• Title, Summary, Keyword: ISO X-Ray

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Calculations of ISO Narrow and ANSI X-Ray Spectra, Their Average Energies and Conversion Coefficients (ISO Narrow Series및 ANSI의 X선 스펙트럼, 평균에너지 및 선량환산인자의 이론적 계산)

  • Kim, Jang-Lyul;Kim, Bong-Whan;Chang, Si-Young;Lee, Jai-Ki
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.129-136
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    • 1995
  • In spite of the prescriptions on the reference X-ray fields given by the International Organization of Strandard(ISO) and American National Standard Institute(ANSI), the measurement of X-ray spectrum is not only time consuming but very difficult, paticularly when significant corrections have to be applied to the measured pulse-height distributions of the observed spectra. This paper describes the calculation method of ISO Narrow Series and ANSI X-ray filtered radiations by theoretical model which is modified framer's theory by target attenuation and backscatter correction. The X-ray spectra, average energies and conversion coefficients are calculated and compared with those obtained using the spectra prescribed by ISO and AMSI to assure good agreement.

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Reference X-ray Irradiation System for Personal Dosimeter Testing and Calibration of Radiation Detector

  • Lee, Seung Kyu;Chang, Insu;Kim, Sang In;Lee, Jungil;Kim, Hyoungtaek;Kim, Jang-Lyul;Kim, Min Chae
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.72-78
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    • 2019
  • Background: In the calibration and testing laboratory of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, the old X-ray generator used for the production of reference X-ray fields was replaced with a new one. For this newly installed X-ray irradiation system, beam alignment as well as the verification of beam qualities was conducted. Materials and Methods: The existing X-ray generator, Phillips MG325, was replaced with YXLON Y.TU 320-D03 in order to generate reference X-ray fields. Theoretical calculations and Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine initial filter thickness. Beam alignment was performed in three steps to deliver a homogeneous radiation dosage to the target at different distances. Finally, the half-value layers were measured for different X-ray fields to verify beam qualities by using an ion chamber. Results and Discussion: Beam alignment was performed in three steps, and collimators and other components were arranged to maintain the uniformity of the mean air kerma rate within ${\pm}2.5%$ at the effective beam diameter of 28 cm. The beam quality was verified by using half-value layer measurement methods specified by American National Standard Institute (ANSI) N13.11-2009 and International Organization for Standardization (ISO)-4037. For each of the nine beams than can be generated by the new X-ray irradiation system, air kerma rates for X-ray fields of different beam qualifies were measured. The results showed that each air kerma rate and homogeneity coefficient of the first and second half-value layers were within ${\pm}5%$ of the recommended values in the standard documents. Conclusion: The results showed that the new X-ray irradiation system provides beam qualities that are as high as moderate beam qualities offered by National Institute of Standards and Technology in ANSI N13.11-2009 and those for narrow-spectrum series of ISO-4037.

Quality Assurance System for Determination of Center Position in X-ray and Proton Irradiation Fields using a Stainless Ball and Imaging Plates in Proton Therapy at PMRC

  • Yasuoka, Kiyoshi;Ishikawa, Satoko
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Medical Physics Conference
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    • pp.189-191
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    • 2002
  • In the proton therapy using a gantry system, periodical verification of iso-center position is very important to assure precision of patient positioning system at any gantry angles in proton treatment. In the gantry system, there are three different types of iso-center; 1) in a geometrical view, 2) in an X-ray beam's eye view, 3) in a proton beam's eye view. Idealistically, they would be an identical point. They could, however, be different points. It may be a source of errors in patient positioning. At PMRC, we have established a system of verification for iso-center positions using a stainless ball of 2-cm in diameter and an imaging plate. This system provides the relation among a center of a patient target position, a center of proton irradiation field, and/or a center of X-ray field in accuracy of 50$\square$m in the 2) and 3) views, as images of a center of the stainless ball and a center of a 100 mm${\times}$100 mm-aperture brass collimator recorded on the imaging plate, which is setup at 1-cm behind the ball. In addition, it provides simultaneously the images of the ball and the collimator on an imaging intensifier (II), which is setup downstream of the proton or X-ray beam. We present a method of quality assurance (QA) for calibration of iso-center position in a rotation gantry system at PMRC and the performance of this system. A proton beam position on the 1$\^$st/ scatterer in the nozzle of the gantry affects less sensitive (reduced by a factor of 1/5) to the results of the iso-center position. The effect is systematically correctable. The effect of the nozzle (or the collimator) position is less than 0.5 mm at the maximum extraction (390 mm).

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Verification of Periodical Calibration for Iso-center Positions using Quality Assurance System for Irradiation Equipment Position Established at PMRC

  • Yasuoka, Kiyoshi;Ishikawa, Satoko
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Medical Physics Conference
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    • pp.192-194
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    • 2002
  • We present the results on the calibration of iso-center positions using the quality assurance system established at PMRC for determination of center position in X-ray and proton irradiation fields. Details on the system are presented in another presentation in this session. The equipment in the system is mounted on a patient treatment bed in each proton exposure room, G1 or G2. A center of a stainless ball on the equipment is set at a cross of laser markers located around the iso-center and fixed on the room and on the snout in the gantry. A proton beam or an X-ray beam is exposed onto the ball through a brass collimator of 100 mm ${\times}$ 100 mm and projected onto the imaging plate set at I cm behind the ball. On the axis perpendicular to the thrust axis of the gantry on the imaging plate, a distance between a center of the collimator image and a center of the ball image varies as a cosine function of gantry angles unless the ball is set on the iso-center. An amplitude of the cosine curve shows the distance between the ball and the iso-center, an offset the offset of the collimator, and a phase shift at a zero crossing point the ball direction viewed from the iso-center. We present the relation among the iso-center position, the laser maker position, and the center of proton and X-ray irradiation fields. Its stability and its reproducibility are discussed.

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A New Approach on the Correction for Compton Escape Component in X-Ray Unfolding Algorithm

  • Kim, Soon-Young;Kim, Jong-Kyung
    • Proceedings of the Korean Nuclear Society Conference
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    • pp.925-930
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    • 1995
  • A new approach on the correction for Compton escape component in X-ray unfolding algorithm was investigated to obtain more accurate X-ray source spectrum. The X-ray detector used in this study was a planar type HPGe detector(EG&G ORTEC, GLP-32340/13-P-LP) whose energy response has been blown and ISO narrow beam series were employed as source spectrum. At lower energy Part of measured X-ray spectrum including the correction for Compton escape component more accurate unfolded spectrum was obtained by letting down the starting energy level of the collection in existing spectrum correction procedure to consider multiple scattering effects. It is, from this study, concluded that accurate correction for Compton escape component is needed in X-ray unfolding procedure since Compton scattering becomes more important as incident X-ray energies increase.

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A Theoretical Calculation for Angular Dependence of X-ray Beams on Extremity Phantom (말단팬텀에서 X-선 빔의 방향의존성에 관한 이론적 계산)

  • Kim, Jong-Soo;Yoon, Suk-Chul;Kim, Jang-Lyul;Kim, Kwang-Pyo
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.263-271
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    • 1996
  • The ANSI N13.32 recommends that a study of the angular response of a dosimeter be carried out once, although no pass/fail criterion is given for angular response. Gamma dose equivalent conversion and angular dependence factors were calculated by using MCNP code for the case of ANSI N13.32 extremity phantoms(finger and arm) at the depth of $7mg/cm^2$. Those extremity dosimeters were assumed to be irradiated from both monoenergitic photons and ISO X-ray narrow beams. These calculated gamma dose equivalent conversion and angular dependence factors were compared to B. Grosswendt's result calculated by using X-ray beams. The result showed that the dose equivalent conversion factors of this study agreed well with that of B. Grosswendt for all energies within 2% except 7% in the case of the low energies. In the case of angular dependence factors comparison, they agreed within 3%. It was shown that angular dependence factors of the finger phantom decreased as the horizontal angle of the phantom increased for the ISO X-ray beams less than 60keV. For the higher energy X-ray beams range they decreased slightly around 40 degree, but then increased from this energy to 90 degree.

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Development of TLD Algorithms by Monochromatic Fluorescence Radiations and Continuous Spectrum X-rays (단일에너지 형광 X선 및 연속 스펙트럼 X선장에 의한 TLD 알고리즘 개발)

  • Kim, Jang-Lyul;Kim, Bong-Hwan;Chang, Si-Young;Lee, Jai-Ki
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.159-174
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    • 1998
  • Personal dosimetry system is required to measure the personal dose equivalent accurately in a wide range of radiation fields, but the dose evaluation algorithms have been developed with the X-ray fields described in MOST Ordinance (equivalent to the ANSI N13.11) from which the actual fields to be monitored may be significantly different. To evaluate the dose more accurately when workers are exposed to the non-ANSI N13.11 radiation fields, two algorithms for monochromatic radiations (one algorithm was used for various ratios of TL dosimeter and the other for matrix approximation) were developed with the experimental data of the energy responses of the $CaSO_4:Dy$ TL materials irradiated by monochromatic X-ray fields recently established in KAERI, and compared with the another algorithm developed on the basis of the ANSI N13.11 continuous spectrum X-ray fields. Then it follows the discussions for some results of the algorithm testing including mixed fields irradiations and angular response conducted in IAEA/RCA intercomparison as well as ANSI and ISO continuous spectrum X-ray and monochromatic radiation fields. The developed algorithms were successfully performed the test not only in the continuous spectrum X-ray fields given by MOST Ordinance but also in the several non-MOST Ordinance radiation fields which could be encountered in the practical working environments.

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Structural evolution and kinetic study of high isotacticity poly(acrylonitrile) during isothermal pre-oxidation

  • Zhang, Li;Dai, Yongqiang;Kai, Yi;Jin, Ri-Guang
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.229-235
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    • 2011
  • Isotactic polyacrylonitrile (PAN) with triad isotacticity of 0.53, which was determined by $^{13}C$ NMR, using dialkylmagnesium as an initiator, was successfully synthesized. Isothermal treatment of iso-PAN was conducted in air at 200, 220, 250 and $280^{\circ}C$. Structural evolutions and chemical changes were studied with Fourier transformation infrared and wide-angle X-ray diffraction during stabilization. A new parameter $CNF={I_{2240cm}}^{-1}/ ({I_{1595cm}}^{-1}+f^*{I_{1595cm}}^{-1})$ was defined to evaluate residual nitrile groups. Crystallinity and crystal size were calculated with X-ray diffraction dates. The results indicated that the nitrile groups had partly converted into a ladder structure as stabilization proceeded. The rate of reaction increased with treatment temperature; crystallinity and crystal size decreased proportionally to pyrolysis temperature. The iso-conversional method coupled with the Kissinger and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods were used to determine kinetic parameters via differential scanning calorimetry analysis with different heating rates. The active energy of the reaction was 171.1 and 169.1 kJ/mol, calculated with the two methods respectively and implied the sensitivity of the reaction with temperature.

General Requirements Pertaining to Radiation Protection in Diagnostic X-ray Equipment -KFDA DRS 1-1-3 : 2008 base on IEC 60601-1-3:2008- (진단용 엑스선 장치에 있어서 방사선 방어에 대한 일반 요구사항 -IEC 60601-1-3:2008에 근거한 KFDA DRS 1-1-3:2008-)

  • Kang, Hee-Doo;Dong, Kyung-Rae;Kweon, Dae-Cheol;Choi, Jun-Gu;Jeong, Jae-Ho;Jung, Jae-Eun;Ryu, Young-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Digital Imaging in Medicine
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.69-77
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    • 2009
  • This study gives an account of the collateral standards in IEC 60601-1-3: 2008 specifying the general requirements for basic safety and essential performance of diagnostic X-ray equipment regarding radiation protection as it pertains to the production of X-rays. The collateral standards establish general requirements for safety regarding ionization radiation in diagnostic radiation systems and describe a verifiable evaluation method of suitable requirements regarding control over the lowest possible dose equivalent for patients, radiologic technologists, and others. The particular standards for each equipment can be determined by the general requirements in the collateral standard and the particular standard is followed in the risk management file. The guidelines for radiation safety of diagnostic radiation systems is written up in ISO 13485, ISO 14971, IEC 60601-1-3(2002)1st edition, medical electric equipment part 1-3, and the general requirements for safety-collateral standards: programmable electrical medical systems. Therefore the diagnostic radiation system protects citizens' health rights with the establishment and revisions of laws and standards for diagnostic radiation systems as a background for the general requirements of radiation safe guards applies, as an international trend, standards regarding the medical radiation safety management. The diagnostic radiation system will also assure competitive power through a conforming evaluation unifying the differing standards, technical specifications, and recognized processes.

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Preparation and Characterization of Al-Zr Mixed Oxide Catalysts (Al-Zr 혼합산화물 촉매의 제조 및 특성분석)

  • Park, Jung-Hyun;Youn, Hyun Ki;Shin, Chae-Ho
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 2016
  • xAl-yZr mixed oxide catalysts with different molar ratios of Al/(Al+Zr) were prepared by a co-precipitation method and its catalytic performance was compared in the iso-propanol dehydration as a model reaction. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), N2 adsorprion-desorption, NH3 temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD), and iso-propanol TPD analyses. The addition of Al into ZrO2 promoted the formation of relatively small particles with large surface areas and retarded the transformation of teragonal phase to monoclnic phase. NH3-TPD results revealed that the relative acidity of the catalysts increased along with the increase of Al molar ratio. The catalytic activity for the dehydration of iso-propanol to propylene was also increased with the same tendency. The catalytic activity could be correlated with high surface area, acidity and easy desorption of iso-propanol.