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Geochemical Equilibria and Kinetics of the Formation of Brown-Colored Suspended/Precipitated Matter in Groundwater: Suggestion to Proper Pumping and Turbidity Treatment Methods (지하수내 갈색 부유/침전 물질의 생성 반응에 관한 평형 및 반응속도론적 연구: 적정 양수 기법 및 탁도 제거 방안에 대한 제안)

  • 채기탁;윤성택;염승준;김남진;민중혁
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Groundwater Environment
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.103-115
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    • 2000
  • The formation of brown-colored precipitates is one of the serious problems frequently encountered in the development and supply of groundwater in Korea, because by it the water exceeds the drinking water standard in terms of color. taste. turbidity and dissolved iron concentration and of often results in scaling problem within the water supplying system. In groundwaters from the Pajoo area, brown precipitates are typically formed in a few hours after pumping-out. In this paper we examine the process of the brown precipitates' formation using the equilibrium thermodynamic and kinetic approaches, in order to understand the origin and geochemical pathway of the generation of turbidity in groundwater. The results of this study are used to suggest not only the proper pumping technique to minimize the formation of precipitates but also the optimal design of water treatment methods to improve the water quality. The bed-rock groundwater in the Pajoo area belongs to the Ca-$HCO_3$type that was evolved through water/rock (gneiss) interaction. Based on SEM-EDS and XRD analyses, the precipitates are identified as an amorphous, Fe-bearing oxides or hydroxides. By the use of multi-step filtration with pore sizes of 6, 4, 1, 0.45 and 0.2 $\mu\textrm{m}$, the precipitates mostly fall in the colloidal size (1 to 0.45 $\mu\textrm{m}$) but are concentrated (about 81%) in the range of 1 to 6 $\mu\textrm{m}$in teams of mass (weight) distribution. Large amounts of dissolved iron were possibly originated from dissolution of clinochlore in cataclasite which contains high amounts of Fe (up to 3 wt.%). The calculation of saturation index (using a computer code PHREEQC), as well as the examination of pH-Eh stability relations, also indicate that the final precipitates are Fe-oxy-hydroxide that is formed by the change of water chemistry (mainly, oxidation) due to the exposure to oxygen during the pumping-out of Fe(II)-bearing, reduced groundwater. After pumping-out, the groundwater shows the progressive decreases of pH, DO and alkalinity with elapsed time. However, turbidity increases and then decreases with time. The decrease of dissolved Fe concentration as a function of elapsed time after pumping-out is expressed as a regression equation Fe(II)=10.l exp(-0.0009t). The oxidation reaction due to the influx of free oxygen during the pumping and storage of groundwater results in the formation of brown precipitates, which is dependent on time, $Po_2$and pH. In order to obtain drinkable water quality, therefore, the precipitates should be removed by filtering after the stepwise storage and aeration in tanks with sufficient volume for sufficient time. Particle size distribution data also suggest that step-wise filtration would be cost-effective. To minimize the scaling within wells, the continued (if possible) pumping within the optimum pumping rate is recommended because this technique will be most effective for minimizing the mixing between deep Fe(II)-rich water and shallow $O_2$-rich water. The simultaneous pumping of shallow $O_2$-rich water in different wells is also recommended.

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Studies on the Amylase Production by Bacteria (세균(細菌)에 의(依)한 Amylase생산(生産)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Park, Yoon-Joong
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.153-170
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    • 1970
  • 1. Isolation and identification of amylase-producing bacteria. The powerful strain A-12 and S-8 were respectively isolated from air and soil after screening a large number of amylase-producing bacteria. Their bacterial characteristics have been investigated and it has been found that all characteristics of strain A-12 and S-8 are similar to Bac. subtilis of Bergey's manual except for the acid formation from a few carbohydrates and the citrate utilization, i.e., the strain A-12 shows negative in the citrate utilization, and the acid formation from arabinose and xylose, S-8 shows negative in the acid formation from xylose. 2. Amylase production by Liquid cultures with solid materials. Several conditions for amylase production by strain A-12 in stationary cultures have been studied. The results obtained are as follows. (1) The optimum conditions are:temperature $35^{\circ}C$, initial pH 6.5 to 7.0 and incubation time 3 to 4 days. (2) The amylase production is not affected by the preservation period of the stock cultures. (3) Among the various solid material, the defatted soy bean is found to be the best for t1e amylase production. However, the alkali treatment of the defatted soy bean gives no effect contrary to the cage of defatted rape seed. The addition of soluble starch to the alkali extract of defatted soy bean shows the increased amylase production. (4) Up to 1% addition of ethanol to carbon dificient media gives the improved amylase production, whereas the above effect is not found in the case of carbon rich media. (5) The amylase production can be increased 2.5 times when 10% of defatted soy bean is admixed to cheaply available wheat bran. (6) The excellent effect is found for amylase production when 20% of wheat bran is admixed to defatted dry milk which is a poor medium. The activity is found to be $D^{40^{\circ}}_{30'}$ 7,000(L.S.V. 1,800) in 10% medium. (7) No significant effect is observed due to the addition of various inorganic salts. 3. Amylase production by solid cultures. Several conditions for amylase production by strain A-12 in wheat bran cultures have been studied and the results obtained are as follows. (1) The optimum conditions: are temperature $33^{\circ}C$, incubation lime 2 days, water content added 150 to 175% and the thickness of the medium 1.5cm, The activity is found to be $D^{40^{\circ}}_{30'}$ 36,000(L.S.V. 15,000) (2) No significant effect is found in the case of the additions of various organic and inorganic substances.

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Structural Adjustment of Domestic Firms in the Era of Market Liberalization (시장개방(市場開放)과 국내기업(國內企業)의 구조조정(構造調整))

  • Seong, So-mi
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.91-116
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    • 1991
  • Market liberalization progressing simultaneously with high and rapidly rising domestic wages has created an adverse business environment for domestic firms. Korean firms are losing their international competitiveness in comparison to firms from LDC(Less Developed Countries) in low-tech industries. In high-tech industries, domestic firms without government protection (which is impossible due to the liberalization policy and the current international status of the Korean economy) are in a disadvantaged position relative to firms from advanced countries. This paper examines the division of roles between the private sector and the government in order to achieve a successful structural adjustment, which has become the impending industrial policy issue caused by high domestic wages, on the one hand, and the opening of domestic markets, on the other. The micro foundation of the economy-wide structural adjustment is actually the restructuring of business portfolios at the firm level. The firm-level business restructuring means that firms in low-value-added businesses or with declining market niches establish new major businesses in higher value-added segments or growing market niches. The adjustment of the business structure at the firm level can only be accomplished by accumulating firm-specific managerial assets necessary to establish a new business structure. This can be done through learning-by-doing in the whole system of management, including research and development, manufacturing, and marketing. Therefore, the voluntary cooperation among the people in the company is essential for making the cost of the learning process lower than that at the competing companies. Hence, firms that attempt to restructure their major businesses need to induce corporate-wide participation through innovations in organization and management, encourage innovative corporate culture, and maintain cooperative labor unions. Policy discussions on structural adjustments usually regard firms as a black box behind a few macro variables. But in reality, firm activities are not flows of materials but relationships among human resources. The growth potential of companies are embodied in the human resources of the firm; the balance of interest among stockholders, managers, and workers of the company' brings the accumulation of the company's core competencies. Therefore, policymakers and economists shoud change their old concept of the firm as a technological black box which produces a marketable commodities. Firms should be regarded as coalitions of interest groups such as stockholders, managers, and workers. Consequently the discussion on the structural adjustment both at the macroeconomic level and the firm level should be based on this new paradigm of understanding firms. The government's role in reducing the cost of structural adjustment and supporting should the creation of new industries emphasize the following: First, government must promote the competition in domestic markets by revising laws related to antitrust policy, bankruptcy, and the promotion of small and medium-sized companies. General consensus on the limitations of government intervention and the merit of deregulation should be sought among policymakers and people in the business world. In the age of internationalization, nation-specific competitive advantages cannot be exclusively in favor of domestic firms. The international competitiveness of a domestic firm derives from the firm-specific core competencies which can be accumulated by internal investment and organization of the firm. Second, government must build up a solid infrastructure of production factors including capital, technology, manpower, and information. Structural adjustment often entails bankruptcies and partial waste of resources. However, it is desirable for the government not to try to sustain marginal businesses, but to support the diversification or restructuring of businesses by assisting in factor creation. Institutional support for venture businesses needs to be improved, especially in the financing system since many investment projects in venture businesses are highly risky, even though they are very promising. The proportion of low-value added production processes and declining industries should be reduced by promoting foreign direct investment and factory automation. Moreover, one cannot over-emphasize the importance of future-oriented labor policies to be based on the new paradigm of understanding firm activities. The old laws and instititutions related to labor unions need to be reformed. Third, government must improve the regimes related to money, banking, and the tax system to change business practices dependent on government protection or undesirable in view of the evolution of the Korean economy as a whole. To prevent rational business decisions from contradicting to the interest of the economy as a whole, government should influence the business environment, not the business itself.

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A Study on Nutritive Values and Salt Contents of Commercially Prepared Take-Out Boxed-Lunch In Korea (한국형 시판 도시락의 영양가 및 식염함량)

  • Kim, Bok-Hee;Lee, Eun-Wha;Kim, Won-Kyung;Lee, Yoon-Na;Kwak, Chung-Shil;Mo, Sumi
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.230-242
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    • 1991
  • This research was conducted on the 10 take-out boxed-lunches commercially prepared in the department stores. chain stores. and the public railroad trains in Korea. Sampling was conducted from February 1990 to March 1990. Nutritive values and sodium contents of the 10 boxed-lunch samples are summarized as follows : 1) The average weight(percentage) of the cooked rice and the side dishes were 304.6g(49.4) and 312.4(506%), respectively. The weight of these samples were significantly heavier than that of Japanese style boxed-lunches. 2) The average number of the side dishes was 12. The average numbers of food items classified by the five food groups were 6.1 in protein food group, 0.3 in calcium food group. 6.0 in vitamin and mineral food group. 1.5 in carbohydrate food group, and 1.5 in oil and fat food group. 3) They contained on the average 840.7kcal of energy, 38.9g of protein, 22.7g of fat, 120.4g of carbohydrate. 300.8mg of calcium. 410.8mg of phosphours, 6.61 mg of iron. 219.8 R.E. of vitamin A, 0.46mg of thiamin, 0.67mg of riboflavin, 10.5mg of niacin, 27.5mg of ascorbic acid. Thus. except vitamin t the content of all the nutrients were higher than the value of 1/3 of the RDA for adults. 4) The high priced group(group 2) had more protein, calcuim. iron and niacin contents than the cheaper group(group 1). Probably, it's because the group 2 had more animal foods than the group 1. 5) The average energy content per unit price(100 won) was 37.3kcal and the average protein content per unit price(100 won) was 1.64g. Korena style boxed-lunches had higher energy and protein contents per unit price than Japanese style, and the group 1 higher than the group 2. 6) The average energy Proportions of Protein, carbohydrate. and fat were 18.3%, 57.4%, and 24.3%, respectively. These proportions are good enough. 7) Frequency of cooking methods for the side dishes were found in the decreasing order : pan-frying, frying, braising, seasoning, kimchi, grilling, pickling, stir-frying, steaming and fermenting. Generally simple cooking methods were used, thus the menus were lack or varieties. 8) Frequency of colors for the side dishes were found in the decreasing order : red, brown. yellow, green, black, white. Too much red pepper was used. 9) The average capacity of the containers for the staples and the side dishes were 468.1ml and 590.6ml, respectively. And the containers could not keep the food items well seperated. 10) The average contensts of sodium and salt were 2.287mg and 5.76g, in the range of 1, 398mg to 3, 489mg and 3.53g to 8.80g, respectively. These are much higher values than the recommended amount of salt.

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Physicochemical Properties of Pearl Oyster Muscle and Adductor Muscle as Pearl Processing Byproducts (진주 가공부산물(육 및 패주)의 이화학적 특성)

  • Kim, Jin-Soo;Kim, Hye-Suk;Oh, Hyeun-Seok;Kang, Kyung-Tae;Han, Gang-Uk;Kim, In-Soo;Jeong, Bo-Young;Moon, Soo-Kyung;Heu, Min-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.464-469
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to evaluate a knowledge on food components of muscle and adductor muscle of pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata martensii) as pearl processing byproducts. The concentrations of mercury and chromium as heavy metal were not detected in both pearl oyster muscle and adductor muscle, and those of cadmium and lead were 0.06 ppm and 0.11 ppm in only pearl oyster muscle, respectively. Thus, the heavy metal levels of pearl processing byproducts were below the reported safety limits. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) content and pH of pearl oyster muscle were 11.6 mg/100g and 6.31 and those of abductor muscle were 8.6 mg/100 g and 6.33, respectively. It was concluded that pearl oyster muscle and adductor muscle might not invoke health risk in using food resource. The contents of crude protein (16.5%) and total amino acid (15,691 mg/100 g) of adductor muscle were higher than those of muscle (11.2% and 10,131 mg/100 g) and oyster (12.1% and 11,213 mg/100 g) as a control. The contents of calcium and phosphorus were 95.4 mg/100 g and 116.0 mg/100 g in muscle, 75.2 mg/100g and 148.1 mg/100 g in adductor muscle, respectively. The calcium level based on phosphorus was a good ratio for absorbing calcium. The free amino acid contents and taste values were 635.5 mg/100 g and 40.2 in muscle, and 734.9 mg/100 g and 24.1 in adductor muscle, respectively, but that (882.8 mg/100 g and 40.2) of oyster was higher than those of pearl processing byproducts. Based on the results of physicochemical and nutritional properties, pearl oyster muscle and adductor muscle can be utilized as a food resource.

Effect of Types of Egg Shell Calcium Salts and Egg Shell Membrane on Calcium Metabolism in Rats (난각 칼슘염의 종류와 난막의 존재유무가 흰쥐의 칼슘대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Noh, Kyung-Hee;Lee, Sang-Hyun;Ma, Jie;Zhou, Yusi;Kim, Jae-Cherl;Kim, Myo-Jeong;Song, Young-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.7
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    • pp.853-859
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    • 2006
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of egg shell calcium salt types and egg shell membrane on calcium metabolism in rats. Sprague-Dawley male rats, 4 weeks of age, were fed on free-calcium diets for 2 weeks after adjustment period. Rats weighing approximately $247{\pm}2.3g$ were divided into 6 groups and were fed on the experimental diets containing 0.2% calcium for 4 weeks. Experimental groups were as follows; {ES(M+)} (egg shell powder diet with egg shell membrane), {ES(M-)} (egg shell powder diet without egg shell membrane), {AC(M+)} (egg shell calcium acetate diet with egg shell membrance), {AC(M-)} (egg shell calcium acetate diet without eg shell membrane), {GC(M+)} (egg shell calcium glucuronate diet with egg shell membrane) and {GC(M-)} (egg shell calcium glucuronate diet without egg shell membrane). Bone length of femur was significantly different by the types (p<0.05) of egg shell calcium salts. Bone mineral density of femur showed the highest level in AC(M-) group. Calcium content of femur and calcium absorption rate were higher in egg shell calcium salt groups than in eg shell powder groups. Calcium absorption rate and retention were significantly different (p<0.05) among the types of eg shell calcium salts and were higher in the AC(M-) group than in the other groups. Alkaline phosphatase activity, parathyroid hormone and osteocalcin levels of serum showed no significant difference among the experimental groups. From the above results, it is concluded that bioavailability of calcium is higher in groups of egg shell calcium salts compared to those in egg shell powder, even though egg shell membrane has no effect on calcium metabolism. Thus, these findings suggest the possibility of using egg shell calcium salts as a functional food material related to calcium metabolism.

Isotope Ratio of Mineral N in Pinus Densiflora Forest Soils in Rural and Industrial Areas: Potential Indicator of Atmospheric N Deposition and Soil N Loss (질소공급, 고추의 생육 및 수량에 대한 녹비작물 환원 효과)

  • Kwak, Jin-Hyeob;Lim, Sang-Sun;Park, Hyun-Jung;Lee, Sun-Il;Lee, Dong-Suk;Lee, Kye-Han;Han, Gwang-Hyun;Ro, Hee-Myong;Lee, Sang-Mo;Choi, Woo-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.46-52
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    • 2009
  • Deposition of atmospheric N that is depleted in $^{15}N$ has shown to decrease N isotope ratio ($^{15}N/^{14}N$,expressed as ${\delta}^{15}N$) of forest samples such as tree rings, foliage, and total soil-N. However, its effect on ${\delta}^{15}N$ of mineral soil-N which is biologically active N pool has never been tested. In this study, ${\delta}^{15}N$ of mineral N($NH{_4}^+$ and $NO_3{^-}$) in forest soils from organic and two depths of mineral soil layers (0 to 20 cm and 20 to 40cm depth) of Pinus densiflora stands located at two distinct areas (rural and industrial areas) in southern Korea was analyzed to investigate if there is any difference in ${\delta}^{15}N$ of mineral N between these areas. We also evaluated potential N loss of the study sites using ${\delta}^{15}N$ of mineral N. Across the soil layers, the ${\delta}^{15}N$ of $NH{_4}^+$ ranged from +8.9 to +24.8‰ in the rural area and from +4.4 to +13.8‰ in the industrial area. Soils from organic layer (+4.4‰) and mineral layer between 0 and 20 cm (+13.8‰) of industrial area showed significantly lower ${\delta}^{15}N$ of $NH{_4}^+$ than those of rural area (+8.9 and +24.3‰, respectively), probably indicating the greater contribution of $^{15}N$-depleted $NH{_4}^+$ from atmospheric deposition to forest in the industrial area than in the rural area. Meanwhile, ${\delta}^{15}N$ of $NO_3{^-}$ was not different between the rural and industrial areas, probably because ${\delta}^{15}N$ of $NO_3{^-}$ is more likely to be altered by the N loss that causes $^{15}N$ enrichment of the remaining soil N pool. Compared with the ${\delta}^{15}N$ of soil mineral N reported by other studies (from -10.9 to +15.6‰ for $NH{_4}^+$ and -14.8 to +5.6‰ for $NO_3{^-}$), the ${\delta}^{15}N$ observed in our study was substantially high, suggesting that the study sites are more subject to the N loss. It was concluded that $NH{_4}^+$ rather than $NO_3{^-}$ can conserve the ${\delta}^{15}N$ signature of atmospheric N deposition in forest ecosystems.

Evaluation of External Quality of Polished Barley (시판 소포장 보리쌀의 품위 평가)

  • Bae, Sook-Hyun;Kim, Hong-Sig;Jong, Seung-Keun
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.54 no.1
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    • pp.124-133
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    • 2009
  • Demand for the high quality barley with fibroid material and functional substances has been increasing in recent although the amount of barley consumption decreased drastically during the last two decades. But the limited information on quality of barley makes consumers hard when they purchase barley for their own consumption. Therefore, 51 brand barley, .i.e., 28 naked barley and 23 waxy barley from supermarkets and 10 polished barley from local markets were collected, and their external quality were analyzed to provide basic information on brand barley. Among 51 brand barley, 56% were 1kg package and 25% were 800 g package and there was no significant difference ($1{\pm}3.62\;g$) between printed and actual weighs. The weight of 1,000 grains of naked barley and waxy barley ranged $18.6{\sim}26.7\;g$ and $14.6{\sim}24.7\;g$, respectively. Thousand grain weight of 38% of naked barley ranged $20{\sim}22\;g$, while that of 43% of waxy barley ranged $18{\sim}20\;g$. The ratio of normal grains was 88% and 94% for naked barley and waxy barley, respectively, when separated with 1.7 mm sieve. Although 82% of brand barley products were free from foreign substances, in 18% of brand barley products, sands, pieces of cloth and wood, other kinds of grain and insect larvae were found, Average test weight of brand barleys was $843g{\cdot}L^{-1}$ with range of $805{\sim}917g{\cdot}L^{-1}$. Water content was less than 14% in 7.8% of barley products, while it was $14{\sim}15%$ in 62.7% of them. Average whiteness of brand barley was 31.06, while waxy barley had higher whiteness with 27.28 than naked barley with 34.16. Heated water uptake rate of milled naked barley and milled waxy barley were 215.4% and 231.7%, respectively, while expansion rate of milled naked barley and milled waxy barley were 379.7% and 401.6%, respectively. Barley from local markets were as good as brand barley products in 1,000 grain weight, ratio of normal grains, inclusion of foreign substances, test weight, water content, whiteness, water uptake rate, and expansion rate, but they showed higher ratio of foreign substances included.

Effect of Cellulose Derivatives to Reduce the Oil Uptake of Deep Fat Fried Batter of Pork Cutlet (셀룰로오스 유도체가 돈가스 튀김옷의 흡유량 감소에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Byung-Sook;Lee, Young-Eun
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.488-495
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    • 2009
  • Pork cutlet is a favorite deep fat fried food item among Korean children, and an excellent protein-containing food, and as well as a simple and economical cuisine. However, the frying process adds a significant amount of calories. We added MC (Methylcellulose) and HPMC (Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose) to the batter in an effort to reduce oil uptake in prepared pork cutlets. After additions of MC and HPMC at concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 1.5% respectively, we assessed the viscosity of batter, color after frying, the increases in moisture retention and oil uptake, and sensory characteristics, comparing each quality. The viscosity of batter with 0.5% HPMC added (w/w) was similar to that of the controls, but the viscosity of all the batter with added MC was so much higher that it was difficult to use the batter for coating at the same temperature, leading to a failure even to prepare a sample. After frying, the batter with added HPMC provided significantly less oil uptake and more moisture retention than the batter to which MC was added. Additionally, with regard to color and sensory characteristics, the pork cutlet with 0.5% added HPMC was superior to the other samples. According to these results, we concluded that when cellulose derivatives are added in order to reduce oil uptake and to raise the moisture retention of the batter of pork cutlet, HPMC is more useful in this regard than MC. Additionally, the batter with 0.5% HPMC added appears to be the best of the tested choices, for three reasons: first, the viscosity of the batter is similar to that of the controls; second, the taste is not greasy after frying as the result of the reduced oil uptake and higher moisture retention; and third, the sensory characteristics of this sample, such as, color, crispiness, and hardness were the best among samples.

The Effects of Cattle Slurry Application and Mixed Sowing with legumes on Productivity and Feed Values of Barley and Rye (액상우분뇨와 콩과식물 혼파재배가 보리, 호밀의 생산성과 사료가치에 미치는 영향)

  • Jo, IK-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.371-380
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to assess effects of supplying different types of nitrogen sources as fertilizers on productivity and feed values of barley and rye as winter forage crops, and ultimately done to get good quality of organic forages with higher fertilization of soil. For barley, N+P+K plots were significantly (P<0.05) higher in annual dry matter (DM) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) yields than other plots. However, cattle manure plots had significantly (P<0.05) higher annual DM and TDN than P+K and non-fertilizer plots. Plots of 50%-cattle manure and mixed sowing with hairy vetch or forage pea were higher than only 50%-cattle manure plot, particularly, these were significantly higher than non-fertilizer, and their crude protein (CP) yields were much higher than other plots. Crude protein contents were significantly higher in N+P+K and 50%-cattle manure slurry plots than non-fertilizer and P+K plots, and plots of mixed sowing with hairy vetch or forage pea in application of 50%-cattle manure had higher CP content than other plots. ADF content was lowest in 50%-cattle manure+forage pea plots, but highest in 100%-cattle manure plots. NDF content was lowest in legumes-mixed sowing, but highest in 100%-cattle manure plots. TDN content was the highest in forage pea plots, and plots of 50%-cattle manure and legumes-mixed sowing had high RFV, but cattle manure plots rich in ADF and NDF content had the lowest TDN and RFV. For rye, plots of 50%-cattle manure+hairy vetch mixed sowing, and N+P+K application had significantly higher annual DM, CP and TDN than other plots except for cattle manure. DM productive efficiency to nitrogen fertilization was markedly higher for cattle manure plots than for chemical fertilizer. This tendency was more conspicuous in plots of 50% cattle manure+legumes-mixed sowing. CP content was higher for N+P+K plot than for all plots, and plots of 50%-cattle manure + legumes-mixed sowing were significantly higher than other plots. On the contrary, forage pea-mixed sowing plot had the lowest ADF and NDF, but TDN and RFV were significantly (P<0.05) higher than other plots. Grass crop cultivation together with legumes by applying livestock manure to soil may lead to higher palatability of livestock, and better quality of forage. Furthermore, cattle manure application increased production yield per ha and CP contents. Thus, when applying forage crops produced by cattle manure application and mixed sowing to organic livestock production, it was conceived that forages produced might become a substitute for foreign organic grain as protein sources.

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