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A Study on Vegetation Structure and Soil Condition of $Bletilla$ $striata$ Population (자란($Bletilla$ $striata$) 개체군의 식생구조와 토양특성)

  • So, Soon-Ku;Song, Ho-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.210-218
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to analyze the vegetation properties, soil characteristics and ordination of Bletilla striata population in South Korea. The $Bletilla$ $striata$ population was classified into $Juniperus$ $rigida$ dominant population, $Rhododendron$ $yedoense$ var. $poukhanense$ dominant population, $Rhus$ $javanica$ dominant population, $Bletilla$ $striata$ typical population. $Bletilla$ $striata$ were mainly distributed along the coast of south-western regions of the Korean penninsula and it's population was located at an elevation of 4m to 40m. In the study sites, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphate, exchangeable potassium, exchangeable calcium, exchangeable magnesium, cation exchange capacity and soil pH were 2.38-6.70%, 0.09-0.27%, 1.81-6.85mg/kg, 1.08-1.72$cmol^+/kg$, 3.56-7.71$cmol^+/kg$, 1.52-3.21$cmol^+/kg$, 5.28-16.95$cmol^+/kg$ and 4.60-6.01 respectively. $Rhododendron$ $yedoense$ var. $poukhanense$ dominant population was found in the steep sloped area that has high percentage of organic matter, total nitrogen, cation exchange capacity and pH than other populations. $Rhus$ $javanica$ dominant population was found in the gentle sloped area that has less percentage of organic matter, total nitrogen, cation exchange capacity and pH. $Juniperus$ $rigida$ dominant population and $Bletilla$ $striata$ typical population were found in the medium sloped area that has medium percentage of organic matter, total nitrogen, cation exchange capacity and pH. Current status of $Bletilla$ $striata$ habitats is very vulnerable with local development constantly threatening the species' survival. Thus, concrete conservation plans to protect natural habitats should be set up as soon as possible.

Policy Change and Innovation of Textile Industry in Daegu·Kyungbuk Region (대구·경북지역 섬유산업의 정책변화와 혁신과제)

  • Shin, Jin-Kyo;Kim, Yo-Han
    • Management & Information Systems Review
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.223-248
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    • 2012
  • This study analyses support policy and structural change of textile industry in Daegu Kyungbuk region, and suggests major issues for textile industry's innovation. In Daegu Kyungbuk, it was 1999 that a policy, so called Milano Project, in order to promote a textile industry was devised. In 2004, the Regional Industrial Promotion Plan was devised. The plan was born from a view point of establishing a regional innovation system and of promoting the innovative clusters under a knowledge based economy. After then, the Regional Industry Promotion Project or Regional Strategic Industry Promotion Project became a core of regional textile industrial policy. Research results indicated that the first stage Milano project (1999-2003) showed both positive and negative effects. There were no long-term development plan, clear vision and strategy. But, core industrial infrastructure for differentiated product development, such as New product Development Support Center and Dyeing Design Practical Application Center, was constructed. The second stage Daegu Textile Industry Promotion Plan (2004-2008) displayed a significant technological performance and new product sales with the assistance of Kyungbuk province. Also, textile industry revealed positive fruits such as financial structure, productivity, and profitability as a result of strong restructuring. In industrial structure, there was a important change from clothe textile material to industry textile material. Most of textile companies did not showed high capability in CEO's technology innovation intention, entrepreneurship, R&D and human resource competency in compare with other industry. We suggested that Daegu Kyungbuk has to select and concentrate on the high-tech textile material and living textile for sustainable development and competitiveness. We also proposed a confidence and cooperation based innovation network and company oriented innovation cluster.

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Revised Fission-track Ages and Chronostratigraphies of the Miocene Basin-fill Volcanics and Basements, SE Korea (한국 동남부 마이오세 분지 화산암과 기반암의 피션트랙 연대 재검토와 연대층서 고찰)

  • Shin, Seong-Cheon
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.83-115
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    • 2013
  • Erroneous fission-track (FT) ages caused by an inappropriate calibration in the initial stage of FT dating were redefined by re-experiments and zeta calibration using duplicate samples. Revised FT zircon ages newly define the formation ages of Yucheon Group rhyolitic-dacitic tuffs as Late Cretaceous to Early Paleocene ($78{\pm}4$ Ma to $65{\pm}2$ Ma) and Gokgangdong rhyolitic tuff as Early Eocene ($52.1{\pm}2.3$ Ma). In case of the Early Miocene volcanics, FT zircon ages from a dacitic tuff of the upper Hyodongri Volcanics ($21.6{\pm}1.4$ Ma) and a dacitic lava of the uppermost Beomgokri Volcanics ($21.3{\pm}2.0$ Ma) define chronostratigraphies of the upper Beomgokri Group, respectively in the southern Eoil Basin and in the Waeup Basin. A FT zircon age ($19.8{\pm}1.6$ Ma) from the Geumori dacitic tuff defines the time of later dacitic eruption in the Janggi Basin. Based on FT zircon ages for dacitic rocks and previous age data (mostly K-Ar whole-rock, partly Ar-Ar) for basaltic-andesitic rocks, reference ages are recommended as guides for stratigraphic correlations of the Miocene volcanics and basements in SE Korea. The times of accumulation of basin-fill sediments are also deduced from ages of related volcanics. Recommended reference ages are well matched to the whole stratigraphic sequences despite complicated basin structures and a relative short time-span. The Beomgokri Group evidently predates the Janggi Group in the Eoil-Waeup basins, while it is placed at an overlapped time-level along with the earlier Janggi Group in the Janggi Basin. Therefore, the two groups cannot be uniformly defined in a sequential order. The Janggi Group of the Janggi Basin can be evidently subdivided by ca. 20 Ma-basis into two parts, i.e., the earlier (23-20 Ma) andesitic-dacitic and later (20-18 Ma) basaltic strata.

The Effect of Root Zone Cooling at Night on Substrate Temperature and Physiological Response of Paprika in Hot Climate (고온기 야간시간 근권냉방이 파프리카 배지온도와 생리적 반응에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Ki Young;Ko, Ji Yeon;Choi, Eun Young;Rhee, Han Cheol;Lee, Sung Eun;Lee, Yong-Beom
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.349-354
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    • 2013
  • This study examined a technique for cooling root zone aimed at lowering substrate temperature for sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L. 'Orange glory') cultivation in coir substrate hydroponics during hot season, from the $16^{th}$ of July to $15^{th}$ of October in 2012. The root zone cooling technique was applied by using an air duct (${\varnothing}12$ cm, hole size 0.1 mm) to blow cool air between two slabs during night (5p.m. to 3a.m.). Between the $23^{rd}$ of July and $31^{st}$ of August (hot temperature period), average daily substrate temperature was $24.7^{\circ}C$ under the root zone cooling, whereas it was $28.2^{\circ}C$ under condition of no cooling (control). In sunny day (600~700 W $m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$), average substrate temperatures during the day (6a.m. to 8p.m.) and night (8p.m. to 6a.m.) were lower about $1.7^{\circ}C$ and $3.3^{\circ}C$, respectively, under the cooling treatment, compared to that of control. The degree of temperature reduction in the substrate was averagely $0.5^{\circ}C$ per hour under the cooling treatment during 6p.m. to 8p.m.; however, there was no decrease in the temperature under the control. The temperature difference between the cooling and control treatments was $1.3^{\circ}C$ and $0.6^{\circ}C$ in the upper and lower part of the slab, respectively. During the hot temperature period, about 32.5% reduction in the substrate temperature was observed under the cooling treatment, compared to the control. Photosynthesis, transpiration rate, and leaf water potential of plants grown under the cooling treatment were significantly higher than those under the control. The first flowering date in the cooling was faster about 4 days than in the control. Also, the number of fruits was significantly higher than that in the control. No differences in plant height, stem thickness, number of internode, and leaf width were found between the plants grown under the cooling and control, except for the leaf length with a shorter length under the cooling treatment. However, root zone cooling influenced negligibly on eliminating delay in fruiting caused by excessively higher air temperature (> $28^{\circ}C$), although the substrate temperature was reduced by $3^{\circ}C$ to $5.6^{\circ}C$. These results suggest that the technique of lowering substrate temperature by using air-duct blow needs to be incorporated into the lowering growing temperature system for growth and fruit set of health paprika.

Physiological and Biochemical Characterization of Bacillus spp. from Polychaete, Perinereis aibuhitensis (갯지렁이(Perinereis aibuhitensis)에서 분리한 Bacillus spp.의 생리생화학적 특성 분석)

  • Shin, Seyeon;Yundendorj, Khorloo;Lee, Sang-Suk;Kang, Kyoung-Ho;Kahng, Hyung-Yeel
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.415-425
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    • 2013
  • This study compared the characteristics of five Bacillus strains capable of aerobic and anaerobic growth, CBW3, CBW4, CBW9, CBW14 and EBW10. They were isolated and selected from a polychaete, Perinereis aibuhitensis, which is known as a good degrader of organic compounds in marine wetland. Based on a 16S rRNA sequence, CBW3 and CBW14 were found to share more than 99.8% similarity with B. nanhaiensis, B. arsenicus and B. barbaricus. CBW4, CBW9 and EBW10 shared 92.7%, 99.8%, and 99.8% similarity with B. anthracis, B. algicoa and B. thuringiensis, respectively. The temperature, salinity, and pH ranges of the cell growth of the Bacillus strains were $4-45^{\circ}C$, 0-17%, and pH 5-pH 9, respectively. All Bacillus strains were found to exhibit enzyme activities for the degradation of casein and starch. Notably, strain EBW10 exhibited the enzyme activities for all the tested macromolecules, DNA, casein, starch, cellulose, and four kinds of Tweens, which suggests the possibility that it had protease, amylase, cellulose, and lipase. All five Bacillus strains had alkaline phosphatase activities, and the strains CBW3, CBW4, and EBW10 also had acid phospatase. Strains CBW3 and EBW10 exhibited the enzyme activities both for esterase (C4) and esterase lipase (C8). The analysis of fatty acids revealed that in all strains, major fatty acids were anteiso $C_{15:0}$ and iso $C_{15:0}$.

A Study of Cause of Employee Turnover and Countermeasures against Turnover in Shipping and Port Logistics Firms (중소항만물류기업의 이직원인 분석과 대책에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jae-Hun;Shin, Yong-John
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.545-552
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    • 2015
  • This study One of the key elements of corporate competitiveness in the modern world of unlimited competition is human resource management. The reason that the world's leading companies are devoting a lot of investment and effort for good human resource development and management is that human resource can impact firm survival. In particular, there is little research on the internal and external environmental stimuli and job stress in the employee of small business which are often led to turnover, while they have suffered from chronic shortage of manpower. The purpose of this study is to determine the turnover factors in the small logistics companies and contribute to stable maintenance of workforce, facilitating human resource management and minimizing turnover. This study empirically analyzed the factors of the turnover in the organization of logistics companies from Busan Port, South Korea, which became one of the national infrastructure and the fifth world largest harbor. The conclusion proposed the development and direction of the human resource management which could promote the job environment improving the turnover factors and creating sustainable work condition through conducting preventive measures. The results indicated that the highest turnover rates was found in the category of field work, and the highest turnover group was from the 'less than one year', which implies that high turnover rates after and during job training might be greater cost to the companies than early turnover. The most common reasons for the high employee turnover were 'excessive workload' and 'dissatisfaction with wages'. Followed reasons including 'troubles with managers' and 'failure in organizational adaptation' can be understood in line with worse working conditions of the small logistic companies. It turned out that the preventive programs of the logistic enterprises had little effect through 'incentives system' and 'improving wage system' which are mainly conducted. The human resource managers appreciated the importance of 'wage raise' and 'benefits improvement'. This study is aimed at contributing to efficient human resource management through understanding of the turnover causes and human resource managers applying preventive measures. In particular, this can benefit small port logistics companies securing competitiveness and promoting persistent growth and development.

A Study on Improvement of the police disaster crisis management system (경찰의 재난위기관리 개선에 관한 연구)

  • Chun, Yongtae;Kim, Moonkwi
    • Journal of the Society of Disaster Information
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.556-569
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    • 2015
  • With about 75% of the population of Korea criticizing the government's disaster policy and a failure to respond to large-scale emergency like the Sewol ferry sinking means that there is a deep distrust in the government. In order to prevent dreadful disasters such as the Sewol ferry sinking, it is important to secure a prime time with respect to disaster safety. Improving crisis management skills and managerial role of police officers who are in close proximity to the people is necessary for the success of disaster management. With disaster management as one of the most essential missions of the police, as a part of a national crisis management, a step by step strengthening of the disaster safety management system of the police is necessary, as below. First, at the prevention phase, law enforcement officers were not injected into for profit large-scale assemblies or events, but in the future the involvement, injection should be based on the level of potential risk, rather than profitability. In the past and now, the priortiy was the priority was on traffic flow, traffic communication, however, the paradigm of traffic policy should be changed to a safety-centered policy. To prevent large-scale accidents, police investigators should root out improper routines and illegal construction subcontracting. The police (intelligence) should strengthen efforts to collect intelligence under the subject of "safety". Second, with respect to the preparatory phase, on a survey of police officers, the result showed that 72% of police officers responded that safety management was not related to the job descriptions of the police. This, along with other results, shows that the awareness of disaster safety must be adopted by, or rather changed in the police urgently. The training in disaster safety education should be strengthened. A network of experts (private, administrative, and police) in safety management should be established to take advantage of private resources with regard to crisis situtions. Third, with respect to the response phase, for rapid first responses to occur, a unified communication network should be established, and a real-time video information network should be adopted by the police and installed in the police situation room. Fourth, during the recovery phase, recovery teams should be injected, added and operated to minimize secondary damage.

Study on the Influence of Waterbirds Distribution According to the Restoration of Intertidal Zone (조간대 복원이 수조류의 분포에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Chi-Young;Shin, Man-Seok;Kim, Ho-Joon;Paek, Woon-Kee;Lee, Joon-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.837-847
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    • 2016
  • In this study, the bird fauna of Sihwa Lake in Gyeonggi Province were investigated from 2009 to 2014 to identify the effect of the restored intertidal zone on bird community. Based upon the analysis of the habitat status and distribution change of water birds in the intertidal zone, the following conclusions were obtained. The number of water bird individuals increased by approx. 40 thousand after the restoration. Most of water bird species increased, but diving ducks decreased. Analysis of the number of individuals of water birds before and after the intertidal zone restoration showed that there was a significant increase in the number of shorebird individuals. There is a habitat use pattern change in the southern tideland intertidal zone that includes the largest area of widened intertidal zone and the inland waters of the intertidal zone. This is related to the change of benthic ecosystem which is the food source of birds. The benthic ecosystem in restoring Sihwa Lake has been stabilized with a decrease in opportunistic species and consistent increase in equilibrium species that are sensitive to pollution. As a result, the environmental conditions for shorebirds have been improved. The restoration of intertidal zone affected the habitat use and distribution patterns of water birds in a short period of time. Compared to before restoration, all the water birds now use the wide area of the intertidal zone with no partiality and it is confirmed that the restoration greatly affected the distribution of shorebirds and swan & geese. This study was conduced to identify the effects of an artificial restoration of intertidal zone due to tidal power generation of bird species. In terms of maintaining and improving biodiversity, the intertidal zone restoration was recognized to be important and still shows positive results. This study is expected to provide a direction when an alternative is required to maintain and improve biodiversity in a similar situation in the future.

Hydrochemistry and Occurrences of Natural Radioactive Materials from Groundwater in Various Geological Environment (다양한 지질환경에서 지하수의 수리화학 및 자연방사성물질 산출특성)

  • Jeong, Chan Ho;Lee, Yu Jin;Lee, Yong Cheon;Kim, Moon Su;Kim, Hyun Koo;Kim, Tae Seong;Jo, Byung Uk;Choi, Hyeon Young
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.531-549
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship of hydrochemistry, geology, fault with occurrence of uranium and radon-222 from the groundwater in the Yeongdong area. In this study, 49 groundwater and 4 surface water samples collected in the study area were collected on two separate occasions. The surface radioactivities were measured at 40 points to know the relationship between the occurrence of uranium in groundwater and surface geology. The chemical composition of groundwater showed three types : $Ca-HCO_3$, $Na-HCO_3$ and $Ca-HCO_3(SO_4,\;NO_3)$. Two groundwater of 49 samples exceeded the maximum contaminant levels of uranium, $30{\mu}g/L$, proposed by the Ministry of Environment of Korea and 11 groundwater of 40 samples for Rn-222 concentrations exceeded the 148 Bq/L maximum contaminant level of US EPA. Most of unsuitable groundwater are located in the geological boundary related with the biotite gneiss and the surface radioactivities of rock samples showed no relationship with groundwater geochemical constituents. The strike-slip fault, Youngdong fault, is $N45^{\circ}E$ direction and the high concentrations of uranium in upper part of fault, consisted of granite and granitic gneiss are detected but in lower part, consisted of metamorphic sedimentary rock are not detected. It suggests that the natural radioactive concentrations are related with the geologic characteristics and the migration and diffusion of natural radioactive materials are affected by the fault.

The Past and Future of Public Engagement with Science and Technology (참여적 과학기술 거버넌스의 전개와 전망)

  • Kim, Hyomin;Cho, Seung Hee;Song, Sungsoo
    • Journal of Science and Technology Studies
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.99-147
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    • 2016
  • This paper critically reviews the previous discussion over public engagement with science and technology by Science and Technology Studies literatures with a focus on justification and acceptance. Recent studies pointed out that the "participatory turn" after the late 1990s was followed by confusion and disagreement over the meaning and agency of public engagement. Their discussion over the reproduction of the ever-present boundary between science and society along with so-called late modernity and post-normal science and sometimes through the very processes of public engagement draws fresh attention to the old problem: how can lay participation in decision-making be justified, even if we agree that privileging the position of experts in governance of science and technology is no longer justified? So far STS have focused on two conditions for participatory turn-1) uncertainties inherent in experts' ways of knowing and 2) practicability of lay knowledge. This paper first explicated why such discussion has not been logically sufficient nor successful in promoting a wide and well-thought-out acceptance of public engagement. Then the paper made a preliminary attempt to explain what new types of expertise can support the construction and sustainment of participatory governance in science and technology by focusing on one case of lay participation. The particular case discussed by the paper revolves around the actions of a civil organization and an activist who led legal and regulatory changes in wind power development in Jeju Special Self-governing Province. The paper analyzed the types of expertise constructed to be effective and legitimate during the constitution of participatory energy governance and the local society's support for it. The arguments of this paper can be summarized as follows. First, an appropriate basis of the normative claim that science and technology governance should make participatory turn cannot be drawn from the essential characteristics of lay publics-as little as of experts. Second, the type of 'expertise' which can justify participatory governance can only be constructed a posteriori as a result of the practices to re-construct the boundaries between factual statements and value judgment. Third, an intermediary expertise, which this paper defines as a type of expertise in forming human-nonhuman associations and their new pathways for circulations, made significant contribution in laying out the legal and regulatory foundation for revenue sharing in Jeju wind power development. Fourth, experts' conventional ways of knowing need to be supplemented, not supplanted, by lay expertise. Ultimately, the paper calls for the necessity to extend STS discussion over governance toward following the actors. What needs more thorough analysis is such actors' narratives and practices to re-construct the boundaries between the past and present, facts and values, science and society. STS needs a renewed focus on the actual sites of conflicts and decision-making in discussing participatory governance.