Information systems (IS) have become ubiquitous and changed every aspect of how people live their lives. While some IS have been successfully adopted and widely used, others have failed to be adopted and crowded out in spite of remarkable progress in technologies. Both the technology acceptance model (TAM) and the IS Success Model (ISSM), among many others, have contributed to explain the reasons of success as well as failure in IS adoption and usage. While the TAM suggests that intention to use and perceived usefulness lead to actual IS usage, the ISSM indicates that information quality, system quality, and service quality affect IS usage and user satisfaction. Upon literature review, however, we found a significant void in theoretical development and its applications that employ either of the two models, and we raise research questions. First of all, in spite of the causal relationship between intention to use and actual usage, in most previous studies, only intention to use was employed as a dependent variable without overt explaining its relationship with actual usage. Moreover, even in a few studies that employed actual IS usage as a dependent variable, the degree of actual usage was measured based on users' perceptual responses to survey questionnaires. However, the measurement of actual usage based on survey responses might not be 'actual' usage in a strict sense that responders' perception may be distorted due to their selective perceptions or stereotypes. By the same token, the degree of system quality that IS users perceive might not be 'real' quality as well. This study seeks to fill this void by measuring the variables of actual usage and system quality using 'fact' data such as system logs and specifications of users' information and communications technology (ICT) devices. More specifically, we propose an integrated research model that bring together the TAM and the ISSM. The integrated model is composed of both the variables that are to be measured using fact as well as survey data. By employing the integrated model, we expect to reveal the difference between real and perceived degree of system quality, and to investigate the relationship between the perception-based measure of intention to use and the fact-based measure of actual usage. Furthermore, we also aim to add empirical findings on the general research question: what factors influence actual IS usage and how? In order to address the research question and to examine the research model, we selected a mobile campus application (MCA). We collected both fact data and survey data. For fact data, we retrieved them from the system logs such information as menu usage counts, user's device performance, display size, and operating system revision version number. At the same time, we conducted a survey among university students who use an MCA, and collected 180 valid responses. A partial least square (PLS) method was employed to validate our research model. Among nine hypotheses developed, we found five were supported while four were not. In detail, the relationships between (1) perceived system quality and perceived usefulness, (2) perceived system quality and perceived intention to use, (3) perceived usefulness and perceived intention to use, (4) quality of device platform and actual IS usage, and (5) perceived intention to use and actual IS usage were found to be significant. In comparison, the relationships between (1) quality of device platform and perceived system quality, (2) quality of device platform and perceived usefulness, (3) quality of device platform and perceived intention to use, and (4) perceived system quality and actual IS usage were not significant. The results of the study reveal notable differences from those of previous studies. First, although perceived intention to use shows a positive effect on actual IS usage, its explanatory power is very weak ($R^2$=0.064). Second, fact-based system quality (quality of user's device platform) shows a direct impact on actual IS usage without the mediating role of intention to use. Lastly, the relationships between perceived system quality (perception-based system quality) and other constructs show completely different results from those between quality of device platform (fact-based system quality) and other constructs. In the post-hoc analysis, IS users' past behavior was additionally included in the research model to further investigate the cause of such a low explanatory power of actual IS usage. The results show that past IS usage has a strong positive effect on current IS usage while intention to use does not have, implying that IS usage has already become a habitual behavior. This study provides the following several implications. First, we verify that fact-based data (i.e., system logs of real usage records) are more likely to reflect IS users' actual usage than perception-based data. In addition, by identifying the direct impact of quality of device platform on actual IS usage (without any mediating roles of attitude or intention), this study triggers further research on other potential factors that may directly influence actual IS usage. Furthermore, the results of the study provide practical strategic implications that organizations equipped with high-quality systems may directly expect high level of system usage.
System usage, the utilization of information technology(IT) by individuals, groups or organizations, is a core variable in IS research. Indeed, there is widespread agreement among researchers that system usage is the primary variable through which IT affects white collar performance because it is a requisite, albeit insufficient, for deriving the benefits of IT. Furthermore, system usage has a notable practical value for managers interested in evaluating the impact of IT. Despite the number of studies of targeted at explaining system usage, there are more areas which required for the verification of system usage. The purpose of this paper is to address, using the Technological Acceptance Model (TAM), the usage pattern of AHP toward the various task in group decision (GD). The result showed that, for the all of the task types, perceived usage (PU) has more effect than perceived ease-of-use(PEU) on the AHP usage. However, more researches are required to generalize the result of this study.
The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
This paper addresses the load usage scheduling in the HEMS for residential power consumers. The HEMS would lead the residential users to change their power usage, so as to minimize the cost in response to external information such as a time-varying electricity price, the outside temperature. However, there may be a consumer's inconvenience in the change of the power usage. In order to improve this, it is required to understand the pattern of load usage according to the external information. Therefore, this paper suggests a methodology to model the load usage pattern, which classifies home appliances according to external information affecting the load usage and models the usage pattern for each appliance based on a copula function representing the correlation between variables. The modeled pattern would be reflected as a constraint condition for an optimal load usage scheduling problem in HEMS. To explain an application of the methodology, a case study is performed on an electrical water heater (EWH) and an optimal load usage scheduling for EHW is performed based on the branch-and-bound method. From the case study, it is shown that the load usage pattern can contribute to an efficient power consumption.
The purpose of this research is to develop an information technology (IT) usage level assessment model for service industry. It is necessary to develop an assessment model for service industry's IT usage to improve service productivity. However, it is not easy to develop assessment models due to service industry's diversity. In this paper a generic IT usage assessment model for service industry has been developed and validated through a descriptive approach. Key factors affecting service productivity have been identified and analysed. A pilot test on IT usage level has been performed to investigate the relevance and importance of IT usage indicators (factors). As a result, a set of effective IT usage indicators for service industry have been found. A short-cut model and a full scale model have been proposed for efficient and effective usage. The results of this study can be used for enhancement of service industry productivity through the increase of IT usage level.
According to an industry report, a large number of organizations have invested in Organizational Information System(OIS) in the past few years. Several research results indicate that successful investments in OIS lead to productivity enhancement, while failed ones result in undesirable consequences such as financial losses and dissatisfaction among employees. In spite of huge investments, however, many organizations have failed in achieving the hoped-for returns from OIS. Thus, understanding user acceptance, adoption, and usage of new IS(Information Systems) is an important issue for IS practitioners. Indeed, study of the user acceptance of new information system has been one of the most important research topics in the contemporary IS literature. Several theoretical models are tested to examine 'user acceptance' and 'usage behavior' in IS context. While many research models incorporate 'ease of use' or 'usefulness' as important factors in explaining user acceptance, Technology Acceptance Model(TAM) has been one of the most widely applied models in user acceptance and usage behavior. Even in recent IS studies that employ theories of innovation diffusion in the area of IS implementation, a major focus has been on the user's perception of information technologies. In this research, we study 'voluntariness' as an important factor in IS acceptance by users. Voluntariness is defined as "the degree to which the use of the innovation is perceived as being voluntary, or of free will" When examining the diffusion of accepting OIS, a thoughtful consideration should be given to 'perceived voluntariness.' Current article has following research questions: 1) What models are appropriate to explain the success of OIS? and 2) How does the 'voluntariness' affect the success of OIS? In order to answer these questions, a research model is proposed to describe the detailed nature of association among three independent variables (IT usage level, task interdependency, and organizational support), a mediating variable (IS usage), a dependent variable (perceived performance), and a moderating variable(perceived voluntariness). The central claim of this article is that organizations hardly realize expected returns from OIS investments unless perceived voluntariness is effectively managed after operating OIS. As an example of OIS in this study we have selected the Intranet of Republic of Korea Air Force (ROKAF). ROKAF has implemented the Intranet in an attempt to improve communication and coordination within the organization. To test our research model and hypotheses, survey questionnaires were first sent out to 400 Intranet users. With the assistance of ROKAF, Intranet users were initially identified among its members, and subjects were randomly drawn from the pool. 377 survey responses were finally returned. The unit of measurement and analysis in this research is a personal level. Path analysis based on structural equation modeling was used to test research hypotheses. Construct validity represents accordance between the theoretical base concept of constructs and its measurement items. Tests for the reliability and discriminant validity are accepted, thus verifying our survey instrument. In this research, we have proposed a conceptual framework to highlight the importance of perceived voluntariness after organization deploys OIS. The results of our analysis present several key finding. First, all three independent variables (IT usage level, task interdependency, and organizational support) have significant effects on IS usage, which will eventually improve performance. Thus, IS usage plays a mediating role between antecedent variables (IT usage level. task interdependency, and organizational support) and performance improvement. Second, the effect of the task dependency was the highest for IS usage among the three antecedent variables. This is highly plausible since one of the Intranet's major capabilities is to facilitate communication among members within an organization. Accordingly, we conclude that the higher the task dependency, the higher Intranet usage. The effect of user's IT usage level was the second, while the effect of the organizational support was the third. Finally, the perceived voluntariness plays a pivotal role in enhancing perceived performance in personal level after launching the Intranet. Relationships among investigated variables were significantly different between groups with a high level and a low level of voluntariness. The impact of the Intranet usage on the performance was greater in the higher level voluntariness group than in the lower one. For the lower level voluntariness group, the user's IT usage had the highest effect on the Intranet usage among the three antecedent variables. In short, our study suggests that the higher the perceived voluntariness is the more IS usage will be. Perceived voluntariness was found to have a moderating effect on the relationships among user IT usage level, task interdependency, IS usage, and perceived performance, supporting all the hypotheses on the moderating effect. Most of all, user IT usage level has the strongest influence on IS usage, indicating that users with superior IT usage are more likely to enjoy a high level of perceived performance.
Initially, the word 'usage' in the rule of Korean orthography was used to indicate the whole grammatical knowledge to separate between stems and inflectional affixes and nominals and case markers. Nowadays the word 'usage' in the rule of Korean orthograph is understood to indicate both 'usage' as the principles of the orthographic rule and 'grammar.' Even though 'usage' and 'grammar' can be understood as two different words, the discrepancy between them is not clear. In fact, if examining the rule of Korean orthography, it is not difficult to find that the principles of the orthography is written based on the grammar rules. Thus, the original principle is damaged because the rule of Korean orthography depends on the grammar rules too much. In addition, the rule of Korean orthography forces to change the grammar rules when describing them. Incorrect description of the grammar rules often causes the spelling mistakes. Therefore, it is necessary to divide two areas such as 'usage' and 'grammar' when dealing with 'the orthographic rules' and describing them.
Journal of the Society of Korea Industrial and Systems Engineering
The fee system on spectrum usage is a usage fee that is charged for using spectrum provided by a wireless tower, and is used for management and promotion of the waves. The current fee system for spectrum usage in South Korea has faced many problems, such as complex calculation for fees, unjustified charges, unfairness in cost sharing among providers, and general inefficiency of operation. This study focuses on comparison of fee systems for spectrum usage of South Korea and other foreign countries, extraction of the root causes and problems by case analyses, and recommendation for better solutions to make a reasonable fee system for spectrum usage. The result of this study can be used as a solution to render spectrum usage more effective.
Objectives: This study is a cross-sectional study to investigate the frequency of humidifier and humidifier disinfectant usage in the general population. Methods: A questionnaire was applied to 94 subjects (46 male, 48 female) from the general population of Gyeonggi Province. The questionnaire consisted of 3 scales (general characteristics, 5 items about humidifier usage, 5 items about humidifier disinfectant usage). Results: Thirty-five (37.2%) of the 94 subjects use a humidifier and humidifier disinfectant usage was found to be 18.1%. The frequency of humidifier usage is 4.8 times per a week and the humidifier disinfectant usage is 2.4 times per a week. Humidifier usage rate was highest in January. and then tended to rise gradually from October. Conclusions: Although this study population was not representative, we can say that approximately 50 percent of the humidifier users use a humidifier disinfectant and the trend of using a humidifier has shown seasonality.
This paper aims to extract an ObjectProperty-UsageMethod relation, in particular the HerbalMedicinalProperty-UsageMethod relation of the herb-plant object, as a semantic relation between two related sets, a herbal-medicinal-property concept set and a usage-method concept set from several web documents. This HerbalMedicinalProperty-UsageMethod relation benefits people by providing an alternative treatment/solution knowledge to health problems. The research includes three main problems: how to determine EDU (where EDU is an elementary discourse unit or a simple sentence/clause) with a medicinal-property/usage-method concept; how to determine the usage-method boundary; and how to determine the HerbalMedicinalProperty-UsageMethod relation between the two related sets. We propose using N-Word-Co on the verb phrase with the medicinal-property/usage-method concept to solve the first and second problems where the N-Word-Co size is determined by the learning of maximum entropy, support vector machine, and naïve Bayes. We also apply naïve Bayes to solve the third problem of determining the HerbalMedicinalProperty-UsageMethod relation with N-Word-Co elements as features. The research results can provide high precision in the HerbalMedicinalProperty-UsageMethod relation extraction.
Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
This paper confirms the risk of using smartphone through the analysis of collected usage pattern and proposes the smartphone intervention system in risk situations. In order to check the risk of smartphone usage, we made information collecting application and collected smartphone usage pattern from 11 experiment participants for two months. By analyzing smartphone usage pattern, we confirmed that about 12% of smartphone usage is being used in driving, walking, and on the street. In addition, we analyzed the response rate of smartphone notification in risk situations and confirmed that user responds the smartphone notifications in real-time even in risk situations. Therefore, it is required to present a system that intervenes the use of smartphone in order to protect smartphone users in risk situations. In this paper, we classify risk situations of using smartphone. Also, the proposed smartphone intervention system is designed to periodically detect risk situations. In risk situations, smartphone function can be restricted according to user setting of smartphone. And smartphone can be used normally when safe situation is restored.
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