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Effects of IVM and IVF Duration on In Vitro Development and Cell Numbers of Embryos in Korean Native Cattle

  • Park Yong-Soo
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.221-226
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    • 2004
  • The present study was performed to investigate the effects of in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) duration on the development of Korean Native Cattle embryos. The time of blastocyst formation and the quality of blastocysts based on cell numbers were examined. The cleavage rate increased with the length of IVF duration in the groups of 18-hr IVM, but was constant in the groups of 24-hr IVM. The development rate to the 8-cell stage was significantly higher in the IVM 18: IVF 20 group than in the IVM 24: IVF 24 group. The development rate to the blastocyst stage was highest in the IVM 18: IVF 20 group, significantly different from that of the IVM 18: IVF 16, IVM 24: IVF 20 and IVM 24: IVF 24 group. The time of blastocysts formation tended to be shorter when IVM and IVF duration were decreased. The number of inner cell mass, trophoblast and the total cells were significantly higher in the IVM 18: IVF 16 group than in the IVM 24: IVF 24 group (P<0.05). These results demonstrated that the IVM and IVF duration should be adequate for the efficient production of bovine embryos, and it might particularly be essential to determine the proper combination of IVM and IVF duration.

Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-activating Polypeptide (PACAP) Treatment during Pre-maturation Increases the Maturation of Porcine Oocytes Derived from Small Follicles

  • Park, Kyu-Mi;So, Kyoung-Ha;Hyun, Sang-Hwan
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2018
  • Cellular cyclic adenosine-3' 5'-monophosphate (cAMP) modulator is known as meiotic inhibitor and can delays spontaneous maturation in IVM experiment. Among many cAMP modulators, the role of Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) on IVM isn't known. The purpose of this study is to improve the maturation of oocytes derived from follicles ${\leq}3mm$ in diameter through PACAP as meiotic inhibitor during pre-in vitro maturation (pre-IVM). First, we checked PACAP and its receptors in cumulus cells and, to establish the optimal phase and concentration of PACAP for pre-IVM, we conducted chromatin configuration assessments. As a result, the rate of GV (Germinal Vesicle) according to duration of pre-IVM was significantly decreased 12 h and 18 h after IVM (87.1 and 84.1%, respectively) compared to 0 h (99.4%). When COC was cultured for 18 h, the GV rate in the $1{\mu}M$ of PACAP treatment group (82.1%) was significantly higher than any other PACAP treatment groups (60.5, 64.1, 74.4 and 69.9 %, respectively). So, we divided into four groups as follows; MF (the conventional IVM group, obtained from follicle from 3 to 6 mm in diameter), SF (the conventional IVM group, obtained from follicle ${\leq}3mm$ in diameter), Pre-SF(-)PACAP (IVM group including 18 h pre-IVM without $1{\mu}M$ of PACAP, obtained from follicle ${\leq}3mm$ in diameter) and Pre-SF(+)PACAP (IVM group including 18 h pre-IVM with $1{\mu}M$ of PACAP, obtained from follicle ${\leq}3mm$ in diameter). To examine the effect of PACAP during pre-IVM, we investigated analysis of nuclear maturation, intracellular glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. In cumulus cells, PACAP receptors, ADCYAP1R1 and VIPR1 were detected but were not detected in oocytes. After IVM, the Pre-SF(+)PACAP had the highest Metaphase II rate (91.7%) among all groups (P<0.05). The GSH levels in the MF and Pre-SF(+)PACAP were significantly higher than in the other groups (P<0.05) and ROS levels was no significant difference among all groups. In conclusion, these results indicated that even though the oocytes were derived from SF, pre-IVM application of PACAP improved meiotic and cytoplasmic maturation by regulating intracellular oxidative stress.

In vitro maturation: Clinical applications

  • Lim, Kyung Sil;Chae, Soo Jin;Choo, Chang Woo;Ku, Yeon Hee;Lee, Hye Jun;Hur, Chang Young;Lim, Jin Ho;Lee, Won Don
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.143-147
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    • 2013
  • Oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) is an assisted reproductive technology in which oocytes are retrieved from the antral follicles of unstimulated or minimally stimulated ovaries. IVM of human oocytes has emerged as a promising procedure. This new technology has advantages over controlled ovarian stimulation such as reduction of costs, simplicity, and elimination of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. By elimination or reduction of gonadotropin stimulation, IVM offers eligible infertile couples a safe and convenient form of treatment, and IVM outcomes are currently comparable in safety and efficacy to those of conventional in vitro fertilization. IVM has been applied mainly in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome or ultrasound-only polycystic ovaries, but with time, the indications for IVM have expanded to other uncommon situations such as fertility preservation, as well as to normal responders. In this review, the current clinical experiences with IVM will be described.

Reversible Effects of Exogenous GM3 on Meiotic Maturation and Cumulus Cells Expansion of Porcine Cumulus-oocyte Complexes

  • Kim, Jin-Woo;Park, Hyo-Jin;Jung, Jae-Min;Yang, Seul-Gi;Kim, Min-Ji;Kim, In-Su;Jegal, Ho-Geun;Koo, Deog-Bon
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.287-296
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    • 2018
  • Ganglioside GM3 is known as an inhibition factor of cell differentiation and proliferation via inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation. Our previous study showed that the exogenous ganglioside GM3 reduced the meiotic maturation of porcine oocytes and induced apoptosis at 44 h of in vitro maturation (IVM). However, the role of ganglioside GM3 in the relationship between EGFR signaling and apoptosis during porcine oocyte maturation has not yet been studied. First, porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured in the NCSU-23 medium with exogenous ganglioside GM3 according to maturation periods (non-treated, only IVM I: 0 - 22 h, only IVM II: 22 - 44 h and IVM I & II: 0 - 44 h). We confirmed that the proportion of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) increased significantly in the IVM I treated group than in the control group. We also confirmed that the meiotic maturation until M II stage and polar body formation decreased significantly in the only IVM I treated group. Cumulus cell expansion and mRNA levels of the expansion-related factors (HAS2, TNFAIP6 and PTX3) decreased significantly in the IVM I treated group than in the control group. Protein levels of EGFR, p-EGFR, ERK1/2, and p-ERK1/2 decreased significantly in the GM3-treated groups, during the IVM I period. In addition, cellular apoptosis, determined using TUNEL assay, and protein levels of Cleaved caspase 3, were increased significantly in the GM3-treated COCs during the IVM I period. Based on these results, ganglioside GM3 exposure of porcine COCs during the IVM I period reduced meiotic maturation and cumulus cell expansion via inhibition of EGFR activity in pigs.

Study on the Effect of Cysteine and Myo-inositol on In Vitro Maturation of Porcine Oocytes

  • Lee, B.K.;Kim, S.K.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.223-227
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    • 2007
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of morphology of oocytes, kinds of media, cysteine and myo-inositol supplementation on IVM rate of porcine oocytes. Cumulus- enclosed oocytes were incubated in maturation NCSU-23 and TCM-199 medium with supplementation with 3, 5, 10, 20 mM myo-inositol and 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 mM cysteine. 1. When classified by morphology, excellent, good and fair of cumulus-enclosed oocytes were incubated for 48 hrs and the IVM rate were $14.2{\pm}3.7%{\sim}58.7{\pm}4.0%$, respectively. The rate were greater in oocytes with excellent cumulus cells than those without cumulus cells. 2. The IVM rate of oocytes cultured in TCM-199 and NCSU- 23 medium supplementation or non-supplementation with 1.0 mM myo-inositol were $7.5{\pm}4.5%,\;45.0{\pm}4.8%\;and\;4.4%,\;42.5{\pm}4.2%,\;18.0{\pm}5.2%$, respectively. Supplementation with myo-inositol significantly increased the IVM rate of oocytes. 3. The IVM rate of oocytes cultured in NCSU-23 medium supplementation of 3, 5, 10, 20 mM myo-inositol for 48 hrs were $47.5{\pm}4.5%,\;57.5{\pm}4.2%,\;62.5{\pm}4.9%,\;50.0{\pm}5.2%$, respectively. The IVM rate of oocytes in NCSU-23 medium supplemented with 10 mM myo-inositol were significantly increased compared to control ($42.5{\pm}4.0%$). 4. The IVM rate of oocytes cultured for 48 hrs in NCSU-23 media supplement with 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mM myo-inositol were $50.0{\pm}4.5%,\;62.5{\pm}4.2%,\;52.5{\pm}4.9%,\;45.0{\pm}4.2%$, respectively. The IVM rate of oocytes in NCSU-23 medium supplemented with 10 mM cysteine were significantly increased compared to control ($42.5{\pm}4.0%$).

Effects of Glutamine, Glucosamine and Glutathione on the In Vitro Maturation of Porcine Oocytes

  • Kim, Young-Hee;Rhee, Man-Hee;Kim, Sang-Keun
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.87-91
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    • 2008
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effects of the supplementation of glutamine, glucosamine and glutathione on the porcine oocytes on IVM rates. Cocs were incubated in NCSU-23 supplemented with at $2.0{\sim}10.0\;mM$ glucosamine, $0.5{\sim}4.0\;mM$ glutamine and $0.1{\sim}1.0\;mM$ glutathione for 48 hrs. Oocytes were transferred to 50 ul drops of maturation medium covered with mineral oil and cultured in a $CO_2$ incubator ($38^{\circ}C$, 5% $CO_2$, 95% air). The IVM rates of oocytes cultured in NCSU-23 supplemented with 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mM glutamine for 48 hrs were $46.0{\pm}4.5%$, $52.0{\pm}4.8%$, $50.0{\pm}4.2%$ and $44.0{\pm}4.5%$, respectively. The IVM rates of oocytes cultured in NCSU-23 supplement with 2.0, 5.0, 7.0, 10.0 mM glucosamine for 48 hrs were $44.0{\pm}4.5%$, $42.0{\pm}4.5%$, $38.0{\pm}4.6%$ and $24.0{\pm}4.8%$, respectively. The IVM rates of oocytes cultured in NCSU-23 supplemented with glucosamine were no significantly increased compare to the control ($42.5{\pm}4.0%$). The IVM rate of oocytes cultured in NCSU-23 supplemented with 3.0, 5.0, 7.0, 10.0 mM glutathione for 48 hrs were $40.0{\pm}3.2%$, $54.0{\pm}4.2%$, $48.0{\pm}4.5%$, $44.0{\pm}4.8%$, respectively. The IVM rate of oocytes cultured in NCSU-23 supplemented with glutamine and glutathione were significantly increased co~pared to those control ($42.5{\pm}4.0%$). Glucosamine did not affect the IVM rates of oocytes. IVM rates of oocytes cultured in NCSU-23 medium for 48 hrs were significantly increased compared to the cultured for 40 hrs.

Effects of Maturation Time on In-vitro Production of Korean Native Cow Embryos (체외성숙 시간이 한우 수정란 생산에 미치는 영향)

  • 박용수;최수호;한진철;박흠대;변명대
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.35-44
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    • 2003
  • The present study was performed to investigate the first polar body(PB) extrusion during in-vitro maturation(IVM) and to examine the effect of different maturation time on the embryo development of Korean Native Cows(KNC) with regard to blastocyst(BL) cell numbers and pregnancy rates. PB extrusion did not take place for the first 12 hours(hr) of IVM, and most of KNC oocytes extruded PB from 14 to 20 hr after the onset of maturation. There was no significant difference in cleavage and 8-cell stage rates among the treatment groups, but BL and BL/8-cell rates were significantly higher(P<0.05) in 18 hr maturation group(31.0$\pm$5.7 and 82.0$\pm$5.1%) than 22 and 24 hr maturation group. The proportion of BL formed on day 7 and 8 was significantly higher(P<0.05) in 18 hr maturation group(85%) than in 24 hr maturation group(55%). There was a significant difference(P<0.05) in inner cell mass, trophectoderm and total cell number between day 7 BL produced by in-vivo and IVM 18 hr and day 8 BL produced by IVM 18 hr and 24 hr. Pregnancy rates are also significantly higher(P<0.05) in in-vivo(56.3%) and IVM 18 hr day 7(50.0%) group than day 8 treatment groups(18 hr: 16.7%, 24 hr: 10.5%). These results suggest that KNC oocytes achieve developmental competency within 20 hr of IVM, and "short" IVM (18 hr) is more effective than "long" IVM(24 hr) in embryo development rates, BL cell numbers and pregnancy rates.

Effects of Oocytes Maturation and Fertilization Time on In Vitro Production and Quality of Korean Native Cattle

  • 박용수;최수호;김재명;박흠대;변명대
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Embryo Transfer Conference
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    • pp.79-79
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    • 2002
  • 본 연구에서는 in vitro에서 성숙된 난자의 핵성숙(Polar Body extrusion)에 소요되는 시간과 배반포 단계로의 발달능력 사이의 관계를 비교하여 조기에 발달능력을 가진 embryo를 선발할 수 있는 IVP 체계를 개발하고자 하였으며 in vitro maturation(IVM)에 따른 first polar body(PB) 형성, IVM과 IVF 시간이 oocyte의 발달에 미치는 영향과 생산된 배반포의 세포수를 평가하였다. IVM은 TCM199 배양액을 사용하였고 in vitro fertilization(IVF)은 Fer -TALP용액을 사용하였으며 in vitro culture(IVC)는 CRlaa 배양액을 사용하여 2일까지는 0.3% BSA를 3일 부터는 10%FBS와 bovine oviduct epithelial cell을 첨가하여 배양하였다. IVM 시간에 따른 PB의 출현율은 0hr(0%), 6hr(0%), 12hr(0%), 14hr(8.7%), 16hr(40.5%), 18hr(48.0%), 20hr(65%), 22(68%) 그리고 24hr(74.5%)을 보였으며 IVM 시간에 따른 cleavage 및 8cell 발달율 사이에는 유의적인 차이가 없었으나 배반포(BL) 및 8cell에서 배반포로 발달률은 18시간(BL 31$\pm$6, BL/8cell 82 $\pm$5%)에서 가장 높게 나타났으며 24시간(BL 17$\pm$2, BL/8cell 60$\pm$8%)과 유의적인 차이를 보였다(P<0.05). IVC 7일째 배반포의 총세포수와 trophoblast(TE) 세포수는 IVM 18시간(mean$\pm$S.E.; total: 131.1$\pm$34.0, TE: 97.6$\pm$29.6)에서 24시간(total: 112.2$\pm$17.5, TE: 80.1$\pm$15.6)보다 유의하게 많은 것으로 나왔으나(P<0.05) 7일째의 inner cell mass(ICM) 숫자(18hr 33.5$\pm$12.8 vs 24hr 32.1$\pm$12.0)와 8일째 ICM, TE 그리고 총 세포수에는 유의성 있는 차이가 없었다. IVM 18시간에서 PB 형성과 8cell 발달률 사이에 높은 상관성을 보였고 배반포 및 8cell에서 배반포 단계로 높은 발달률을 보였으며 생산된 배반포의 TE 숫자와 총 세포수가 유의하게 많은 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 IVM 18시간 실시하였을 경우 보다 많은 세포수를 가진 배반포 발달 가능성이 높은 embryo를 조기에 선발 가능할 것으로 사료된다.

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The effects of different types of media on in vitro maturation outcomes of human germinal vesicle oocytes retrieved in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles

  • Fesahat, Farzaneh;Firouzabadi, Razieh Dehghani;Faramarzi, Azita;Khalili, Mohammad Ali
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.79-84
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    • 2017
  • Objective: Optimizing in vitro maturation (IVM) media to achieve better outcomes has been a matter of interest in recent years. The aim of this prospective clinical trial was to investigate the effects of different media on the IVM outcomes of immature oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage. Methods: A total of 400 immature oocytes at the GV stage with normal morphology were retrieved from 320 infertile women aged $31{\pm}4.63years$ during stimulated intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. They were divided into groups of homemade IVM medium (I, n = 100), cleavage medium (II, n = 100), blastocyst medium (III, n = 100), and Sage IVM medium (IV, n = 100) and cultured for 24 to 48 hours at $37^{\circ}C$. ICSI was performed, and the rates of fertilization and embryo formation were compared across the four groups. Results: In the 400 retrieved GV oocytes, the total maturation rates showed significant differences in groups I to IV (55%, 53%, 78%, and 68%, respectively, p<0.001). However, there were no significant differences in the fertilization, embryo formation, or arrest rates of metaphase II oocytes across these groups. In all groups, GV maturation was mostly completed after 24 hours, with fewer oocytes requiring 48 hours to mature (p<0.01). Moreover, the rate of high-quality embryos was higher in group IV than in the other groups (p=0.01). Conclusion: The quality of the IVM medium was found to affect clinical IVM outcomes. Additionally, blastocyst medium may be a good choice in IVM/ICSI cycles as an alternative IVM medium.

Effect of Activation of Porcine NT Embryos on In Vitro Development

  • Park, Ji-Hoon;Chung, Young-Ho;Rhee, Man-Hee;Kim, Sang-Keun
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.475-478
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    • 2011
  • In the present study, the effect of cysteine and NT or bisphenol A(BP) on in vitro aturation(IVM) of porcine oocytes were examined. COCs was cultured in NCSU-23 medium supplement with 10% FCS which had previously been covered with mineral oil and equilibrated in a humidified atmosphere of 5% $CO_2$ and 95% air at $38^{\circ}C$. The IVM rate of oocytes cultured for 48 hrs in NCSU-23 medium supplement with 0.5~10.0 mM cysteine were $34.0{\pm}3.2%$, $36.0{\pm}3.5%$, $48.0{\pm}3.8%$, $22.0{\pm}3.2%$, respectively. The IVM rate of oocytes cultured in NCSU-23 medium supplement with 0.5~5.0mM NT for 48 hrs were $24.0{\pm}4.2%$, $18.0{\pm}4.9%$, $8.0{\pm}2.2%$, respectively. NT affects oocyte in vitro maturation rate in a dose-dependent. This result were significantly lower than the control group. The IVM rate of oocytes cultured for 48 hrs in NCSU-23 medium supplement with 1.0 mM NT+5.0 mM cysteine($38.0{\pm}4.3%$) were significantly higher than that of NT treatment. The IVM rate of oocytes cultured in NCSU-23 medium supplement with 0.05~5.0 mM BP for 48 hrs were $20.0{\pm}4.7%$, $10.0{\pm}5.3%$, $6.0{\pm}3.2%$, respectively. The IVM rate of oocytes cultured in NCSU-23 medium supplement with BP was significantly lower cultured non supplement of BP ($44.0{\pm}3.5%$). BP affects porcine oocyte maturation rate in a dose-dependent manner. The IVM rate of oocytes cultured for 48 hrs in NCSU-23 medium supplement with 1.0 mM BP+5.0 mM cycteine ($32.0{\pm}3.2%$) were increased than that of BP treatment.