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Efficacy of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy for the Histology-confirmed Intracranial Germinoma - Preliminary Report (조직학적으로 확진된 두개내 배아종의 전보조화학요법 후 방사선치료의 성적 - 예비적 결과)

  • Noh, Young-Ju;Kim, Hak-Jae;Heo, Dae-Seog;Shin, Hee-Yung;Kim, Il-Han
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.93-99
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    • 2002
  • Purpose : We intended to decrease late CNS reaction after radical radiotherapy for an intracranial germinoma by using combined neoadjuvant chemotherapy and involved-field radiotherapy. The efficacy in terms of its acute toxicity and short-term relapse patterns was analyzed. Materials and Methods : Eighteen patients were treated with combined neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy between 1995 and 2001. The chemotherapy regimen used was the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) 9921A (cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, VP-16, vincristine) for 5 patients younger than 16 years, BEP (bleomycin, VP-16, cisplatin) for 12 patients, and EP (VP-16, cisplatin) for 1 patient. The radiotherapy covered the whole craniospinal axis for 5 patients, the whole brain for 1, and the partial brain (involved field) for 12. the primary lesion received tumour doses between 3,960 and 5,400 cGy. Results : The male to female ratio was 16:2 and the median age was 16 years old. The tumors were located in the pineal gland in 12 patients, in the suprasellar region in 1, in the basal ganglia In 1, in the thalamus in 1. Three patients had multiple lesions and ventricular seedings were shown at MRI. In 3 patients, tumor cells were detected in the cerebrospinal fluid and MRI detected a spinal seeding in 2 patients. The response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy was complete remission in 5 patients, partial remission in 12, and no response in 1. However, after radiotherapy, all except 1 patient experienced complete remission. The toxicity during or after chemotherapy greater than or equal to grade III was remarkable; hematologic toxicity was observed in 11 patients, liver toxicity in none, kidney toxicity in none, and gastrointestinal toxicity in one. One patient suffered from bleomycin-induced pneumonitis. Radiotherapy was therefore stopped and the patient eventually died of respiratory failure. The other 17 are alive without any evidence of disease or relapse during an average of 20 months follow-up. Conclusion : A high response rate and disease control was experienced, which was the same as observed other studies and the morbidity from chemotherapy-induced toxicity was similar. With these results, the results from adjuvant chemotherapy and involved-field radiotherapy cannot be concluded to be equal to those from extended-field radiotherapy. The long term follow-up study on later complications are required in order to draw definite conclusions on the optimal management with minimum side effects.

Effect of Crude Saponins from Soybean Cake on Body Weight and Glucose Tolerance in High-Fat Diet Induced Obese Mice (대두박 사포닌 보충이 식이성 유도 비만마우스의 체중과 내당능에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sung-Mi;Seo, Kwon-Il;Park, Kyung-Wuk;Jeong, Yong-Kee;Cho, Young-Su;Kim, Myung-Joo;Kim, Eun-Jung;Lee, Mi-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.39-46
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    • 2009
  • This study investigated the beneficial effects of crude saponins from soybean cake on body weight and glucose tolerance in high-fat (37% calories from fat) diet fed C57BL/6 mice. The mice were supplemented with three doses of saponins (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%, wt/wt) and 1.0% Garcinia cambogia (wt/wt), positive control for 9 weeks. The body weight, visceral fat weight and epididymal adipocyte area were significantly reduced in the saponin supplemented groups in a dose dependent manner compared to the high-fat group. Saponins did not significantly affect food intake; however, cambogia significantly lowered food intake compared to the high-fat fed control group. The crude saponins from soybean cake supplement significantly lowered plasma leptin, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels, whereas they significantly elevated the fecal excretion of triglyceide in a dose dependent manner compared to the high-fat group. Cambogia did not affect the fecal excretion of lipid in the diet-induced obese mice. Supplementation of 1.5% saponin reduced the hepatic triglyceride content compared to the high-fat group. High-fat induced glucose intolerance with the elevation of blood glucose levels compared to the normal group; however, the saponins supplement significantly improved postprandial glucose levels. After 9 weeks of being fed a high-fat diet, the mice presented with significantly increased activities of hepatic fatty acid synthase and fatty acid ${\beta}$-oxidation; however, saponins and cambogia normalized these activities. These results indicate that saponins from soybean cake exhibit a potential anti-obesity effect and may prevent glucose intolerance by reducing body weight and plasma lipids, increasing fecal lipid excretion and regulating hepatic lipid metabolism in high-fat fed mice.

A New Naked Oat Cultivar for Human Food, "Daeyang" with High-Yielding and Good-Quality (조숙 대립 양질 다수성 식용 쌀귀리 "대양")

  • Han, Ouk-Kyu;Park, Hyoung-Ho;Heo, Hwa-Young;Park, Tae-Il;Seo, Jae-Hwan;Park, Ki-Hun;Kim, Jung-Gon;Hong, Yun-Gi;Kim, Dae-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.56-60
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    • 2009
  • A new naked oat cultivar Daeyang (Avena sativa L.) was developed by Department of Rice and Winter Cereal Crop, NICS, RDA in 2007. It was derived from a cross between 'FLX446-1-84-Q1'. and 'SO92004-B-3-3-5-7'. The FLX446-1-84-Q1, a naked oat cultivar from USA, is early heading and has good seed quality, while the SO92004-B-3-3-5-7, a covered oat breeding line, has a high yield with large grain. Subsequent generations were handled in a bulk method and pedigree selection program, and the SO97013-B-16-4 was selected based on agronomic performance in 2001. The line showed both high yield and good husking rate of seed in the yield trial tested at Suwon from 2002 to 2003, being designated as Gwiri51. The Gwiri51 was subsequently evaluated for winter hardiness, earliness, and yield in four locations, Gimje, Iksan, Jeongeup, and Jinju, from 2004 to 2007 and was designated as "Daeyang" and released. Its heading date was May 8 and maturing time was June 14 in a paddy field condition. The new cultivar Daeyang had 97 cm of culm length and 25.2 cm of spike length, 644 spikes per $m^2$, 65 grains per spike, 30.3 g of 1,000-grain weight, and 635 g of test weight. Daeyang showed better winter hardiness than that of the check cultivar 'Sunyang', and similar seed quality to the check cultivar in respect to percent content crude protein and $\beta$-glucan. However, it showed higher husking rate than the check cultivar. Grain yield of Daeyang in the regional yield trial for 4 years were averaged 4.18 MT $ha^{-1}$, which was 20% higher than that of the check cultivar Sunyang. Fall sowing cropping is recommended only in a south area where daily minimum mean temperatures are averaged higher than $-4^{\circ}C$ in January, and should be excluded in mountain area where frost damage is presumable.

A Study on Preparation of 3'-$[^{18}F]$Fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine and Its Biodistribution in 9L Glioma Bearing Rats (3'-$[^{18}F]$Fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine의 합성과 9L glioma 세포를 이식한 래트에서의 체내동태에 관한 연구)

  • Shim, Ah-Young;Moon, Byung-Seok;Lee, Tae-Sup;Lee, Kyo-Chul;An, Gwang-Il;Yang, Seung-Dae;Yu, Kook-Hyun;Cheon, Gi-Jeong;Choi, Chang-Woon;Lim, Sang-Moo;Chun, Kwon-Soo
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.263-270
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: Several radioisotope-labeled thymidine derivatives such as $[^{11}C]$thymidine was developed to demonstrate cell proliferation in tumor. But it is difficult to track metabolism with $[^{11}C]$thymidine due to rapid in vivo degradation and its short physical half-life. 3'-$[^{18}F]$fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine ($[^{18}F]$FLT) was reported to have the longer half life of fluorine-18 and the lack of metabolic degradation in vivo. Here, we described the synthesis of the 3'-$[^{18}F]$fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine ($[^{18}F]$FLT) and compared with $([^{18}F]FET)\;and\;([^{18}F]FDG)$ in cultured 9L cell and obtained the biodistribution and PET image in 9L tumor hearing rats. Material and Methods: For the synthesis of $[^{18}F]$FLT, 3-N-tert-butoxycarbonyl-(5'-O-(4,4'-dimet hoxytriphenylmethyl)-2'-deoxy-3'-O-(4-nitrobenzenesulfonyl)-${\beta}$-D-threopentofuranosyl)thymine was used as a FLT precursor, on which the tert-butyloxycarbonyl group was introduced to protect N3-position and nitrobenzenesulfonyl group. Radiolabeling of nosyl substitued precursor with $^{18}F$ was performed in acetonitrile at $120^{\circ}C$ and deproteced with 0.5 N HCI. The cell uptake was measured in cultured 9L glioma cell. The biodistribution was evaluated in 9L tumor bearing rats after intravenous injection at 10 min, 30 min, 60 min and 120 min and obtained PET image 60 minutes after injection. Results: The radiochemical yield was about 20-30% and radiochemical purity was more than 95% after HPLC purification. Cellular uptake of $[^{18}F]$FLT was increased as time elapsed. At 120 min post-injection, the ratios of tumor/blood, tumor/muscle and tumor/brain were $1.61{\pm}0.34,\;1.70{\pm}0.30\;and\;9.33{\pm}2.22$, respectively. The 9L tumor was well visualized at 60 min post injection in PET image. Conclusion: The uptake of $[^{18}F]$FLT in tumor was higher than in normal brain and PET image of $[^{18}F]$FLT was acceptable. These results suggest the possibility of $[^{18}F]$FLT at an imaging agent for brain tumor.

Apo E4 Genotype as the Alzheimer Indictor in Korean Senior Subjects Aged 50 to 64 Years Old (남녀 노인층에서 Alzheimer위험 예측 인자로써의 Apo E4 Genotype에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, Hyun-Hee;Shin, Eun-Jung;Kim, Hyun-Sook;Lim, Yun-Sook;Park, Mi-Young;Kim, Kkoch-Byul;Kim, Eun-Mee;Lee, Myoung-Sook
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.40 no.7
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    • pp.593-600
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    • 2007
  • Recent studies described the ${\varepsilon}4$ allele of apoE confers a two-to fourfold increased risk for late-onset Alzheimer#s disease (LOAD), but LOAD pathology does not all fit neatly around apo E. Therefore, the goal of this study was to find the association between Alzheimer and apo E4 genotype in the 107 elderly between 50 to 64 years old who visited to FHWC of Sungshin Women#s University. We conducted the questionnaire survey (general & 24 hr dietary recall), anthropometerics (BP, waist & BMI) and blood biochemistry (FBS & lipid profiles). LDL-c and HOMA-IR were calculated by Friedwald#s and Matthew#s formulas. The apo E genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP method and subjects were divided into three allele groups (${\varepsilon}3$; wild, ${\varepsilon}2$ & ${\varepsilon}4;$ mutants). The apo E allele frequencies were 7.0% for the ${\varepsilon}2$, 83.6% for the ${\varepsilon}3$ and 9.3% for the ${\varepsilon}4$. In comparison with biochemistry characteristics by apo E genotype, FBS was significantly higher in ${\varepsilon}4(129.2{\pm}6.8)$ than that in the others (${\varepsilon}2$: $117{\pm}7.4$, ${\varepsilon}3$: $107.3{\pm}2.2)$ (p<0.01). More than forty percents of ${\varepsilon}4$ group shown the dyslipidemia [high TG (>150mg/dl) & low HDL (<40 mg/dl:male or <50 mg/dl: female)]. The cytokines levels such as IL-1 ${\beta}$, IL-6 and $TNF-{\alpha}$ were not different among three apoE alleles. After the adjusting sex, age & dietary fiber, LDL-c level was siginificantly higher in ${\varepsilon}4$ ($108.3{\pm}7.7$) than that in ${\varepsilon}2$ ($100.4{\pm}8.4$) (p<0.05). According to food intake and the recipe on the basis of 24 hr dietary recall, the elder]y with ${\varepsilon}4$ allele took higher intake frequency of the light -colored vegetable (radish, onion & cabbage) and pan-fried foods (sauteed beef and vegetables, stir-fried vienna with vegetables) than the others. We knew that the elderly with ${\varepsilon}4$ allele had been restricted the calories intakes with high dietary fiber (33.6+2.5 g/d) to maintain the normal level of FBS and LDL-c. On next study, the prevalence of Alzheimer#s disease in this population who has ${\varepsilon}4$ allele on the condition of calories restriction will be continually follow-up.

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Dichloromethane Fraction from Katsuwonus pelamis Heart in LPS-Induced RAW 264.7 Cells and Mouse Ear Edema (Lipopolysaccharide로 자극된 RAW 264.7 세포와 마우스 귀부종 모델에 대한 참치 심장 Dichloromethane 분획물의 항염증 효과)

  • Kim, Min-Ji;Bae, Nan-Young;Choi, Hyeun-Deok;Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri;Park, Sun-Hee;Sung, Nak-Yun;Byun, Eui-Hong;Nam, Hee-Sup;Ahn, Dong-Hyun
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.101-109
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    • 2017
  • This study investigated the effect of the dichloromethane fraction form Katsuwonus pelamis heart on anti-inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and mouse models. Ethanol extract was partitioned with dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water. Among the fractions, the dichloromethane fraction showed a significant decrease in nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-6, $IL-1{\beta}$, and tumor necrosis $factor-{\alpha}$] production compared to ethanol extract. The dichloromethane fraction attenuated the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and nuclear $factor-{\kappa}B$ ($NF-{\kappa}B$) p65 proteins in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the expression of phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was also inhibited by the dichloromethane fraction. Moreover, the administration of 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg body weight-dose dependently inhibited the formation of edema by croton-oil and the application of dichloromethane (2 mg/ear) significantly reduced epidermal and dermal thickness and the infiltrated mast cell numbers. Therefore, the dichloromethane fraction exhibited an anti-inflammation effect by inhibiting $NF-{\kappa}B$ and MAPK signaling activation in macrophages.

Evaluating the Impacts of Long-Term Use of Agricultural Chemicals on a Soil Ecosystem by Structural Analysis of Bacterial Community (세균군집의 구조분석을 통한 장기간 농약사용이 토양생태계에 미치는 영향 평가)

  • Yun, Byeong-Jun;Kim, Seong-Hyeon;Lee, Dong-Heon;O, Gye-Heon;Gang, Hyeong-Il
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.260-266
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    • 2003
  • In this study bacterial community was analyzed to evaluate the impacts of long-term use of agricultural chemicals on a soil ecosystem as well as to obtain fundamental data on the relationship. Sequences of 16S rRNA clones from a non-agricultural site and a tangerine orchard soil which has a history of long-term use of agricultural chemicals over 30 years were analyzed. This revealed that bacterial community containing 5 divisions and 18 genera was distributed in a tangerine orchard soil, while bacterial community containing 9 divisions and 44 genera was distributed. In a tangerine orchard soil site, the most abundant bacteria in subdivision level were placed into Proteobacteria γ group which occupied 56% of total clones. The other bacterial clones from the ocrhcard soil exposed to agricultural chemicals over 30 years were Acidobacteria group (25%), Fimicutes group (5%), Planctomycetes group (2%), Proteobacteria α (1%), δ group (1%), and Cyanobacteria group (1%). Whereas, the clones were from the non-agricultural site were distributed among the division or subdivision Acidobacteria group (14%), Planctomycetes group (13%), Proteobacteria α (10%), β (9%), δ (9%), Fimicutes group (8%), Verrucomicrobia group (8%), Actinobacteria group (6%), Proteobacteria γ group (3%), Bacteroidetes group (3%), Gemmatimonadetes group (3%), and Cyanobacteria group (1%). This finding suggests the possibility that long-term application of agricultural chemicals or fertilizers on a tangerine orchard might result in drastic reduction or alteration in the composition of the bacterial community in the contaminated soil site.

Overexpression of TMP21 Could Induce not only Downregulation of TrkA/ERK Phosphorylation but also Upregulation of p75NTR/RhoA Expression on NGF Receptor Signaling Pathway (γ-Secretase 활성억제단백질인 TMP21의 과발현이 신경세포주에서 NGF 수용체 신호전달과정에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Sun-Il;Jee, Seung-Wan;Her, Youn-Kyung;Kim, Ji-Eun;Nam, So-Hee;Hwang, In-Sik;Lee, Hye-Ryun;Goo, Jun-Seo;Lee, Young-Ju;Lee, Eon-Pil;Choi, Hae-Wook;Kim, Hong-Sung;Lee, Jae-Ho;Jung, Young-Jin;Lee, Su-Hae;Shim, Sun-Bo;Hwang, Dae-Youn
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.8
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    • pp.1134-1141
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    • 2011
  • Transmembrane protein 21 (TMP21) is a member of the p24 cargo protein family and has been shown to modulate ${\alpha}$-secretase-mediated A${\beta}$ production which was specifically observed in the brains of subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to investigate whether TMP21 could affect nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor signaling pathway, the alteration of NGF receptors and their downstream proteins were detected in TMP21 over-expressed cells. CMV/hTMP21 vector used in this study was successfully expressed into TMP21 proteins in B35 cells after lipofectamin transfection. Expressed TMP21 proteins induced the down-regulation of ${\gamma}$-secretase complex components including Presenlin-1 (PS-1), PS-2, Nicastrin (NST), Pen-2 and APH-1. Also, the expression level of NGF receptor $p75^{NTR}$ and RhoA were significantly higher in CMV/hTMP21 transfectants than vehicle transfectants, while their levels returned to vehicle levels after NGF treatment. However, the phosphorylation of NGF receptor TrkA was dramtically decreased in NGF No-treated CMV/hTMP21 transfectants compared with vehicle transfectants, and increased in NGF treated CMV/hTMP21 transfectants. In TrkA downstream signaling pathway, the phosphorylation level of ERK was also decreased in CMV/hTMP21 transfectants, while the phosphorylation of Akt was increased in the same transfectants. Furthermore, NGF treatment induced the increase of phosphorylation level of Akt and ERK in CMV/hTMP21 transfectants. Therefore, these results suggested that over-expression of TMP21may simultaneously induce the up-regulation of $p75^{NTR}$/RhoA expression and the down-regulation of TrkA/ERK phosphorylation through the inhibition of ${\gamma}$-secretase activity.

A Case Study of Environmental Design from a Viewpoint of Hybrid and Features of User Experience (하이브리드와 이용자체험 특성으로 본 환경설계의 사례연구)

  • Jang, Il-Young;Kim, Jin-Seon
    • Archives of design research
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.201-214
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    • 2006
  • Modern society is an age of vagueness and confusion. In addition, vagueness, complexity and variety are seen throughout art including modern philosophy, literature, and environmental design. A phenomenon like this shows that modern society has integrated different components as an organic relationship frequently crossing the boundary of fields. This feature can be regarded as hybrid related with accepting contradictory components and binding them into one under relationship between part and whole. As new design concept, presented are attitude to accept the two instead of attitude to select one of the alternatives, abundance instead of dearness, and ambiguity instead of simplicity. This principle has a crucial influence on creative design providing opposing contradiction and several alternative plans as non-deterministic form not completed one and, above all, useful information in mutual dependence and mutual relationship. When it comes to hybrid, therefore, a strategy is needed to consider layer of several fields getting out of standardizing space into a single space. As an event of this situation and concept, space experience means behaving freely based on experience of users' body. It can be known that this experience brings about users' more dynamic experience in comparison with the experience of seeing environmental design from a viewpoint of visual ism on the existing simplicity. Such a practical experience is subjective, synesthetic, and non-observational one. Therefore, hybrid has brought active users to the stage, which is distinguished from synesthesia felt through body's experience, not through observational attitude and visual space which achieve former balance and harmony with non-determination. That's because hybrid creatures are turning to a product resulted from creative imagination instead of from reappearance which makes text visualized. Such experience performed by user's active participation collapses the boundary between special elite-centered art and daily life and it is the present progressive form showing creation process of future events and new esthetic experience.

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Radiation Absorbed Dose Calculation Using Planar Images after Ho-166-CHICO Therapy (Ho-166-CHICO 치료 후 평면 영상을 이용한 방사선 흡수선량의 계산)

  • 조철우;박찬희;원재환;왕희정;김영미;박경배;이병기
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.155-162
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    • 1998
  • Ho-l66 was produced by neutron reaction in a reactor at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute (Taejon, Korea). Ho-l66 emits a high energy beta particles with a maximum energy of 1.85 MeV and small proportion of gamma rays (80 keV). Therefore, the radiation absorbed dose estimation could be based on the in-vivo quantification of the activity in tumors from the gamma camera images. Approximately 1 mCi of Ho-l66 in solution was mixed into the flood phantom and planar scintigraphic images were acquired with and without patient interposed between the phantom and scintillation camera. Transmission factor over an area of interest was calculated from the ratio of counts in selected regions of the two images described above. A dual-head gamma camera(Multispect2, Siemens, Hoffman Estates, IL, USA) equipped with medium energy collimators was utilized for imaging(80 keV${\pm}$10%). Fifty-nine year old female patient with hepatoma was enrolled into the therapeutic protocol after the informed consent obtained. Thirty millicuries(110MBq) of Ho-166-CHICO was injected into the right hepatic arterial branch supplying hepatoma. When the injection was completed, anterior and posterior scintigraphic views of the chest and pelvic regions were obtained for 3 successive days. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn over the organs in both the anterior and posterior views. The activity in those ROIs was estimated from geometric mean, calibration factor and transmission factors. Absorbed dose was calculated using the Marinelli formula and Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema. Tumor dose of the patient treated with 1110 MBq(30 mCi) Ho-l66 was calculated to be 179.7 Gy. Dose distribution to normal liver, spleen, lung and bone was 9.1, 10.3, 3.9, 5.0 % of the tumor dose respectively. In conclusion, tumor dose and absorbed dose to surrounding structures were calculated by daily external imaging after the Ho-l66 therapy for hepatoma. In order to limit the thresholding dose to each surrounding organ, absorbed dose calculation provides useful information.

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