• Title, Summary, Keyword: IL-12

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Covalent Linkage of IL-12 and Ovalbumin Confines the Effects of IL-12 to Ovalbumin-specific Immune Responses

  • Kim, Tae-Sung;Hwang, Seung-Yong;Yoo, Gyurng-Soo
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.396-403
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    • 1997
  • In order to direct the form of the immune response in an antigen-specific manner, we constructed a fusion protein (OVA/IL12) that contained the T cell-dependent antigen, ovalbumin (OVA), covalently linked to murine interleukin-12 (IL-12). The OVA/IL12 protein was produced in a baculovirus expression system and was purified by anti-OVA immunoaffinity chromatography. The purified OVA/ILI2 protein displayed potent IL-12 bioactivity in an IL-12 proliferation assay. BALB/c mice immunized with the OVA/IL12 protein produced increased quantities of anti-OVA IgG2a antibody compared with mice immunized with recombinant OVA alone. Lymph node cells from the immunized mice with the OVA/IL12 protein produced large amounts of IFN-,Y when restimulated in vitro with OVA, while those from mice immunized with the OVA protein produced little or no IFN-.gamma.. In contrast, immunization with a mixture of OVA and free recombinant IL-12 also induced IFN-.gamma. production, which was not OVA-specific. These studies indicate that the OVA/IL12 fusion protein can induce OVA-specific, Th1-dominated immune responses, and that the covalent linkage of OVA and IL-12 confines the effect of IL-12 to OVA-specific cells.

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Tumor Cell Clone Expressing the Membrane-bound Form of IL-12p35 Subunit Stimulates Antitumor Immune Responses Dominated by $CD8^+$ T Cells

  • Lim, Hoyong;Do, Seon Ah;Park, Sang Min;Kim, Young Sang
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.63-69
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    • 2013
  • IL-12 is a secretory heterodimeric cytokine composed of p35 and p40 subunits. IL-12 p35 and p40 subunits are sometimes produced as monomers or homodimers. IL-12 is also produced as a membrane-bound form in some cases. In this study, we hypothesized that the membrane-bound form of IL-12 subunits may function as a costimulatory signal for selective activation of TAA-specific CTL through direct priming without involving antigen presenting cells and helper T cells. MethA fibrosarcoma cells were transfected with expression vectors of membrane-bound form of IL-12p35 (mbIL-12p35) or IL-12p40 subunit (mbIL-12p40) and were selected under G418-containing medium. The tumor cell clones were analyzed for the expression of mbIL-12p35 or p40 subunit and for their stimulatory effects on macrophages. The responsible T-cell subpopulation for antitumor activity of mbIL-12p35 expressing tumor clone was also analyzed in T cell subset-depleted mice. Expression of transfected membranebound form of IL-12 subunits was stable during more than 3 months of in vitro culture, and the chimeric molecules were not released into culture supernatants. Neither the mbIL-12p35-expressing tumor clones nor mbIL-12p40-expressing tumor clones activated macrophages to secrete TNF-${\alpha}$. Growth of mbIL-12p35-expressing tumor clones was more accelerated in the $CD8^+$ T cell-depleted mice than in $CD4^+$ T cell-depleted or normal mice. These results suggest that $CD8^+$ T cells could be responsible for the rejection of mbIL-12p35-expressing tumor clone, which may bypass activation of antigen presenting cells and $CD4^+$ helper T cells.

Kinetics of IL-23 and IL-12 Secretion in Response to Toxoplasma gondii Antigens from THP-1 Monocytic Cells

  • Quan, Juan-Hua;Zhou, Wei;Cha, Guang-Ho;Choi, In-Wook;Shin, Dae-Whan;Lee, Young-Ha
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.85-92
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    • 2013
  • IL-23 and IL-12 are structurally similar and critical for the generation of efficient cellular immune responses. Toxoplasma gondii induces a strong cell-mediated immune response. However, little is known about IL-23 secretion profiles in T. gondii-infected immune cells in connection with IL-12. We compared the patterns of IL-23 and IL-12 production by THP-1 human monocytic cells in response to stimulation with live or heat-killed T. gondii tachyzoites, or with equivalent quantities of either T. gondii excretory/secretory proteins (ESP) or soluble tachyzoite antigen (STAg). IL-23 and IL-12 were significantly increased from 6 hr after stimulation with T. gondii antigens, and their secretions were increased with parasite dose-dependent manner. IL-23 concentrations were significantly higher than those of IL-12 at the same multiplicity of infection. IL-23 secretion induced by live parasites was significantly higher than that by heat-killed parasites, ESP, or STAg, whereas IL-12 secretion by live parasite was similar to those of ESP or STAg. However, the lowest levels of both cytokines were at stimulation with heat-killed parasites. These data indicate that IL-23 secretion patterns by stimulation with various kinds of T. gondii antigens at THP-1 monocytic cells are similar to those of IL-12, even though the levels of IL-23 induction were significantly higher than those of IL-12. The detailed kinetics induced by each T. gondii antigen were different from each other.

The Significance of IL-10, IL-12, IFN-$\gamma$ and ADA in Tuberculous Pleural Fluid (결핵성 흉수에서 IL-10, IL-12, IFN-$\gamma$, ADA 측정의 의의)

  • Jeon, Doo-Soo;Yun, Sang-Myung;Park, Sam-Seok;Lee, Hyo-Jin;Kim, Yun-Seong;Lee, Min-Ki;Park, Soon-Kew
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.301-310
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    • 1998
  • Background: Cell mediated immune response mediated by interaction between CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophagies is thought to play an important role in tuberculous pleurisy. This interaction is dependent on the interplay of various cytokines. The immunologic response of tuberculous pleurisy is thought to depend on the balance between helper T cell(Th1) cytokine Interleukin-12, Interferon gamma and Th2 cytokine IL-4, IL-10. To understand immunologic mechanism in tuberculous pleurisy and evaluate diagnostic value of these cytokines, the concentrations of Th1 cytokine IL-12, IFN -$\gamma$ and Th2 cytokine IL-10 were measured in tuberculous pleurisy and malignant pleural effusion group. Material and Methods: The concentrations of IL-10, IL-12 and IFN-$\gamma$ were measured by ELISA method in pleural fluids and serums of 20 patients with tuberculous pleurisy and 20 patients with malignant pleural effusion ADA activities were measured by spetrophotomery in pleural fluids of both groups. Results: In tuberculous pleurisy, the mean concentrations of IL-10, IL-12 and IFN-$\gamma$ of pleural fluids showed $121.3{\pm}83.7$ pg/mL, $571.4{\pm}472.7$ pg/mL and $420.4{\pm}285.9$ pg/mL. These were significantly higher than that of serum, $21.2{\pm}60.9$ pg/mL, 194.5 pg/mL, $30.1{\pm}18.3$ pg/mL respectively(p< 0.01). In malignant pleural effusion, the mean concentrations of IL-10, IL-12 and IFN-$\gamma$ of pleural fluids showed $88.4{\pm}40.4$ pg/mL, $306.5{\pm}271.1$ pg/mL and $30.5{\pm}54.8$ pg/mL respectively. Compared with that of serum ($43.4{\pm}67.2$ pg/mL, $206.8{\pm}160.6$ pg/mL, $14.6{\pm}3.3$ pg/mL), only IL-10 was significantly higher (p<0.001), but IL-12, IFN-$\gamma$ were not significant. In tuberculous pleural effusion compared with malignant pleural effusion, the concentration of IL-12, IFN-$\gamma$, ADA were significantly higher (p=value 0.046, <0.001, <0.001), but IL-10 was not significant. For differential diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy from malignant pleural effusion, using cut-off value of IL-12, IFN-$\gamma$, ADA as 300 pg/mL. 100 pg/mL, 45 U/L, the sensitivity/specificity were 60%/70%, 90%/87.5%, 85%/90% respectively. Conclusion: In tuberculous pleurisy, IL-10, IL-12 and IFN-$\gamma$ were selectively concentrated highly in pleural space than serum. Compared with malignant pleural effusion, IL-12 and IFN-$\gamma$ were significantly higher, but IL-10 were not in tuberculous pleural effusion. The results suggest that Th1 pathway contributes to immune resistant mechanism in tuberculous pleurisy. IFN-$\gamma$ and ADA revealed useful methods of differential diagnosis in tuberculous pleurisy from malignant pleural effusion.

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IL-18R ${\alpha}$ Mediated GATA-3 Induction by Th2 Cells: IL-12 Supports IL-18R ${\alpha}$ Expression in Th2 Cells (Th2 세포에서 IL-12에 의한 IL-18R ${\alpha}$의 발현유지 및 IL-18 자극에 의한 GATA-3의 유도)

  • Joo, In-Sook;Sun, Min-Jung;Kim, Dong-Young;Lee, Su-Jin;Ha, Youn-Mun;Cho, Jeong-Je;Park, Cheung-Seog;Ahn, Hyun-Jong
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.16-22
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    • 2005
  • Background: IL-18 was originally cloned as a IFN-${\gamma}$ inducing factor in primed T cells. In synergy with IL-12, IL-18 has been shown to induce strikingly high levels of IFN-${\gamma}$ production by T cells and to enhance Th1 development. Also this cytokine exerts induction of Th2 development through IL-4 induction. Methods: Resting $CD4^+$ T cells were sorted by negative selection and activated by anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 Ab. Expression of IL-12 binding sites, IL-18 binding sites, IL-18R ${\alpha}$, and GATA-3 mRNA were analysed by FACS and RT-PCR, respectively. Results: Resting $CD4^+$ T cells expressed IL-18R ${\alpha}$ chain but not IL-18 binding sites, suggesting a lack of IL-18R ${\beta}$ expression. IL-18R ${\alpha}$ was maintained on the Th1 and Th2 committed cells. IL-18 binding sites were induced on the Th1 but not Th2 cells. Exposure of these cells to IL-18 led to up-regulation of GATA-3 mRNA expression only in Th2 committed cells. To elucidate the relationship between IL-18R ${\alpha}$ expression and GATA-3 induction by IL-18, Th1 and Th2 committed cells were further cultured in medium with or without IL-12 for 2 days. IL-12 binding sites were maintained on the Th1 and Th2 cells regardless of IL-12 treatment, but IL-18R a expression was rapidly down-regulated on the IL12-untreated Th2 cells which did not induce GATA-3 mRNA expression followed by IL-18 stimulation. Conclusion: IL-12 supports expression of IL-18R ${\alpha}$ and GATA-3 mRNA expression was induced by IL-18 through IL-18R ${\alpha}$ without expression of IL-18 binding site in Th2 cells.

Identification of DC21 as a Novel Target Gene Counter-regulated by IL-12 and IL-4

  • Kong, Kyoung-Ah;Jang, Ji-Young;Lee, Choong-Eun
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.623-628
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    • 2002
  • The Th1 vs. Th2 balance is critical for the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Therefore, the genes that are selectively-regulated by the Th1 and Th2 cytokines are likely to play an important role in the Th1 and Th2 immune responses. In order to search for and identify the novel target genes that are differentially regulated by the Th1/Th2 cytokines, the human PBMC mRNAs differentially expressed upon the stimulation with IL-4 or IL-12, were screened by employing the differential display-polymerase chain reaction. Among a number of clones selected, DC21 was identified as a novel target gene that is regulated by IL-4 and IL-12. The DC21 gene expression was up-regulated either by IL-4 or IL-12, yet counter-regulated by co-treatment with IL-4 and IL-12. DC21 is a dendritic cell protein with an unknown function. The sequence analysis and conserved-domain search revealed that it has two AU-rich motifs in the 3'UTR, which is a target site for the regulation of mRNA stability by cytokines, and that it belongs to the N-acetyltransferase family. The induction of DC21 by IL-12 peaked around 8-12 h, and lasted until 24 h. LY294002 and SB203580 significantly suppressed the IL-12-induced DC21 gene expression, which implies that PI3K and p38/JNK are involved in the IL-12 signal transduction pathway that leads to the DC21 expression. Furthermore, tissue blot data indicated that DC21 is highly expressed in tissues with specialized-resident macrophages, such as the lung, liver, kidney, and placenta. Together, these data suggest a possible role for DC21 in the differentiation and maturation of dendritic cells regulated by IL-4 and IL-12.

IL-12 Regulates B7-H1 Expression in Ovarian Cancer-associated Macrophages by Effects on NF-κB Signalling

  • Xiong, Hai-Yu;Ma, Ting-Ting;Wu, Bi-Tao;Lin, Yan;Tu, Zhi-Guang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.14
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    • pp.5767-5772
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    • 2014
  • Background and Aim: B7-H1, a co-inhibitory molecule of the B7 family, is found aberrantly expressed in ovarian cancer cells and infiltrating macrophage/dendritic-like cells, and plays a critical role in immune evasion by ovarian cancer. IL-12, an inducer of Th1 cell development, exerts immunomodulatory effects on ovarian cancer. However, whether IL-12 regulates B7-H1 expression in human ovarian cancer associated-macrophages has not been clarified. Therefore, we investigated the effects of IL-12 on the expression of B7-H1 in ovarian cancer-associated macrophages and possible mechanisms. Methods: PMA induced THP-1-derived macrophages or human monocyte-derived macrophages were treated with recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12) or infected with adenovirus carrying human IL-12 gene (Ad-IL-12-GFP) for 24 h, then cocultured with the SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell line for another 24 h. Macrophages were collected for real-time PCR and Western blot to detect the expression of B7-H1, and activation of the NF-${\kappa}B$ signaling pathway. Moreover, supernatants were collected to assay for IL-12, IFN-${\gamma}$ and IL-10 by ELISA. In addition, monocyte-derived macrophages treated with IFN-${\gamma}$ were cocultured with SKOV3 and determined for the expression of B7-H1. Furthermore, the expression of B7-H1 in monocyte-derived macrophages was also evaluated after blocking NF-${\kappa}B$ signaling. Results: The expression of B7-H1 was significantly upregulated in monocyte-derived macrophages treated with rIL-12 or Ad-IL-12-GFP compared with the control groups (p<0.05), accompanied by a remarkable upregulation of IFN-${\gamma}$ (p<0.05), a marked downregulation of IL-10 (p<0.05) and activation of NF-${\kappa}B$ signaling. However, the upregulation of B7-H1 was inhibited by blocking the NF-${\kappa}B$ signaling pathway (p<0.05). Expression of B7-H1 was also increased (p<0.05) in monocyte-derived macrophages treated with IFN-${\gamma}$ and cocultured with SKOV3. By contrast, the expression of B7-H1 in THP-1-derived macrophages was significantly decreased when treated in the same way as monocyte-derived macrophages (p<0.05), and IL-10 was also significantly decreased but IFN-${\gamma}$ was almost absent. Conclusions: IL-12 upregulates the expression of B7-H1 in monocyte-derived macrophages, which is possible though inducing the secretion of IFN-${\gamma}$ and further activating the NF-${\kappa}B$ signal pathway. However, IL-12 downregulates the expression of B7-H1 in THP-1-derived macrophages, associated with a lack of IFN-${\gamma}$ and inhibition of expression of IL-10.

Effect of Interleukin-12 on the Expression of E-selectin in Mouse Model of Lewis Lung Carcinoma (Lewis 폐암 마우스 모델에서 Interleukin-12가 E-selectin 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sang-Haak;Shin, Yoon;Yoon, Hyoung-Kyu;Lee, Sook-Young;Kim, Seok-Chan;Kwon, Soon-Seog;Kim, Young-Kyoon;Kim, Kwan-Hyoung;Moon, Hwa-Sik;Song, Jeong-Sup;Park, Sung-Hak
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.161-171
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    • 1999
  • Background: Interleukin-12 (IL-12) can induce antitumor effects in vivo. This antitumor effect is associated with T cell infiltration but the effect of IL-12 on the steps of T cell migration into the tumor tissue has not been fully elucidated. This study focused on the effect of IL-12 on the tumor growth and the metastasis and on the expression of E-selectin, an adhesion molecule which is activated endothelial specific in its expression. In addition, we studied whether the expression of E-selectin is associated with the TNF-$\alpha$, a cytokine that its production is increased by IL-12 and has functions inducing a variety of adhesion molecules. Methods: Mice of C57BL/6 strain were injected with Lewis lung cancer cells followed by either IL-12, TNF-$\alpha$, or normal saline by intraperitoneal route. Twenty eight days after tumor cell inoculation, metastatic nodules of lung were enumerated and immunohistochemical staining of the subcutaneous tumors were performed with monoclonal antibodies to CD4, CD8, CD16, and E-selectin. In IL-12 treated mice, the subcutaneously implanted Lewis lung tumors were decreased in size and the metastases were also decreased in number compared to control mice. On tumor tissues, increased infiltration of CD4+, CD8+, and CD16+ cells were oberved in IL-12 treated mice compared to control mice. In control mice, E-selectin was absent on tumor vessels, but the expression of E-selectin was increased on tumor vessels of IL-12 treated mice. Administration of TNF-$\alpha$ increased not only the expression of E-selectin but also infiltrations of CD4+, CD8+, and CD16+ cells on tumor tissues. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that IL-12 inhibits tumor growth and metastases through infiltrations of inflammatory cells in mouse model of Lewis lung carcinoma and E-selectin may playa role in inflammatory cell recruitment on tumor tissue following IL-12 administration. Also, TNF-$\alpha$ may have a role as a mediator responsible for the IL-12 induced expression of E-selectin.

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The experimental Studies on the immunomodulational effects of Lonicerae Caulis et Folium -the effects of Lonicerae Caulis et Folium on cytokines production in mice splenocytes- (인동등(忍冬藤)의 면역조절작용(免疫調節作用)에 대한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究)(II) -인동등(忍冬藤) 각 fraction이 mice 비장세포에서 cytokines 생성에 미치는 영향-)

  • Lee, Young-Cheol;Kwon, Taek-Hyun;Ok, In-Soo;Seo, Chang-Woo;Kim, Yang-Jin;Roh, Seong-Soo;Seo, Young-Bae
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.141-149
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    • 2005
  • In order to investigate the immunomodulational effects of Lonicerae Caulis et Folium, the author measured cytokines production(IL-10, IL-12(P35), IL12(P40), $IFN-{\gamma}$) in mice splenocytes. The results were obtained as follows : 1. The water extract of Lonicerae Caulis et Folium significantly enhanced the gene expression of IL-12(P35), IL-12(P40), but reduced the gene expression of IL-10, $IFN-{\gamma}$. 2. In water fraction and ethyl acetate fraction, the gene expression of IL-12(P35), $IFN-{\gamma}$ was significantly increased and that of IL-12(P40), IL-10 was decreased. The above results demonstrate that Lonicerae Caulis et Folium has enhancing immune activity by upregulation of these cytokines. Therefore, if we make the relationship between these cytokines(IL-10, IL-12, $IFN-{\gamma}$) besides IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, $TNF-{\alpha}$, IL-8, $TGF-{\beta}$ and so on which concerned the immunopotentiation, the immunopotentiational mechanism of Lonicerae Caulis et Folium will be shown clearly.

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Immunostimulntory Effects of Immu-Forte at 3 Months Post-Treatment in Mice (면역기능증강성 동암 바이오스 신물질에 대한 3개월간의 마우스 투여후의 면역학적 및 혈액학적 변화)

  • Jung Ji-Youn;Ahn Nam-Shik;Park Joon-Suk;Jo Eun-Hye;Hwang Jae-Woong;Lee Seoung-Hun;Park Jung-Ran;Kim Sun-Jung;Lee Yong-Geon;Jeong Yun-Hyeok;Chung Ji-Hye;Lee Soo-Jin;Lee Sang-Bum
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.118-122
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    • 2005
  • Immu-Forte (Dong-Ahm Bio's. Corp., Korea) was evaluated fir its effectiveness as a nonspecific immunostimulator in mice. The effects of Immu-Forte were determined by analysis of cytokines using ELISh and phenotype of leukocyte subpopulations using monoclonal antibodies specific to mouse leukocyte differentiation antigens and flow cytometry. CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, macrophages, IL-12 and IFN-r in Immu-Forte EX-treated middle dose group increased in 3 months posttreatment and were significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of control at 3 months posttreatment. All T cells, all B cells, macrophages, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-12 in Immu-Forte EX-treated low dose uoup increased in 3 months posttreatment and were significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of control at 3 months posttreatment. In the Immu-Forte soy-treated group, CD4 T cells, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-12 were significantly higher in high dose-treated group, and CD 4 T cell, macrophages, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-12 were significantly higher in middle dose-treated group, and all T cell, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-12 were significantly higher in low dose-treated group. In the Itnmu-Forte A-treated group, macrophages, m cells and IL-12 in high dose-treated group and all T cells, macrophages, NK cells, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-12 in middle dose-treated group and NK cells in low dose-treated group were significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of control at 3 months posttreatment. In the Immu-Forte F-treated Group, all B cells, IL-4 and IL-12 in high dose-treated group and all T cells, aBl B cells, CD 4 T cells, CD8 T cells, macrophage, IL-2, IL-4, IL-12 and IFN-r in middle dose-treated group and NK cells and IL-12 in low dose-treated group were significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of control at 3 months posttreatment. In conclusion, the study has demonstrated that Immu-Forte had an immunostimulatory effect on mice through proliferation and activation of mouse immune cells.