Park, Woo-Ram;Kim, Mi-Jin;Kwon, Oh-Kyoung;Kim, Mun-Young;Cho, Woo-Hyun
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
Despite the recovery of consumer expenditure and retailing in the Korean economy after 2001, the domestic apparel industry has been aggravated by negative growth in both productivity and production. The purpose of the stud? is to diagnose the develop competitive of the Korean apparel industry and derive implications for this after estimating the efficiency of the Korean apparel companies with Data Envelopment Analysis. Data Envelopment Analysis(DEA) is a methodology based in non-parametric analysis and linear programming. It was developed for measuring the relative efficiency of a set of firms that use inputs to produce outputs. Data used fer input and output variables in the analysis are drawn from financial statement recorded by the Korean Financial Supervisory Service. The initial input data comprise the number fo the employees, fixed assets, general management and selling expenses, and cost of sales. The initial outputs are the operating profit and the gross margin. To summary the results, the efficiencies of the Korean apparel companies has increased yearly in spite of being overabundance of investment in Labour and Capital. According to correlation between input and output variables, the Korean apparel industry has been revamping gradually from labor intensive industries to the capital. The companies need to reduce costs in the results from the number of employees, fixed asset and cost of sales to transform into an efficiently enterprise. The companies owning or obtaining a brand had bitter establish an outsourcing strategic in production, while OEM corporations are called far setting up a manufactory in domestic or abroad. Although the paper is derived some implications with production efficiencies, the relation between apparel companies and brand power, consumption level of consumer, and social trend is remained on a limitation to the study. The next research necessitates a topic with Fashion industry or examining the correlation between brand value, social propensity and profit margin.
This study is intended to promote local woodcraft industry with revitalization of local festival in Inje-county. To do so, we propose the travel souvenir design with local identity and the plan for production and marketing based on the management of 'Design Hospital' and the building of production method through 'laser wood inlaying technique like puzzle style'. Research method is benchmarking analysis of successful cases of travel souvenir which is developed for cultural contents of local festival. The result of this study is the following. First, design outsourcing is done one of support in industry focused on old boy network, Through it, Special brain of design can be supplied without compensation. Also the difficulty of manpower problem is lessened and the ability of product development in short term can be guaranteed. On the basis of this, we are able to apply Mass Customization production by up to date digital production method. This enables us to maintain the production flexibility of cultural goods fit for the traits of local festival. This study is intended to present the best model guananteeing both profit of wood technological industry and the possibility of local cultural.
The Changes in management environment in SMEs such as rapid development of information communication technology, worldwide expansion of FTAs, enlargement of global outsourcing, etc have changed various aspects in industry-academy or industry-academy-government cooperation. It has been away from the cooperation focused on research and development and industrial training, and advanced to the cooperation focused on the business fields and practices where the executive ability and professionalism are required to commercialize major products of local SMEs. Compared with the existing model, the new model of industry-academy-government cooperation can provide effective and customized supports to local SMEs and expect better performance than ever before through the choice and focus. However, the existing support programs of government and related organizations are just top-down pattern to SMEs. In addition to the development of industrial technology, education and training for labor force and knowledge interchange between industry and university, the new cooperation model would also provide practical tasks such as enhancement of business competences and abilities to cultivate foreign markets. This study deals with Gyeongbuk PRIDE Products support project that is the new model of industry-academy-government cooperation and evaluates the effectiveness of this support project by empirically analyzing the survey results from the target SMEs.
This study is based on precedent research on contract fairness to prevent irrational contract practices and enable long term mutual interests between logistic firms and shipper. Actual unjust contract examples were identified in order to help create this positive partnership. An analysis on the difference of perspective proved that while the logistics companies believed on the positive effects of the presence of additional expense clauses & potential risk clauses, the very same companies believed that the concretization of procedural & distributional equitability clauses will cause positive effects on the partnership between the logistics companies and the shipper. On the other hand, concretizationof the expense clauses brings about a negative effect for the shipper company. Also, the perspective of a logistics company appears that such results were identical to the empirical study which had a positiveeffect. However, the shipping company had a negative and a rather opposite point of view. These researches prove that there should be an alteration in perception for the shipper company. It is believed that the comparison of the results of this research and the leading researches may provide grounds for thought-provoking suggestions that must be concretized and also for those in need for further settlement for drafting the standardized logistics contract and its logistics.
Cloud computing services provide IT resources as services on demand. This is considered a key concept, which will lead a shift from an ownership-based paradigm to a new pay-for-use paradigm, which can reduce the fixed cost for IT resources, and improve flexibility and scalability. As IT services, cloud services have evolved from early similar computing concepts such as network computing, utility computing, server-based computing, and grid computing. So research into cloud computing is highly related to and combined with various relevant computing research areas. To seek promising research issues and topics in cloud computing, it is necessary to understand the research trends in cloud computing more comprehensively. In this study, we collect bibliographic information and citation information for cloud computing related research papers published in major international journals from 1994 to 2012, and analyzes macroscopic trends and network changes to citation relationships among papers and the co-occurrence relationships of key words by utilizing social network analysis measures. Through the analysis, we can identify the relationships and connections among research topics in cloud computing related areas, and highlight new potential research topics. In addition, we visualize dynamic changes of research topics relating to cloud computing using a proposed cloud computing "research trend map." A research trend map visualizes positions of research topics in two-dimensional space. Frequencies of key words (X-axis) and the rates of increase in the degree centrality of key words (Y-axis) are used as the two dimensions of the research trend map. Based on the values of the two dimensions, the two dimensional space of a research map is divided into four areas: maturation, growth, promising, and decline. An area with high keyword frequency, but low rates of increase of degree centrality is defined as a mature technology area; the area where both keyword frequency and the increase rate of degree centrality are high is defined as a growth technology area; the area where the keyword frequency is low, but the rate of increase in the degree centrality is high is defined as a promising technology area; and the area where both keyword frequency and the rate of degree centrality are low is defined as a declining technology area. Based on this method, cloud computing research trend maps make it possible to easily grasp the main research trends in cloud computing, and to explain the evolution of research topics. According to the results of an analysis of citation relationships, research papers on security, distributed processing, and optical networking for cloud computing are on the top based on the page-rank measure. From the analysis of key words in research papers, cloud computing and grid computing showed high centrality in 2009, and key words dealing with main elemental technologies such as data outsourcing, error detection methods, and infrastructure construction showed high centrality in 2010~2011. In 2012, security, virtualization, and resource management showed high centrality. Moreover, it was found that the interest in the technical issues of cloud computing increases gradually. From annual cloud computing research trend maps, it was verified that security is located in the promising area, virtualization has moved from the promising area to the growth area, and grid computing and distributed system has moved to the declining area. The study results indicate that distributed systems and grid computing received a lot of attention as similar computing paradigms in the early stage of cloud computing research. The early stage of cloud computing was a period focused on understanding and investigating cloud computing as an emergent technology, linking to relevant established computing concepts. After the early stage, security and virtualization technologies became main issues in cloud computing, which is reflected in the movement of security and virtualization technologies from the promising area to the growth area in the cloud computing research trend maps. Moreover, this study revealed that current research in cloud computing has rapidly transferred from a focus on technical issues to for a focus on application issues, such as SLAs (Service Level Agreements).
Recentlythe concept of fast fashion is drawing attention as customer needs are diversified and supply lead time is getting shorter in fashion industry. It is emphasized as one of the critical success factors in the fashion industry how quickly and efficiently to satisfy the customer needs as the competition has intensified. Because the fast fashion is inherently susceptible to trend, it is very important for fashion retailers to make quick decisions regarding items to launch, quantity based on demand prediction, and the time to respond. Also the planning decisions must be executed through the business processes of procurement, production, and logistics in real time. In order to adapt to this trend, the fashion industry urgently needs supports from intelligent quick response(QR) system. However, the traditional functions of QR systems have not been able to completely satisfy such demands of the fast fashion industry. This paper proposes an intelligent quick response system for the fast fashion(IQRS-FF). Presented are models for QR process, QR principles and execution, and QR quantity and timing computation. IQRS-FF models support the decision makers by providing useful information with automated and rule-based algorithms. If the predefined conditions of a rule are satisfied, the actions defined in the rule are automatically taken or informed to the decision makers. In IQRS-FF, QRdecisions are made in two stages: pre-season and in-season. In pre-season, firstly master demand prediction is performed based on the macro level analysis such as local and global economy, fashion trends and competitors. The prediction proceeds to the master production and procurement planning. Checking availability and delivery of materials for production, decision makers must make reservations or request procurements. For the outsourcing materials, they must check the availability and capacity of partners. By the master plans, the performance of the QR during the in-season is greatly enhanced and the decision to select the QR items is made fully considering the availability of materials in warehouse as well as partners' capacity. During in-season, the decision makers must find the right time to QR as the actual sales occur in stores. Then they are to decide items to QRbased not only on the qualitative criteria such as opinions from sales persons but also on the quantitative criteria such as sales volume, the recent sales trend, inventory level, the remaining period, the forecast for the remaining period, and competitors' performance. To calculate QR quantity in IQRS-FF, two calculation methods are designed: QR Index based calculation and attribute similarity based calculation using demographic cluster. In the early period of a new season, the attribute similarity based QR amount calculation is better used because there are not enough historical sales data. By analyzing sales trends of the categories or items that have similar attributes, QR quantity can be computed. On the other hand, in case of having enough information to analyze the sales trends or forecasting, the QR Index based calculation method can be used. Having defined the models for decision making for QR, we design KPIs(Key Performance Indicators) to test the reliability of the models in critical decision makings: the difference of sales volumebetween QR items and non-QR items; the accuracy rate of QR the lead-time spent on QR decision-making. To verify the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed models, a case study has been performed for a representative fashion company which recently developed and launched the IQRS-FF. The case study shows that the average sales rateof QR items increased by 15%, the differences in sales rate between QR items and non-QR items increased by 10%, the QR accuracy was 70%, the lead time for QR dramatically decreased from 120 hours to 8 hours.
Perspectives on the basis of arts and cultural management, this study intends to suggest improvements in core curriculums that are required in order for South Korea, a country that has initiated into the animation industry through outsourcing from big-budget animation production countries such as America and Japan, to develop its own strong base in creative animation industry. The perspectives of arts management in this context means an integration nexus between human studies, social science and management, and suggestions are as follow: First, it is crucial to understand the current trend of animation industry structure across the globe, as well as to develop the ability of co-production. Animation industry often requires technical skills, capital strength and human resources, each having equal importance. Therefore, thorough analysis of the three components in worldwide animation industry must be preceded for animation production services. To do so, collaboration with major animation creation countries is the best option and is highly encouraged, so that the national animation curriculum shall be enhanced to meet such demands and hence develop various abilities. The second is a good understanding of new-media and new-platforms. Not only the traditional distributor of animation such as television and theater, the distribution system expands its scope to a variety of online sources including pod-casts and the Internet. Under these circumstances, a deep understanding towards animation distribution system and an analysis of the new consumer channel are also of paramount importance for animation production. Third, a possibility of animation supply chain through diversified routes and media have paved the way for a possible animation production services and distribution without a mega-budget. Thus, new curriculum shall need to reinforce marketing and management aspects that will in turn help individuals to establish a self-employed creative business. Last but not least, this study further includes illustration of current curriculum of animation studies in national universities, followed by detailed suggestions for the curriculum improvements based on the above mentioned three factors. It was observed that the current curriculums have been solely focused on practical works and technical skills of animation and art studies; a four-year-course colleges that provide animation courses usually lack components of human studies, social science and management. Thus, this study proposes essential contexts of management studies that are needed for individual business and also curriculum improvements that are derived from the analysis of the current industry and the new media.
It's not easy to renew old brand of over 50 years history to the tastes of new consumer of our time. Most of national brands that has a history of some 20 years in Korea have strove for continuation and growth of brand to no avails, which can be taken as a good example of current situation. For instance, C company, one of the National brand of US which has a history of 51 years, has made its position secure as a fashion group and based itself on a sound foundation by establishing new marketing strategy and completing successful brand renewal in the process of strategic M&A with Italian company. Those successful marketing strategies are as follows. 1) they regarded both market and consumer oriented marketing activity as company's highest priority strategy and put great emphasis upon concentration on target market and reestablishment of brand image of business casual wear. 2) Setting up and operating planning team composed of merchandizer alone in Milano, they set the direction of plan on the basis of concentrated research on potential item in market according to thorough market research done by buying office in Korea, branch office in Hong Kong and buyer in US prior to blueprint planning for season. 3) Great emphasis was placed on business which focused on intensive presentation of basic key item for apparel career women who are main consumer group in the midium-low prices market in US and on supplementation of size and color. they named this line 'collectibles' and helped their customer develop their own clothes plan without worrying about the change of color and fabric by supporting same fabric and color throughout the year and enabled them to add variation easily by supplementing new trend item. 4) Company set black as a main color that lots of apparel career women find easy to care and to express their own image and presented them with pebble which belongs to navy and beige and added fashion color such as wine and brown etc as season goes by. They constructed basic line in order for their customers to coordinate purchased item with new one or to add them to present collection, and to achieve efficient sale by setting up strategy which allows this cross coordination and changing pattern occasionally. 5) Though basic jacket for 99$, short slim skirt for 49$ are products within midium-low prices range, in the material planning stage aiming at production of item that has both resonable function appealing to consumer and is fashionable, synthetic material had to be used as a main source due to price competitiveness. Despite this situation, considering comfortable sense of fit and refined drape of silhouette that has no sign of cheap material, whole collectible line was divided into two items, which contributed to reduction of cost. In case of material that is composed of triacetate and polyester in 70 to 30 ratio, was used up to 4 million yard, which allowed drastic curtailment of cost accompanied by concentration. In case of 'collectibles' line, using Korean material mainly, C company chose to have their product sewed in Southeast Asian countries where transportation is well developed and both productivity and quality verified by operating global production system which aiming at cutdown of cost through outsourcing production from the country where labor cost is low and getting finished product. Polarization between present consumers telling us that consumers with the mind of middle classes in the past no longer exists between consumers who seek after only fine article of highest quality and wise consumers who are sensible enough to judge bubble on correlation between price and quality. To cope with this change in new consumer mind, apparel makes changing their policy so as to produce item that has reasonable quality and falls within affordable price range anywhere in the world. and they're striving to get out of difficult situation by operating global marketing strategy which stresses separation of planning, production and sale and sensibility of fashion shared worldwide. The marketing strategy of C company can be exemplified as a successful one.
The results of the study of diving the 21st century's Korea fashion market into consumer market, fashion market, and a new marketing strategy are as follows. The 21st consumer market is First, a fashion democracy phenomenon. As many people try to leave unconditional fashion following, consumer show a phenomenon to choose and create their own fashion by subjective judgements. Second, a phenomenon of total fashion pursuit. Consumer in the future are likely to put their goals not in differentiating small item products, but considering various fashion elements based on their individuality and sense of value. Third, world quality-oriented. With the improvement of life level, it accomplishes to emphasize consumers' fashion mind on the world wide popular use of materials, quality, design and brand image. Fourth, with the entrance of neo-rationalism, consumers show increasing trends to emphasize wisdom, solidity in goods strategy pursuing high quality fashion and to demand resonable prices. Fifth, concept-oriented. Consumers are changing into pursuing concept appropriate to individual life scene. Prospecting the composition of the 21st century's fashion market, First, sportive casual zone will draw attention more than any other zone. This is because interest in sports will grow according to the increase of leisure time and the expasion of time and space in the 21st century, and also ecology will become the important issue of sports sense because of human beings's natural habit toward nature. Second, the down aging phenomenon will accelerate its speed as a big trend. Third, a retro phenomenon, a concept contrary to digital and high-tech, will become another big trend for its remake, antique, and classic concept in fashion market with ecology trend. New marketing strategy to cope with changing fashion market is as follows. First, with the trend of borderless concept, borders between apparels are becoming vague, for example, they offer custom-made products to consumers. Second, as more enterprises take the way of gorilla and guerrilla where guerrillas who aim at niche market show up will develop. Basically, they think highly of individual creative study, and pursue the scene adherence with high sensitiveness. However this polarization becomes mutually-supplementing relationship showing gorilla's guerilla movement, and guerilla's gorilla high-tech. Third with the development of value retailing, enterprises pursuing mass merchandising of groups called category killers are expanded and amplified to new product fields, and expand business' share. Fourth, using outsourcing, the trend to use exterior function leaving each enterprise's strength by inspecting its own work is gradually strong. Fifth, with the expansion of none store sale, the entrance of the internet and the CD-ROM sales added to communication sales such as catalogues are specified. An eminent American think tank expect that 5-5% of the total sale of clothes and home goods in 2010 will be done by none store sale. Accordingly, to overcome the problems, First international, global level marketing, Second, the improvement of technology, Third, knowledge-creating marketing are needed.
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