Journal of the Korean Operations Research and Management Science Society
Recently, IT outsourcing has become a very important management strategy which implements information systems in organizations. This paper investigates the risks and strategic recognition as a key factors affecting on the degree of IT outsourcing. Specifically the risks of IT outsourcing and its four components-risk of control, risk of economical, risk of technical, risk of relational - are examined to be a negative effect on the degree of outsourcing. And strategic recognition about outsourcing is examined how to affect en the risks and the degree of IT outsourcing. To empirically test these relationships, data ere gathered from senior IT managers in 86 corporations. Results of this study show that the degree of outsourcing is strongly influenced by risk of control, risk of economical, risk of relational. But risk of technical does not influence on the degree of outsourcing. And strategic recognition about outsourcing is found that is negative effect on the risks of IT outsourcing and positive effect on the degree of IT outsourcing. The results provide a good framework to minimize the risks for IT outsourcing success.
Proceedings of the Korean Operations and Management Science Society Conference
Corporate managers look at IT outsourcing as long-term strategic choices not as short-term tactical ones, and maximizing the effect that IT outsourcing brings about is the main concern to them. Emerging different types of IT outsourcing and their effects on the corporate business decisions necessitate the research on this subject. According to previous researches, the Intent for IT outsourcing is categorized as IS Improvement, Business Impact, and Commercial Exploitation. The decison factors for these IT outsourcing include corporate strategy types, IT role, and interaction between these two. Firm size and IT maturity are selected as moderating factors to add the credibility to the research of the effect of IT outsourcing decision making. Analyzing IT outsourcing data collected from 61 large-size and mid-size domestic firms revealed that corporate strategy rather than IT role is more significant factor affecting the intent for IT outsourcing decision. That means the decision of outsourcing intent is affected by corporate strategy types. Defenders(as in corporate strategy types) tend to use IT outsourcing more as a means to improve information systems, compared to analyzers and reactors. Prospectors tend to use IT outsourcing more as a commercial exploitation, compared to analyzers and reactors. These outcomes prove that corporate strategy characteristics reflect outsourcing intent. There were previous researches that showed outsourcing decision depends on IT role however the hypothesis was rejected that IT role determines outsourcing intent. It was also rejected that the interaction between corporate strategy types and IT role determines outsourcing intent. Corporate decision makers should first analyze corporate strategy, and reflect it on the outsourcing intent when they make IT outsourcing decisions. Only the precise defining of IT outsourcing intent will lower the risk and increase the possibility of success.
Kim, Yong-Jin;Nam, Ki-Chan;Song, Jae-Ki;Koo, Chul-Mo
Asia pacific journal of information systems
Recently, the role of IT service providers has been enlarged from managing a single function or system to reconstructing entire information management processes in new ways to contribute to shareholder value across the enterprise. This movement toward extensive and complex outsourcing agreements has been driven by the assumption that outsourcing information technology functions is a reliable approach to maximizing resource productivity. Hiring external IT service providers to manage part or all of its information-related services helps a firm focus on its core business and provides better services to its clients, thus obtaining sustainable competitive advantage. This practice of focusing on the strategic aspect of outsourcing is referred to as strategic sourcing where the focus is capability sourcing, not procurement. Given the importance of the strategic outsourcing, however, to our knowledge, there is little empirical research on the relationship between the strategic outsourcing orientation and outsourcing performance. Moreover, there is little research on the factor that makes the strategic outsourcing effective. This study is designed to investigate the relationship between strategic IT outsourcing orientation and IT outsourcing performance and the process through which strategic IT outsourcing orientation influences outsourcing performance, Based on the framework of strategic orientation-performance and core competence based management, this study first identifies core competency orientation as a proper strategic orientation pertinent to IT outsourcing and IT outsourcing process management capability as the mediator to affect IT outsourcing performance. The proposed research model is then tested with a sample of 200 firms. The findings of this study may contribute to the literature in two ways. First, it draws on the strategic orientation - performance framework in developing its research model so that it can provide a new perspective to the well studied phenomena. This perspective allows practitioners and researchers to look at outsourcing from an angle that emphasizes the strategic decision making to outsource its IT functions. Second, by separating the concept of strategic orientation and outsourcing process management capability, this study provides practices with insight into how the strategic orientation can work effectively to achieve an expected result. In addition, the current study provides a basis for future studies that examine the factors affecting IT outsourcing performance with more controllable factors such as IT outsourcing process management capability rather than external hard-to-control factors including trust and relationship management. This study investigates the major factors that determine IT outsourcing success. Based on strategic orientation and core competency theories, we develop the proposed research model to investigate the relationship between core competency orientation and IT outsourcing performance and the mediating role of IT outsourcing process management capability on IT outsourcing performance. The model consists of two independent variables (core-competency-orientation and IT outsourcing process management capability), and two dependent variables (outsourced task complexity and IT outsourcing performance). Comprehensive data collection was conducted through an outsourcing association. The survey data were analyzed using a structural analysis method. IT outsourcing process management capability was found to mediate the effect of core competency orientation on both outsourced task complexity and IT outsourcing performance. Further analysis and findings are discussed.
Despite the continual growth of IT outsourcing market, the outsourcing contracts are mostly short-term contracts. Because these short-term contracts need continual recontracts, the research on the factors that influence the outsourcing recontracts is needed. This research has been done to find out the factors of making the outsourcing recontracts successfully by stating the relationship between outsourcing recontract and the outsourcing performance factors. As a result of this research, customer factors and innovation factors are found to be influential factors on whether you make a recontract or not. And also the research have showed customer factors are major decision criteria on outsourcing recontracts.
Journal of Information Technology Applications and Management
Recently, IT outsouricng has been one of the major concerns of many companies. This paper explores the relationship between information technology outsourcing risk factors and outsourcing performance. It is based upon a three-phase process utilizing IPO (Input-Process-Output) system. The first phase means the outsourcing planning risks t~at arise from overall environment of outsourcing, organizational refuse, and wrong contracts. The second phase implies outsourcing operational risks, which are occurred while out-sourcing perform and consist of organizational acceptances of outsourcing, partnership and hidden costs. The last phase is outsourcing performance based on four perspective of BSC(Blanced Scored Card). The survey was performed on the IT/IS firms, and the data was collected from 53 service receivers. The result of the analysis are as follows. First, Outsourcing planning risks positively affects the operational risks. Second, Outsourcing operational risks negatively affects the Outsourcing Performance.
The Outsourcing Industry has grown swift pace and evolved over time, and the Global IT Outsourcing market has shown signs of a steady growth. In the Korean company, however, IT Outsourcing is not active as that of the advanced countries and there is lack of literature to understand the characteristics of IT Outsourcing in the Korean company. This paper, therefore, analyze the outcomes surveying 65 companies in Korea to investigate how IT Outsourcing risk factors affects IT Outsourcing intention. Based on our literature reviews based on number of key articles, journals, and the focus group interviews, IT Outsourcing risk factors are proposed into four different domains: Transaction, Client, Vendor, Environment perspectives. It found that one factor(Vendor perspectives) is closely related to the IT Outsourcing intention of the Korean company. Finally, this paper analyzed the pros and cons of IT Outrcing offers a guide to the risk factors.
The Outsourcing Industry has grown swift pace and evolved over time, and the Global IT Outsourcing market has shown signs of a steady growth. In the Korean company, however, IT Outsourcing is not active as that of the advanced countries and there is lack of literature to understand the characterristics of IT Outsourcing in the Korean company. This paper, therefore, analyze the outcomes surveying 65 compaanies in Korea to investigate how IT Outsourcing risk factors affects IT Outsourcing intention. Based on our literature reviews bassed on number of key articles, journals, and the focus group interviews, IT Outsourcing risk factors are proposed into four different domains: Transaction, Client, Vendor, Environment perspectives. It found that one factor(Vendor perspectives) is closely related to the IT Outsourcing intention of the Korean company. Finally, this paper analyzed the pros and cons of IT Outrcing offers a guide to the risk factors.
The Outsourcing Industry has grown at a swift pace and evolved over time, and the Global IT Outsourcing market has shown signs of a steady growth. In the Korean financial industry, however, IT Outsourcing is not active as that of the advanced countries and there is lack of literature to understand the characteristics of IT Outsourcing in the financial industry. This paper, therefore, analyze the outcomes surveying 40 financial companies in Korea to investigate how IT Outsourcing risk factors affects IT Outsourcing intention. Based on our literature reviews based on number of key articles, journals, and the focus group interviews, IT Outsourcing risk factors are proposed into four different domains: Transaction, Client, Vendor and Environmental perspective. It found that two risk factors (Client and Environmental perspective) are closely related to the IT Outsourcing intention of the Korean financial industry. Finally, this paper concludes that concrete SLAs (Service Level Agreements) of the clients and support of government agencies are important to mitigate the IT Outsourcing risks.
Increasingly the information technology (IT) outsourcing phenomenon has been a subject of much academic research. Scholars have argued that knowledge complementarities playa crucial role in forming successful IT outsourcing relationships. However, notwithstanding the fast growth of IT outsourcing, prior studies on IT outsourcing have not included knowledge complementarities in their research design as a determining factor for IT outsourcing effectiveness. Further, the understanding of knowledge complementarities itself remains ambiguous. In this study, the concept of knowledge complementarities is explored in the IT outsourcing context at the firm level. Specifically, it addresses the following questions: what is knowledge complementarities? How does it affect IT outsourcing effectiveness? Is the relationship between knowledge complementarities and IT outsourcing effectiveness influenced by organizational trust between the client and the vendor? Grounded in the relevant theories to knowledge management and IT outsourcing, we develop a research model in which both the main effects of knowledge complementarities and organizational trust and the moderating effect of organizational trust on the relationships between knowledge complementarities and IT outsourcing effectiveness are tested. Within this research model, we develop a second order construct of knowledge complementarities, consisting of complementary business knowledge and complementary IT knowledge as the first order constructs. We have used data from a field study of 103 firms in Korea to test the proposed model. Controlling the effects of conflict resolution efforts, our empirical analysis found significant main effects of knowledge complementarities and organizational trust on IT outsourcing effectiveness. The results suggest that knowledge complementarities between the client and vendor positively contribute to IT outsourcing effectiveness. Specifically, the client needs to have enough IT knowledge to assess the quality of IT outsourcing services provided by the vendor. Meanwhile, the vendor should understand the client's business well enough to provide IT services, Contrary to our expectations, the moderating effect of trust on the relationship between knowledge complementarities and IT outsourcing effectiveness was not supported in this study. The results also show that organizational trust between client and vendor significantly influences IT outsourcing effectiveness. As for contributions of this study, we have not only clarified the concept of knowledge complementarities, but also developed an instrument to measure the concept and empirically validated it. Further, we have tested the idea that knowledge complementarities and trust directly influence IT outsourcing effectiveness and trust moderates the relationship between knowledge complementarities and IT outsourcing effectiveness. Out results prescribe the knowledge complementarities of client and vendor as a useful path to IT outsourcing effectiveness. These findings have important theoretical and practical implications, which are discussed in the paper.
Information technology (IT) outsourcing, the use of a third-party vendor to provide IT services, started in the late 1980s and early 1990s in Korea, and has increased rapidly since 2000. Recently, firms have increased their efforts to capture greater value from IT outsourcing. To date, there have been a large number of studies on IT outsourcing. Most prior studies on IT outsourcing have focused on outsourcing practices and decisions, and little attention has been paid to objectively measuring the value of IT outsourcing. In addition, studies that examined the performance of IT outsourcing have mainly relied on anecdotal evidence or practitioners' perceptions. Our study examines the contribution of IT outsourcing to economic growth in Korean industries over the 1990 to 2007 period, using a production function framework and a panel data set for 54 industries constructed from input-output tables, fixed-capital formation tables, and employment tables. Based on the framework and estimation procedures that Han, Kauffman and Nault (2010) used to examine the economic impact of IT outsourcing in U.S. industries, we evaluate the impact of IT outsourcing on output and productivity in Korean industries. Because IT outsourcing started to grow at a significantly more rapid pace in 2000, we compare the impact of IT outsourcing in pre- and post-2000 periods. Our industry-level panel data cover a large proportion of Korean economy-54 out of 58 Korean industries. This allows us greater opportunity to assess the impacts of IT outsourcing on objective performance measures, such as output and productivity. Using IT outsourcing and IT capital as our primary independent variables, we employ an extended Cobb-Douglas production function in which both variables are treated as factor inputs. We also derive and estimate a labor productivity equation to assess the impact of our IT variables on labor productivity. We use data from seven years (1990, 1993, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, and 2007) for which both input-output tables and fixed-capital formation tables are available. Combining the input-output tables and fixed-capital formation tables resulted in 54 industries. IT outsourcing is measured as the value of computer-related services purchased by each industry in a given year. All the variables have been converted to 2000 Korean Won using GDP deflators. To calculate labor hours, we use the average work hours for each sector provided by the OECD. To effectively control for heteroskedasticity and autocorrelation present in our dataset, we use the feasible generalized least squares (FGLS) procedures. Because the AR1 process may be industry-specific (i.e., panel-specific), we consider both common AR1 and panel-specific AR1 (PSAR1) processes in our estimations. We also include year dummies to control for year-specific effects common across industries, and sector dummies (as defined in the GDP deflator) to control for time-invariant sector-specific effects. Based on the full sample of 378 observations, we find that a 1% increase in IT outsourcing is associated with a 0.012~0.014% increase in gross output and a 1% increase in IT capital is associated with a 0.024~0.027% increase in gross output. To compare the contribution of IT outsourcing relative to that of IT capital, we examined gross marginal product (GMP). The average GMP of IT outsourcing was 6.423, which is substantially greater than that of IT capital at 2.093. This indicates that on average if an industry invests KRW 1 millon, it can increase its output by KRW 6.4 million. In terms of the contribution to labor productivity, we find that a 1% increase in IT outsourcing is associated with a 0.009~0.01% increase in labor productivity while a 1% increase in IT capital is associated with a 0.024~0.025% increase in labor productivity. Overall, our results indicate that IT outsourcing has made positive and economically meaningful contributions to output and productivity in Korean industries over the 1990 to 2007 period. The average GMP of IT outsourcing we report about Korean industries is 1.44 times greater than that in U.S. industries reported in Han et al. (2010). Further, we find that the contribution of IT outsourcing has been significantly greater in the 2000~2007 period during which the growth of IT outsourcing accelerated. Our study provides implication for policymakers and managers. First, our results suggest that Korean industries can capture further benefits by increasing investments in IT outsourcing. Second, our analyses and results provide a basis for managers to assess the impact of investments in IT outsourcing and IT capital in an objective and quantitative manner. Building on our study, future research should examine the impact of IT outsourcing at a more detailed industry level and the firm level.
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