• Title, Summary, Keyword: IPA

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A Study on the Application of an IPA Method for the Analysis of Visitor Satisfaction - Focusing on Chinese Visitors in Gyeongju Yangdong Village - (관광객 만족도 분석을 위한 IPA 기법 적용 연구 -경주 양동마을 방문 중국인을 대상으로-)

  • Cao, Lin-Sen;Xia, Tian-Tian;Kang, Tai-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.107-115
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    • 2017
  • As a simple and practicable method, an Importance-Performance Analysis(IPA) is often used as a tool to study the satisfaction of tourists in Tourism. The IPA has two dimensions to attribute importance and performance(or satisfaction as in satisfaction research), and generally uses an interviewee self-reported approach to acquire performance and importance data. Many scholars have pointed out that the traditional IPA cannot meet the premise of its establishment. Therefore, several revised IPA have been proposed. Among them, Deng's IPA is the most representative. There are not many contrastive analyses between the traditional IPA and revised IPA in academia. The lack of comparative study will make it difficult to judge the difference and effectiveness of different IPA techniques. Taking Gyeongju Yangdong Village as an example, this study investigated and researched the degree of satisfaction of Chinese tourists using the traditional IPA method and Deng's modified IPA method respectively, and then analysed the differences between the two methods and their causes. Based on the analysis results, the study put forward suggestions for the improvement of tourism management in Gyeongju Yangdong Village.

Comparison between Traditional IPA and Revised IPA; The Suncheon Bay Wetland Reserve (전통적 IPA(Importance-Performance Analysis)와 수정된 IPA의 비교연구; 순천만 습지를 대상으로)

  • Kim, Bo-Mi;Lee, Dong-Kun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.40-50
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    • 2017
  • Compared to the traditional format, the revised IPA is an effective method for selecting a management strategy as compared to the traditional IPA. Comparison between the traditional IPA and revised IPA with a management strategy has been, however, limited. Therefore, the difference between the traditional IPA and revised IPA was compared to select an effective management strategy in the Suncheon Bay Wetland Reserve. First of all, related papers were reviewed to select an appropriate revised IPA. It was found that Deng (2007)'s revised IPA was appropriate for quantifying service quality and a management strategy that affects the measurable satisfaction of visitors in the space. Second, the results of the traditional IPA were compared with the revised IPA in the Suncheon Bay Wetland Reserve and the management strategy of the revised IPA and the changes of management factors were discussed. It was found that some management factors deviated from the order of the quadrant "low priority for managers", "Concentrate management here", "Keep up the good work" were moved to the order of the quadrants "Concentrate management here", "low priority for managers" and "Possible overkill" in the revised IPA grid. The complexity as a management factor resulted in higher demand management than the traditional IPA, which moved from "low priority for managers" to "Concentrate management here". Management factors resulted in lower demand management than the traditional IPA moved from "Concentrate management here" to "low priority for managers"; these consisted of shade trees, exhibition exteriors, programs, and a guided tour. Also, management factors moved from "Keep up the good work" to "Possible overkill" consisted of relaxation facilities, glow of the setting sun, a hedge, and an exhibition interior. Over all, the revised IPA responded properly to changes in the measurable satisfaction of visitors to the Suncheon Bay Wetland Reserve. Therefore, a revised IPA should be provided for accurate and reliable guidelines when decision makers establish management strategies.

The Photocatalytic Decomposition of Isopropylalcohol(IPA) Using Plastic Optical Fiber(POE) Coated Photocatalyst (광촉매가 코팅된 플라스틱 광섬유를 이용한 Isopropylalcohol 광분해 반응)

  • 홍지녀;하진욱;주현규
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.214-217
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    • 2003
  • 본 연구에서는 IPA(isopropyl alcohol)를 분해물질로 선정하여 플라스틱 광섬유(Plastic Optical Fiber, POF)에 TiO₂ 를 코팅하여 오염물질을 분해하였다. P-25가 코팅된 POF의 표면은 유기계, 무기계, 유ㆍ무기 바인더를 사용한 것 모두 깨끗하였고, 무기계 바인더를 사용하여 코팅한 POF는 부착력이 현저히 떨어졌다. IPA분해 결과, 무기계 바인더를 사용한 경우, 다른 종류의 바인더와는 다르게 IPA의 초기농도 값이 매우 작게나왔는데 이러한 결과는 반응기에 주입된 IPA가 평형이 될 때까지 기다리는 동안 흡착이 일어났기 때문으로 생각된다. 유기계 바인더를 사용하여 코팅한 POF는 IPA 분해 효율이 매우 저조하였고 유ㆍ무기 바인더를 사용하여 코팅한 POF의 IPA분해 효율은 우수하였다. P-25와 IPA의 분해 효율이 우수한 유ㆍ무기 바인더의 비율을 10 : 10, 10 : 8, 10 : 6, 10 : 4, 10 : 2로 바꾸어 IPA를 분해한 결과, P-25와 유 ㆍ 무기 바인더의 비율이 10 : 2 일 매 IPA 분해 효율이 가장 우수하였다. 또한 P-25와 코팅액 제조 시 희석제로 사용되는 에탄올의 질량비를 1 : 7, 1 : 11, 1: 15로 바꾸어 IPA를 분해한 결과, P-25와 에탄올의 비율이 1 : 15일 때 IPA분해 효율이 가장 우수하였다.

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The Photocatalytic Decomposition of Isopropylalcohol(IPA) Using Plastic Optical Fiber(POE) Coated Photocatalyst (광촉매가 코팅된 플라스틱 광섬유를 이용한 Isopropylalcohol 광분해 반응)

  • 홍지녀;하진욱;주현규
    • Proceedings of the KAIS Fall Conference
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    • pp.343-346
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    • 2003
  • 본 연구에서는 IPA(isopropyl alcohol)를 분해물질로 선정하여 플라스틱 광섬유(Pastic Optical Fiber, POF)에 TiO₂를 코팅하여 오염물질을 분해하였다. P-25가 코팅된 POF의 표면은 유기계, 무기계, 유ㆍ무기 바인더를 사용한 것 모두 깨끗하였고, 무기계 바인더를 사용하여 코팅한 POF는 부착력이 현저히 떨어졌다. IPA 분해 결과, 무기계 바인더를 사용한 경우, 다른 종류의 바인더와는 다르게 IPA의 초기농도 값이 매우 작게나왔는데 이러한 결과는 반응기에 주입된 IPA가 평형이 될 때까지 기다리는 동안 흡착이 일어났기 때문으로 생각된다. 유기계 바인더를 사용하여 코팅한 POF는 IPA 분해 효율이 매우 저조하였고 유ㆍ무기 바인더를 사용하여 코팅한 POF의 IPA 분해 효율은 우수하였다. P-25와 IPA의 분해 효율이 우수한 유ㆍ무기 바인더의 비율을 10 : 10 : 8, 10 : 6, 10 : 4, 10 : 2로 바꾸어 IPA를 분해한 결과, P-25와 유ㆍ무기 바인더의 비율이 10 : 2일 때 IPA 분해 효율이 가장 우수하였다. 또한 P-25와 코팅액 제조 시 회석제로 사용되는 에탄올의 질량비를 1 : 7, 1 : 11, 1 : 15로 바꾸어 IPA를 분해한 결과, P-25와 에탄올의 비율이 1 : 15 일 때 IPA 분해 효율이 가장 우수하였다.

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Si Anisotropic Etching Characteristics of TMAH/IPA (TMAH/IPA의 실리콘 이방성 식각특성)

  • 정귀상;박진성;최영규
    • Electrical & Electronic Materials
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.481-486
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    • 1997
  • This paper describes the anisotropic etching characteristics of Si in acqueous TMAH/IPA solutions. The etch rates of (100) oriented Si crystal planes decrease with increasing TMAH concentration and IPA concentration. Etchant concentration and etch temperature have a large effect on hillock density. Hillock density strongly increase with lower TMAH concentration and higher etch temperature. The etched (100) planes are covered by pyramidal-shaped hillocks below TMAH 15 wt.%, but very smooth surface is obtained TMAH 25 wt.%. The addition of IPA to TMAH solution leads to smoother surfaces of sidewalls etched planes. Undercutting ratio of pure TMAH solution is much higher than KOH. But, addition of IPA to TMAh the underrcutting ratio reduces by a factor of 3∼4. Therefore, acqueous TMAH/IPA solution is able to use as anisotropic etchant of Si because of full compability with IC fabrication process.

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HMR Selection Attributes in Large Discount Stores by Using Revised IPA (수정 IPA를 활용한 대형 마트의 HMR 선택속성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Eun-Yong;Jeon, Yu-Jung
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.473-480
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    • 2016
  • As the lifestyle of people today is evolving, the desire for convenient but nutritious food to replace home-cooked meals is increasing. As the market for Home Meal Replacement (HMR) has already reached 17 hundred billion Won, many studies on HMR selection attributes have been conducted, using traditional Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA). However, it was found that traditional IPA had some limitations. Therefore, the study used both traditional and the Revised IPA to examine the selection attributes of HMR sold at large discount store to compare outcomes. The results of the study show that by using the Revised IPA, many attributes differed from those found by the traditional IPA. Consequently, the study revealed aspects that have both linear and nonlinear relationships with customer satisfaction. Implications of this study could provide the foundation of business strategies for HMR manufacturers.

Importance-Performance Analysis on Managerial Conditions of Trails by Trail Section (등산로(登山路) 관리상태(管理狀態)에 대한 구간별(區間別) 중요도(重要度)-성취도(成就度) 분석결과(分析結果)의 비교(比較))

  • Kim, Sang-Oh
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.94 no.6
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    • pp.351-361
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    • 2005
  • This study compared the results of Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) on trail managerial conditions by trail section in Mudeung-Mountain Provincial Park. The study also examined the validity of using overall survey method (OSM: analyzing IPA from the data collected from all the trails without separating trails by section) by comparing the OSM results with those obtained from the survey by section. A total of 258 users who visited the Park was surveyed using questionnaire in the four designated trail sections during the September of 2000. The result of IPA showed that there are differences in twenty three attributes out of the 26 selected attributes (88.5%) among four trail sections. The overall IPA results obtained from the total of four trail sections were not the same with the IPA results from each trail section in twenty three attributes (88.5%) out of the 26 selected attributes. It suggests that we need to use a survey segmented by trail sections rather than a survey for overall trails to obtain better information for more efficient trail management.

Variations in the Origin of Inferior Phrenic Arteries and Their Relationship to Celiac Axis Variations on CT Angiography

  • Aslaner, Ramazan;Pekcevik, Yeliz;Sahin, Hilal;Toka, Onur
    • Korean Journal of Radiology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.336-344
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    • 2017
  • Objective: Knowing the origin of the inferior phrenic artery (IPA) is important prior to surgical interventions and interventional radiological procedures related to IPA. We aimed to identify variations in the origin of IPA and to investigate the relationship between the origin of IPA and celiac axis variations using computed tomography angiography (CTA). Materials and Methods: The CTA images of 1000 patients (737 male and 263 female, the mean age 60, range 18-94 years) were reviewed in an analysis of IPA and celiac axis variations. The origin of IPA was divided into two groups, those originating as a common trunk and those originating independently without a truncus. The relationship between the origin of IPA and celiac axis variation was analyzed using Pearson's chi-square test. Results: Both IPAs originated from a common trunk in 295 (29.5%) patients. From which the majority of the common trunk originated from the aorta. Contrastingly, the inferior phrenic arteries originated from different origins in 705 (70.5%) patients. The majority of the right inferior phrenic artery (RIPA) and the left inferior phrenic artery (LIPA) originated independently from the celiac axis. Variation in the celiac axis were detected in 110 (11%) patients. The origin of IPA was found to be significantly different in the presence of celiac axis variation. Conclusion: The majority of IPA originated from the aorta in patients with a common IPA trunk, while the majority of RIPA and LIPA originating from the celiac axis in patients without a common IPA trunk. Thus, the origin of IPA may widely differ in the presence of celiac axis variation.

Oxidation of Isopropyl Alcohol in Air by a Catalytic Plasma Reactor System (촉매-플라즈마 반응 시스템을 이용한 아이소프로필 알코올 산화)

  • Jo, Jin Oh;Mok, Young Sun
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.531-537
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    • 2014
  • A catalytic plasma reactor was employed for the oxidation of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) classified as a volatile organic compound (VOC). Copper oxide (Cu : 0.5% (w/w)) supported on a multichannel porous ceramic consisting of ${\alpha}-Al_2O_3$ was used as a catalyst, which was directly exposed to the plasma created in it. The effects of discharge voltage and reaction temperature on the concentrations of IPA and its byproducts were examined to understand the behavior of the catalytic plasma reactor. Without thermal insulation, the reactor temperature increased up to $120^{\circ}C$ at an applied voltage of 17 kV (discharge power : 28 W), and the IPA at a flow rate of $1L\;min^{-1}$ ($O_2$ : 10% (v/v); IPA : 1000 ppm) was completely removed. At temperatures below $120^{\circ}C$, however, besides the desirable product $CO_2$, several unwanted byproducts such as acetone, formaldehyde and CO were also formed from IPA. On the other hand, when the reactor was thermally insulated, the plasma discharge increased the temperature up to $265^{\circ}C$ under the same condition and most of IPA was oxidized to $CO_2$. Without loading CuO on the ceramic support, the plasma discharge in the thermally insulated reactor produced nearly equal amounts of $CO_2$ and CO. On comparison, with the catalyst alone (temperature : $265^{\circ}C$), more than 70% of the removed IPA was simply converted into another type of VOC (acetone), indicating that the catalyst assisted by the plasma is more effective in the oxidation of IPA than that of the catalyst-alone process.

Effects of Intraruminal Isopropyl Alcohol Infusions on the Ruminating Behavior of Goats

  • Asato, N.;Hirata, T.;Hirayama, T.;Onodera, R.;Shinjo, A.;Oshiro, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.1134-1138
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    • 2002
  • Isopropyl alcohol (IPA), produced from acetone by rumen bacterial action, was infused into the rumen of three female goats kept in a climatically controlled experimental room during feeding to investigate the mechanism and roles of IPA in ruminating behavior (number of boli and ruminating time). The ruminating behavior measured by the number of boli, ruminating time, number of remastications, and remasticating time increased (p<0.05) with intraruminal IPA infusion. The concentrations of IPA and acetone in the rumen and the plasma significantly increased (p<0.05) during intraruminal IPA infusion. These data suggest that rumination receptors sensitive to IPA and acetone may be in an area such as the rumen epithelium and the brain stem where they can respond to metabolite levels.