• Title, Summary, Keyword: Immobilization

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Development of Video Image-Guided Setup (VIGS) System for Tomotherapy: Preliminary Study (단층치료용 비디오 영상기반 셋업 장치의 개발: 예비연구)

  • Kim, Jin Sung;Ju, Sang Gyu;Hong, Chae Seon;Jeong, Jaewon;Son, Kihong;Shin, Jung Suk;Shin, Eunheak;Ahn, Sung Hwan;Han, Youngyih;Choi, Doo Ho
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.85-91
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    • 2013
  • At present, megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) is the only method used to correct the position of tomotherapy patients. MVCT produces extra radiation, in addition to the radiation used for treatment, and repositioning also takes up much of the total treatment time. To address these issues, we suggest the use of a video image-guided setup (VIGS) system for correcting the position of tomotherapy patients. We developed an in-house program to correct the exact position of patients using two orthogonal images obtained from two video cameras installed at $90^{\circ}$ and fastened inside the tomotherapy gantry. The system is programmed to make automatic registration possible with the use of edge detection of the user-defined region of interest (ROI). A head-and-neck patient is then simulated using a humanoid phantom. After taking the computed tomography (CT) image, tomotherapy planning is performed. To mimic a clinical treatment course, we used an immobilization device to position the phantom on the tomotherapy couch and, using MVCT, corrected its position to match the one captured when the treatment was planned. Video images of the corrected position were used as reference images for the VIGS system. First, the position was repeatedly corrected 10 times using MVCT, and based on the saved reference video image, the patient position was then corrected 10 times using the VIGS method. Thereafter, the results of the two correction methods were compared. The results demonstrated that patient positioning using a video-imaging method ($41.7{\pm}11.2$ seconds) significantly reduces the overall time of the MVCT method ($420{\pm}6$ seconds) (p<0.05). However, there was no meaningful difference in accuracy between the two methods (x=0.11 mm, y=0.27 mm, z=0.58 mm, p>0.05). Because VIGS provides a more accurate result and reduces the required time, compared with the MVCT method, it is expected to manage the overall tomotherapy treatment process more efficiently.

Evaluation on Usefulness of Stereotactic Radio Surgery using $Fraxion^{(R)}$ System ($Fraxion^{(R)}$ System을 이용한 뇌 정위적 방사선 수술 유용성 평가)

  • Kim, Tae Won;Park, Kwang Woo;Ha, Jin Sook;Jeon, Mi Jin;Cho, Yoon Jin;Kim, Sei Joon;Kim, Jong Dae;Shin, Dong Bong
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.345-354
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    • 2014
  • Purpose : We evaluated the usefulness of $Fraxion^{(R)}$ system and s-thermoplastic mask by analyzing setup error when stereotactic radiousurgery (SRS) was treated for brain metastasis. Materials and Methods : 6 patients who received definite diagnosis as brain metastasis between May 2014 and October 2014 were selected. 3 patients were immobilized s-thermoplastic mask and mouthpiece (group1), while $Fraxion^{(R)}$ system was used for the other 3 patients (group2). Cone Beam Computerized Tomography (CBCT) scan was acquired to register planning CT scan. The registration offset was compared for each group. We compared and reported the errors using maximum, minimum, mean, and standard deviation of registration offsets. Furthermore, We used the same method as patient specific quality assurance to verify absorbed dose of PTV. Results : The setup error which is registration offset was reduced 83% in x, 40% in y, and 92% in z-direction when $Fraxion^{(R)}$ system was used compared to the case of using s-thermoplastic mask and mouthpiece. In addition, using $Fraxion^{(R)}$ system showed improved results in rotational components, pitch (rotation along x-axis), roll (y), and yaw (z) which were reduced 64, 88, and 87% respectively compared to the case of using s-thermoplastic mask and mouthpiece. In dosimetry results, when s-thermoplastic mask and mouthpiece used, absorbed dose was reduce 83% compared to before and after registration. However, using $Fraxion^{(R)}$ system showed only 1.9%. All percentage were calculated with respect to average value. Conclusion : Using $Fraxion^{(R)}$ system including mouthpiece, Fraxion frame, frontpiece, and thermoplastic mask, showed better repeatability and precision compared to using s-thermoplastic mask and mouthpiece, which is consequently considered as more improved immobilization system.

Investigation of the Rice Plant Transfer and the Leaching Characteristics of Copper and Lead for the Stabilization Process with a Pilot Scale Test (논토양 안정화 현장 실증 시험을 통한 납, 구리의 용출 저감 및 벼로의 식물전이 특성 규명)

  • Lee, Ha-Jung;Lee, Min-Hee
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.255-264
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    • 2012
  • The stabilization using limestone ($CaCO_3$) and steel making slag as the immobilization amendments for Cu and Pb contaminated farmland soils was investigated by batch tests, continuous column experiments and the pilot scale feasibility study with 4 testing grounds at the contaminated site. From the results of batch experiment, the amendment with the mixture of 3% of limestone and 2% of steel making slag reduced more than 85% of Cu and Pb compared with the soil without amendment. The acryl column (1 m in length and 15 cm in diameter) equipped with valves, tubes and a sprinkler was used for the continuous column experiments. Without the amendment, the Pb concentration of the leachate from the column maintained higher than 0.1 mg/L (groundwater tolerance limit). However, the amendment with 3% limestone and 2% steel making slag reduced more than 60% of Pb leaching concentration within 1 year and the Pb concentration of leachate maintained below 0.04 mg/L. For the testing ground without the amendment, the Pb and Cu concentrations of soil water after 60 days incubation were 0.38 mg/L and 0.69 mg/l, respectively, suggesting that the continuous leaching of Cu and Pb may occur from the site. For the testing ground amended with mixture of 3% of limestone + 2% of steel making slag, no water soluble Pb and Cu were detected after 20 days incubation. For all testing grounds, the ratio of Pb and Cu transfer to plant showed as following: root > leaves(including stem) > rice grain. The amendment with limestone and steel making slag reduced more than 75% Pb and Cu transfer to plant comparing with no amendment. The results of this study showed that the amendment with mixture of limestone and steel making slag decreases not only the leaching of heavy metals but also the plant transfer from the soil.

Decay Rate and Nutrient Dynamics during Litter Decomposition of Quercus acutissima and Quercus mysinaefolia (상수리나무와 가시나무 낙엽의 분해율 및 분해과정에 따른 영양염류 함량 변화)

  • Won, Ho-Yeon;Oh, Kyung-Hwan;Pyo, Jae-Hoon;Mun, Hyeong-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.74-81
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    • 2012
  • Decay rate and nutrient dynamics during leaf litter decomposition of deciduous Quercus acutissima and evergreen Quercus mysinaefolia were studied for 24 months from December 2008 to December 2010 in Gongju, Chungnam Province, Korea. Percent remaining weight of Q. acutissima and Q. mysinaefolia leaf litter after 24 months elapsed was $46.3{\pm}5.4%$ and $37.8{\pm}2.5%$, respectively. Decomposition of evergreen Q. mysinaefolia leaf litter was significantly faster than that of deciduous Quercus acutissima leaf litter. Decay constant(k) of Q. acutissima and Q. mysinaefolia leaf litter after 24 months elapsed was 0.38 and 0.49, respectively. Initial C/N and C/P ratio of Q. mysinaefolia leaf litter was significantly lower than those of Q. acutissima leaf litter. Initial C/N and C/P ratio of Q. acutissima leaf litter was 46.8 and 270.9, respectively. After 24 months elapsed, C/N and C/P ratio of decomposing Q. acutissima leaf litter decreased to 22.5 and 104.2, respectively. Initial C/N and C/P ratio of Q. mysinaefolia leaf litter was 22.4 and 41.7, respectively. After 24 months elapsed, C/N and C/P ratio of decomposing Q. mysinaefolia leaf litter decreased to 16.7 and 89.7, respectively. Initial concentration of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in leaf litter was 8.31, 0.44, 4.18, 9.38, 1.37 mg/g in Q. acutissima, and 19.88, 2.73, 7.06, 8.24, 2.61 mg/g in Q. mysinaefolia, respectively. Initial concentration of N and P in Q. mysinaefolia leaf litter was significantly higher than those in Q. acutissima. After 24 month elapsed, remaining N, P, K, Ca and Mg were 100.91, 114.75, 32.99, 50.63, 15.51% in Q. acutissima, and 43.22, 11.35, 12.98, 82.22, 44.23% in Q. mysinaefolia, respectively. N and P in decomposing leaf litter was immobilized in Q. acutissima, and mineralized in Q. mysinaefolia.

Decomposition and Nutrient Dynamics of Leaf Litter of Camellia japonica L. in Korea (동백나무(Camellia japonica L.) 낙엽의 분해와 영양원소의 동태)

  • Cha, Sangsub;Lee, Kyung-Eui;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Choi, Moonjong;Shim, Jae Kuk
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.110-117
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    • 2016
  • Litter fall is a source of nutrients and carbon transfer in terrestrial ecosystems. Litter decomposition provides nutrients needed for plant growth, sustains soil fertility, and supplies $CO_2$ to the atmosphere. We collected the leaf litter of evergreen broadleaf tree, Camellia japonica L., and carried out a decomposition experiment using the litterbag method in Ju-do, Wando-gun, Korea for 731 days from Dec 25, 2011 to Dec 25, 2013. The leaf litter of C. japonica remained 42.6% of the initial litter mass after experiment. The decay constant (k) of C. japonica leaf litter was $0.427yr^{-1}$. The carbon content of C. japonica leaf litter was 44.6%, and the remaining carbon content during the decomposition tended to coincide with the changes in litter mass. The initial nitrogen and phosphorus content was 0.47% and 324.7 mg/g, respectively. The remaining N in decaying litter increased 1.66-fold in the early decomposition stage, then gradually decreased to 1.18-fold after 731 days. The content of P showed the highest value (1.64-fold of initial content) after 456 days, which then fell to a 1.15-fold after 731 days. The remaining Ca, K, Mg and Na content in C. japonica leaf litter tended to decrease during decomposition. The remaining K showed a remaining mass of 8.9% as a result of rapid reduction. The initial C/N and C/P ratio of C. japonica leaf litter was 94.87 and 1368.5, respectively. However, it tended to decrease as decomposition progressed because of the immobilization of N and P (2.78 and 2.68-fold of initial content, respectively) during the leaf litter decaying. The study results showed that N and P was immobilized and other nutrients was mineralized in C. japonica leaf litter during experimental period.

Postoperative Echocardiographic Hemodynamic Comparison between Recently Available Bileaflet Mechanical Valves (수종의 기계판막치환후 초음파심음향도를 이용한 판막간의 혈류역학적 비교)

  • Kang Joon Kyu;Hong Joon Hwa;Kim Hyung Tai;Park In Duk;Lee Cheol Joo
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.38 no.7
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    • pp.496-500
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    • 2005
  • There was no difference between the bileaflet mechanical valves on the midterm and longterm clinical outcome. We reviewed the hemodynamic comparison between recently available mechanical valves by Doppler Echocardiography. Material and Method: We retrospectively reviewed 396 postoperative hemodynamic datas (EOA, MDPG, and MSPG) by doppler echocardiography in 345 patients. Mechanical valves from 5 venders (Sorin Bicarbon, SJM, ATS, On-X, and Edward MIRA) were compared. There were 232 valves in mitral position, 162 in aortic, and 2 in tricuspid. Result: There were 178 men (mean age; $50.6\pm13.9$ years old) and 167 women $(52.6\pm,4.6)$. MDPG/EOA of 27 mm in mitral position was Sorin; $4.2\pm1.5 mmHg/3.0\pm0.9cm^2,\;SJM;\;2.3\pm1.2/3.5\pm0.6$. In 29mm, Sorin, SJM, ATS, On-X, MIRA revealed $3.4\pm1.2/3.1\pm0.6,\;3.3\pm1.1/2.7\pm0.4,\;3.8\pm0.8/3.2\pm0.6,\;4.0\pm3.0/3.1\pm0.9,\;2.9\pm0.9/3.0\pm0.8$ In 31mm, Sorin, SJM, ATS, MIRA revealed $3.9\pm1.9/2.9\pm0.6,\;3.5\pm1.2/3.0\pm0.6,\;3.4\pm0.8/2.8\pm0.2,\;3.7\pm1.5/2.7\pm0.7$. In 33mm, Sorin, SJM, MIRA revealed $4.4\pm0.9/2.5\pm0.4,\;3.4\pm1.5/3.3\pm0.5,\;4.7\pm2.4\3.0\pm0.3$. MSPG/EOA of 19mm aortic position was Sorin, SJM, ATS, On-X, MIRA $18.0 mmHg/1.2cm^2,\;25.6\pm8.7/1.1\pm0.3,\;25.9\pm12.6/1.2\pm0.3,\;23.0/1.3,\;27.9\pm7.1/1.2\pm0.1$ in that order. In 21mm, SJM, ATS, On-X, MIRA revealed $18.3\pm6.7/1.5\pm0.5,\;13.7\pm2.1/1.7\pm0.3,\;17.0/1.4,\;17.1\pm5.5/1.8\pm0.5$. In 23mm Sorin, SJM, ATS, On-X, MIRA revealed $14.0\pm4.6/1.7\pm0.6,\;12.8\pm3.2/2.0\pm0.2,\;16.8\pm12.2/2.1\pm0.9,\;14.0/1.5,\;15.0\pm5.5/1,8\pm0.5$. In 25mm, SJM and MIRA revealed $14.0\pm5.1/1.8\pm1.0,\;11.0/2.3$. There was no statistically significant difference in these values between the venders given the same position and size. 2 redo valve replacements were performed, 1 due to severe hemolysis in ATS and 1 due to leaflet immobilization in SJM. Conclusion: Postoperative hemodynamic comparison by doppler echocardiography shows no statistically significant difference between recently available mechanical valves in this country.