SJH of 400mg/kg group showed decreased serum level of ACTH. Conclusion: These results suggest that Sam-Jeong-Hwan(SJH) is effective in the treatment of depression.

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Regulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response by the Immobilization Stress (부동스트레스에 의한 소포체스트레스반응 조절)

  • Kwon, Ki-Sang;Kwon, Young-Sook;Kim, Seung-Whan;Kim, Dong-Woon;Kwon, O-Yu
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.8
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    • pp.1132-1136
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    • 2012
  • Many kind of cell stresses induce gene expression of unfolded protein response (UPR)-associated factors. This study demonstrated that up- and down-regulation of gene expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress chaperones and ER stress sensors was induced by immobilization stress in the rat organs (adrenal gland, liver, lung, muscle). However, no statistically significant regulation was detected in the others (heart, spleen, thymus, kidney, testis). The results are the first to show that immobilization stress induces UPR associated gene expression, will help to explain immobilization stress-associated ER stress.

Covalent Immobilization of Penicillin G Acylase onto Fe3O4@Chitosan Magnetic Nanoparticles

  • Ling, Xiao-Min;Wang, Xiang-Yu;Ma, Ping;Yang, Yi;Qin, Jie-Mei;Zhang, Xue-Jun;Zhang, Ye-Wang
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.829-836
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    • 2016
  • Penicillin G acylase (PGA) was immobilized on magnetic Fe3O4@chitosan nanoparticles through the Schiff base reaction. The immobilization conditions were optimized as follows: enzyme/support 8.8 mg/g, pH 6.0, time 40 min, and temperature 25 ℃. Under these conditions, a high immobilization efficiency of 75% and a protein loading of 6.2 mg/g-support were obtained. Broader working pH and higher thermostability were achieved by the immobilization. In addition, the immobilized PGA retained 75% initial activity after ten cycles. Kinetic parameters Vmax and Km of the free and immobilized PGAs were determined as 0.113 mmol/min/mg-protein and 0.059 mmol/min/mg-protein, and 0.68 mM and 1.19 mM, respectively. Synthesis of amoxicillin with the immobilized PGA was carried out in 40% ethylene glycol at 25 ℃ and a conversion of 72% was obtained. These results showed that the immobilization of PGA onto magnetic chitosan nanoparticles is an efficient and simple way for preparation of stable PGA.

Application of aqueous carbonated slags in the immobilization of heavy metals in field-contaminated soils

  • Choi, Jiyeon;Shin, Won Sik
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.356-365
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    • 2020
  • The aqueous carbonation efficiencies of basic oxygen furnace (BOF) and ladle slags at various pressures, temperatures, and liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratios were investigated to determine optimum conditions. The maximum CO2 carbonated concentrations in slag (0.584 mmol/g for BOF slag and 1.038 mmol/g for ladle slag) was obtained at 10 bars, 40℃, and L/S = 5 mL/g-dry. The L/S ratio was the most critical parameter for carbonation. The effect of carbonated slag amendment on the immobilization of heavy metals in two field-contaminated soils was also investigated. The immobilization efficiencies evaluated by using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and the Standards, Measurements and Testing Programme (SM&T) were above 90% for both raw and carbonated slags for all soils. The TCLP-extractable heavy metals concentrations were below the criteria (5.0, 1.0 and 5.0 g/L for Pb, Cd, and Cr, respectively) after immobilizations with both slags except for Pb in soil B. The SM&T analysis showed the decrease in the exchangeable phase but the increase in residual phase after immobilization with raw and carbonated slags. The results of this study imply the promising potential of the carbonated slags on the immobilization of heavy metals in the field-contaminated soils.

Available Organic Carbon Controls Nitrification and Immobilization of Ammonium in an Acid Loam-Textured Soil

  • Choi, Woo-Jung;Lee, Sang-Mo;Han, Gwang-Hyun;Yoon, Kwang-Sik;Jung, Jae-Woon;Lim, Sang-Sun;Kwak, Jin-Hyeob
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.28-32
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    • 2006
  • Effect of organic-C on immobilization and nitrification patterns in acidic soil was examined during 20 weeks incubation period to verify if organic amendments such as composted material can increase soil retention of N by stimulating microbial immobilization of $NH_4^+$. Four treatments were laid out: control without fertilizer N and glucose (treatment code: S), ammonium sulfate (SN), ammonium sulfate with single glucose at the commencement (0 week) of incubation (SNG), and ammonium sulfate with double glucose at 0 and 4 weeks of incubation (SNGG). Glucose application (SNG) significantly increased microbial immobilization of $NH_4^+$ within 1 week of incubation over SN. Immobilization was followed by remineralization thereafter; however, second-application of glucose (SNGG) restored $NH_4^+$ immobilization. At the same time, nitrification was significantly inhibited by glucose application as indicated by consistently low $NO_3^-$ concentration in SNG and SNGG soils, suggesting that microbial assimilation of $NH_4^+$ is predominant compared to nitrification when available C-source is abundant. These results suggest application of chemical fertilizer-N with organic amendment would have beneficial effect on soil-N retention and environmental conservation by reducing production of $NO_3^-$ which is likely to be lost through leaching or denitrification.