• Title, Summary, Keyword: IL-1$\beta$

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The Effects of Proinflammatory Cytokines and TGF-beta, on The Fibroblast Proliferation (Proinflammatory Cytokines과 TGF-beta가 섬유모세포의 증식에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Chul;Park, Choon-Sik;Kim, Mi-Ho;Chang, Hun-Soo;Chung, Il-Yup;Ki, Shin-Young;Uh, Soo-Taek;Moon, Seung-Hyuk;Kim, Yong-Hoon;Lee, Hi-Bal
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.861-869
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    • 1998
  • Backgrounds: The injury of a tissue results in the infalmmation, and the imflammed tissue is replaced by the normal parenchymal cells during the process of repair. But, constitutional or repetitive damage of a tissue causes the deposition of collagen resulting in the loss of its function. These lesions are found in the lung of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, complicated fibrosis after diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) and inorganic dust-induced lung fibrosis. The tissue from lungs of patients undergoing episodes of active and/or end-stage pulmonary fibrosis shows the accumulation of inflammatory cells, such as mononuclear cells, neutrophils, mast cells and eosinophils, and fibroblast hyperplasia. In this regard, it appears that the inflammation triggers fibroblast activation and proliferation with enhanced matrix synthesis, stimulated by inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and/or tumor necrosis factor (TNF). It has been well known that TGF-$\beta$ enhance the proliferation of fibroblasts and the production of collagen and fibronectin, and inhibit the degradation of collagen. In this regard, It is likely that TGF-$\beta$ undergoes important roles in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Nevertheless, this single cytokine is not the sole regulator of the pulmonary fibrotic response. It is likely that the balance of many cytokines including TGF-$\beta$, IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-$\alpha$ regulates the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we investigate the interaction of TGF-$\beta$, IL-1$\beta$, IL-6 and TNF-$\alpha$ and their effect on the proliferation of fibroblasts. Methods: We used a human fibroblast cell line, MRC-5 (ATCC). The culture of MRC-5 was confirmed by immunofluorecent staining. First, we determined the concentration of serum in cuture medium, in which the proliferation of MRC-5 is supressed but the survival of MRC-5 is retained. Second, we measured optical density after staining the cytokine-stimulated cells with 0.5% naphthol blue black in order to detect the effect of cytokines on the proliferation of MRC-5. Result: In the medium containing 0.5% fetal calf serum, the proliferation of MRC-5 increased by 50%, and it was maintained for 6 days. IL-1$\beta$, TNF-$\alpha$ and IL-6 induced the proliferation of MRC-5 by 45%, 160% and 120%, respectively. IL-1$\beta$ and TNF-$\alpha$ enhanced TGF-$\beta$-induced proliferation of MRC-5 by 64% and 159%, but IL-6 did not affect the TGF-$\beta$-induced proliferation. And lNF-$\alpha$-induced proliferation of MRC-5 was reduced by IL-1$\beta$ in 50%. TGF-$\beta$, TNF-$\alpha$ and both induced the proliferation of MRC-5 to 89%, 135% and 222%, respectively. Conclusions: TNF-$\alpha$, TGF-$\beta$ and IL-1$\beta$, in the order of the effectiveness, showed the induction of MRC-5 proliferation of MRC-5. TNF-$\alpha$ and IL-1$\beta$ enhance the TGF-$\beta$-induced proliferation of MRC-5, but IL-6 did not have any effect TNF-$\alpha$-induced proliferation of MRC-5 is diminished by IL-1, and TNF-$\alpha$ and TGF-$\beta$ showed a additive effect.

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Molecular Mechanisms through Which Peptidoglycan Induces IL-1β Expression in Monocytic Cells (펩티도글라이칸에 의한 인터루킨-1 베타 발현 기전 연구)

  • Seo, Hyun-Cheol;Kim, Sun-Mi;Lee, Sae-A;Rhim, Byung-Yong;Kim, Koanhoi
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.12
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    • pp.1637-1643
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    • 2012
  • This study investigated the effects of PG on IL-$1{\beta}$ expression and determined cellular factors involved in PG-mediated IL-$1{\beta}$ up-regulation in mononuclear cells in order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying inflammatory responses associated with bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns in the diseased artery. Exposure of human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cells to PG resulted in enhanced secretion of IL-$1{\beta}$ and also profound induction of the IL-$1{\beta}$ gene transcript. These effects were abrogated by OxPAPC, an inhibitor of TLR-2/4. Pharmacological inhibitors such as U0126, SP6001250, Akti IV, rapamycin, and DPI also significantly attenuated PG-mediated IL-$1{\beta}$ up-regulation. However, polymyxin B did not influence the IL-$1{\beta}$ expression. This study indicates that PG contributes to vascular inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques by up-regulating expression of IL-$1{\beta}$ via TLR-2, Akt, mTOR, MAPKs, and ROS.

Inhibitory Effect of Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate on NO Production Induced by Interleukin-1 beta in Aortic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells of Rats (혈관평활근세포에서 Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate의 전처리가 Interleukin-1β에 의한 Nitrite생성에 미치는 영향)

  • 윤병헌;김인겸;박태규;김중영
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.441-447
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    • 2003
  • To examine the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in regulation of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1$\beta$)-induced iNOS expression, IL-1$\beta$-induced nitrite production was observed in cultured vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells pretreated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and phorbol 12,13-butyrate (PDB) as PKC activator; 4$\alpha$-phorbol-didecanoate (PDD) as PKC non-activator. Nitrite production induced by IL-1$\beta$ was increased by the presence of increasing concentration of PMA ranging from 2 to 200 nM. However, in VSM cells pretreated with PMA and PDB, IL-1$\beta$-induced $NO_2$ production was decreased in proportion to the duration of pretreatment, and most significantly decreased in pretreatment time of 24 hours. Using RT-PCR method, the expression of iNOS mRNA induced by IL-1$\beta$ was decreased in VSM cells pretreated with PMA 200 nM for 24 hours. These results suggest that decrease in IL-I$\beta$-induced nitrite production by the pretreatment of PMA result from inhibition of iNOS expression and the inhibition related to PMA-induced PKC down-regulation.

Participation of nitric oxide pathways in interleukin 1$\beta$-induced mechanical allodynia in the orofacial area of rats

  • Kang, Young-M.;Lee, Min-K.;Yang, Gwi-Y.;Bae, Yong-C.;Ahn, Dong-K.
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of peripheral nitric oxide (NO) pathways in the onset of interleukin (IL)-1$\beta$-induced mechanical allodynia in the orofacial area. Experiments were carried out on male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 230-280 gm and surgical procedures were performed under pentobarbital sodium (40 mg/kg, i.p.). Under anesthesia, a polyethylene tube (PE10) was implanted into the subcutaneous area of one vibrissa pad, which enabled the injection of IL-1$\beta$ or other chemicals. We subcutaneously injected 50 ${\mu}L$ of IL-1$\beta$ into a vibrissa pad through the implanted polyethylene tube with a 100 ${\mu}L$ Hamilton syringe. After the administration of 0.01, 0.1, 1, or 10 pg of IL-1$\beta$, withdrawal behavioral responses were examined. The subcutaneous injection of saline had no effects on the air-puff thresholds. Following the subcutaneous injection of 0.01, 0.1, 1, or 10 pg of IL-1$\beta$, the threshold of air puffs decreased significantly to 12 $\pm$ 3, 7 $\pm$ 2, 5 $\pm$ 1, or 5 $\pm$ 1 psi, respectively, in a dose dependent manner. Pretreatment with L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, blocked IL-1$\beta$-induced mechanical allodynia. However, neither D-NAME, an inactive isomer of L-NAME, nor vehicle affected the IL-1$\beta$-induced mechanical allodynia. Subcutaneous injection of IL-1$\beta$ increased the number of c-fos-like immunoreactive neurons, whereas pretreatment with L-NAME decreased this number, in the trigeminal caudal nucleus. These results suggest that pro-inflammatory cytokines and NO are important contributors to the pathogenesis of persistent and exaggerated IL-1$\beta$-induced pain states. Based on these observations, peripheral application of NOS inhibitors may be of therapeutic value in treating pain disorders in the clinic.

Expression of Cytokines in Radiation Injured Brain at Acute Phase

  • Lee, Jang-Bo;Kim, Min-Ho;Chung, Yong-Gu;Park, Jung-Yul
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.200-204
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    • 2007
  • Objective : Radiation therapy is an important treatment for brain tumor. However, serious complications such as radiation necrosis can occur and it may be secondary to the expression of acute phase genes, like cytokines. In particular, inflammatory cytokines (IL-$1{\beta}$, TNF-${\alpha}$) and other immunomodulatory cytokines (TNF-${\alpha}$, TGF-${\beta}1$) might be changed after irradiation (high single dose irradiation). Although it has been reported that IL-1 level is remarkably elevated within 8 week after the irradiation to the rat brain. the change of cytokines levels at acute phase (within 24 hours) has not been reported. In the present study, we examined TNF-${\alpha}$, TGF-${\beta}1$, and IL-$1{\beta}$ levels in acute phase to clarify the early effect of cytokines on the radiation-induced brain damage. Methods : Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were used and these were divided into irradiation group and control group. After a burr-hole trephination on the right parietal area using a drill, a single 10Gy was irradiated at the trephined site. Their forebrains were extirpated at 30 min, 2 hr, 8 hr, 12 hr and 24 hr, respectively and examined for the expression of TNF-${\alpha}$, TGF-${\beta}1$, and IL-$1{\beta}$. Results : The expression of TNF-${\alpha}$ and TGF-${\beta}1$ were decreased until 12 hr after irradiation but elevated thereafter. The expression of IL-1 was peak at 8 hr and then decreased until 12 hr but elevated after this time window. The present study indicated that expression of cytokines (TNF-${\alpha}$, TGF-${\beta}1$ and IL-$1{\beta}$) were increased at 24 hr after the irradiation to the rat brain. IL-$1{\beta}$ level, on the other hand. reached peak at 8 hr after radiation injury. Conclusion : These findings indicate that IL-1, among various cytokines, may have a more important role in the inflammatory reaction by radiation injury at acute phase and provide some clues for better understanding of the pathogenesis of radiation injury.

Lipopolysaccharide-induced Synthesis of IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha and TGF-beta by Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (내독소에 의한 말초혈액 단핵구의 IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha와 TGF-beta 생성에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Sung-Hwan;Park, Choon-Sik;Kim, Mi-Ho;Kim, Eun-Young;Chang, Hun-Soo;Ki, Shin-Young;Uh, Soo-Taek;Moon, Seung-Hyuk;Kim, Yang-Hoon;Lee, Hi-Bal
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.846-860
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    • 1998
  • Background: Endotoxin (LPS : lipopolysaccharide), a potent activator of immune system, can induce acute and chronic inflammation through the production of cytokines by a variety of cells, such as monocytes, endothelial cells, lymphocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils and fibroblasts. LPS stimulate the mononucelar cells by two different pathway, the CD14 dependent and independent way, of which the former has been well documented, but not the latter. LPS binds to the LPS-binding protein (LBP), in serum, to make the LPS-LBP complex which interacts with CD14 molecules on the mononuclear cell surface in peripheral blood or is transported to the tissues. In case of high concentration of LPS, LPS can stimulate directly the macrophages without LBP. We investigated to detect the generation of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6 and TNF-$\alpha$ and fibrogenic cytokine, TGF-$\beta$, by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after LPS stimulation under serum-free conditions, which lacks LBPs. Methods : PBMC were obtained by centrifugation on Ficoll Hypaque solution of peripheral venous bloods from healthy normal subjects, then stimulated in the presence of LPS (0.1 ${\mu}g/mL$ to 100 ${\mu}g/mL$ ). The activities of IL-1, IL-6, TNF, and TGF-$\beta$ were measured by bioassaies using cytokines - dependent proliferating or inhibiting cell lines. The cellular sources producing the cytokines was investigated by immunohistochemical stains and in situ hybridization. Results : PBMC started to produce IL-6, TNF-$\alpha$ and TGF-$\beta$ in 1 hr, 4 hrs and 8hrs, respectively, after LPS stimulation. The production of IL-6, TNF-$\alpha$ and TGF-$\beta$ continuously increased 96 hrs after stimulation of LPS. The amount of production was 19.8 ng/ml of IL-6 by $10^5$ PBMC, 4.1 ng/mL of TNF by $10^6$ PBMC and 34.4 pg/mL of TGF-$\beta$ by $2{\times}10^6$ PBMC. The immunoreactivity to IL-6, TNF-$\alpha$ and TGF-$\beta$ were detected on monocytes in LPS-stimulated PBMC. Some of lymphocytes showed positive immunoreactivity to TGF-$\beta$. Double immunohistochemical stain showed that IL-1$\beta$, IL-6, TNF-$\alpha$ expression was not associated with CD14 postivity on monocytes. IL-1$\beta$, IL-6, TNF-$\alpha$ and TGF-$\beta$mRNA expression were same as observed in immunoreactivity for each cytokines. Conclusion: When monocytes are stimulated with LPS under serum-free conditions, IL-6 and TNF-$\alpha$ are secreted in early stage of inflammation. In contrast, the secretion of TGF-$\beta$ arise in the late stages and that is maintained after 96 hrs. The main cells releasing IL-1$\beta$, IL-6, TNF-$\alpha$ and TGF-$\beta$ are monocytes, but also lymphocytes can secret TGF-$\beta$.

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Role of Oxygen Free Radical in the Expression of Interleukin-8 and Interleukin-$1{\beta}$ Gene in Mononuclear Phagocytic Cells (내독소에 의한 말초혈액 단핵구의 IL-8 및 IL-$1{\beta}$ 유전자 발현에서 산소기 역할에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Min-Jong;Kim, Jae-Yeol;Park, Jae-Seok;Lee, Seung-Joon;Yoo, Chul-Gyu;Kim, Young-Whan;Han, Sung-Koo;Shim, Young-Soo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.862-870
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    • 1995
  • Background: Oxygen free radicals have generally been considered as cytotoxic agents. On the other hand, recent results suggest that small nontoxic amounts of these radicals may act a role in intracellular signal transduction pathway and many efforts to reveal the role of these radicals as secondary messengers have been made. It is evident that the oxygen radicals are released by various cell types in response to extracellular stimuli including LPS, TNF, IL-1 and phorbol esters, all of which translocate the transcription factor $NF{\kappa}B$ from cytoplasm to nucleus by releasing an inhibitory protein subunit, $I{\kappa}B$. Activation of $NF{\kappa}B$ is mimicked by exposure to mild oxidant stress, and inhibited by agents that remove oxygen radicals. It means the cytoplasmic form of the inducible tanscription factor $NF{\kappa}B$ might provide a physiologically important target for oxygen radicals. At the same time, it is well known that LPS induces the release of oxygen radicals in neutrophil with the activation of $NF{\kappa}B$. From above facts, we can assume the expression of IL-8 and IL-$1{\beta}$ gene by LPS stimulation may occur through the activation of $NF{\kappa}B$, which is mediated through the release of $I{\kappa}B$ by increasing amounts of oxygen radicals. But definitive evidence is lacking about the role of oxygen free radicals in the expression of IL-8 and IL-$1{\beta}$ gene in mononuclear phagocytic cells. We conducted a study to determine whether oxygen radicals act a role in the expression of IL-8 and IL-$1{\beta}$ gene in mononuclear phagocytic cells. Method: Human peripheral blood monocytes were isolated from healthy volunteers. Time and dose relationship of $H_2O_2$-induced IL-8 and IL-$1{\beta}$ mRNA expression was observed by Northern blot analysis. To evaluate the role of oxygen radicals in the expression of IL-8 and IL-$1{\beta}$ mRNA by LPS stimulation, pretreatment of various antioxiants including PDTC, TMTU, NAC, ME, Desferrioxamine were done and Northern blot analysis for IL-8 and IL-$1{\beta}$ mRNA was performed. Results: In PBMC, dose and time dependent expression of IL-8 and IL-$1{\beta}$ mRNA by exogenous $H_2O_2$ was not observed. But various antioxidants suppressed the expression of LPS-induced IL-8 and IL-$1{\beta}$ mRNA expression of PBMC and the suppressive activity was most prominant when the pretreatment was done with TMTU. Conclusion: Oxygen free radical may have some role in the expression of IL-8 and IL-$1{\beta}$ mRNA of PBMC but that radical might not be $H_2O_2$.

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Changes of Interleukin-12 and Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 before and after Antipsychotic Treatments in Schizophrenic Patients (정신분열병 환자에서 Interleukin-12와 Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1의 치료 전후의 변화)

  • Kim, Sung-Jae;Lee, Bun-Hee;Kim, Yong-Ku
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.143-150
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    • 2005
  • Background:Several reports have suggested that cytokine alterations could be related to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In this study, we measured plasma level of interleukin-12(IL-12), a proinflammatory T helper 1(Th1) cytokine and transforming growth factor-${\beta}1$(TGF-${\beta}1$), an anti-inflammatory Th3 cytokine before and after antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenic patients. Methods:The plasma concentrations of IL-12 and TGF-${\beta}1$ were measured by using quantitative ELISA in 23 schizophrenic patients and 31 normal controls at admission and 8 weeks later. The psychopathology was measured by Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale(BPRS). Results:IL-12 and TGF-${\beta}1$ levels were significantly higher in schizophrenic patients than in controls before treatment. At the 8 week of treatment, the TGF-${\beta}1$ levels returned to control values, while IL-12 levels were not significantly changed. There were no significant correlations between the changes of BPRS scores and the changes of IL-12 or TGF-${\beta}1$ levels in schizophrenic patients. Conclusion:Cytokine abnormalities in schizophrenia might be involved in the pathophysiology of the illness. It is possible that TGF-${\beta}1$ plays an important role in the schizophrenia.

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IL-23 P19 Expression Induced by IL-17 and $IL-1{\beta}$ in Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Mononuclear Cells (류마티스관절염 환자의 활액 세포에서 IL-17과 $IL-1{\beta}$에 의한 IL-23p19의 발현 증가)

  • Cho, Mi-La;Heo, Yu-Jung;Oh, Hye-Jwa;Kang, Chang-Min;Lee, Seon-Yeong;Hong, Yeon-Sik;Kim, Ho-Youn
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.29-37
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    • 2008
  • Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is a novel pro-inflammatory cytokine which has been implicated to play a pathogenic role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was undertaken to investigate the IL-23 inductive activity of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-17, $IL-1{\beta}$ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-${\alpha}$) in RA synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMC). Expression of IL-23p19, IL-17, $IL-1{\beta}$ and TNF-${\alpha}$ in joint was examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) of patients with RA and osteoarthritis (OA). The effects of IL-17 and $IL-1{\beta}$ on expression of IL-23p19 in human SFMC from RA patients were determined by reverse transcriptase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). IL-23p19 was expressed in the RA fibroblast like synoviocyte (FLS), but not from OA FLS. Similar to the protein expression, IL-23p19 mRNA could be detected by RT-PCR in RA SFMC. IL-17 and $IL-1{\beta}$ could induce RA SFMC to produce the IL-23p19. The effects of IL-17 were much stronger than $IL-1{\beta}$ or TNF-${\alpha}$. These responses were observed in a doseresponsive manner. In addition, IL-17 or $IL-1{\beta}$ neutralizing antibody down-regulated the expression of IL-23p19 induced by LPS in RA-SFMC. Our results demonstrate that IL-23p19 is overexpressed in RA synovium and IL-17 and $IL-1{\beta}$ appears to upregulate the expression of IL-23p19 in RA-SFMC.

IL-1β Polymorphism and Expression Associated with Decreased Risk of Gastric Carcinoma: a Case Control Study in the Ethnic Kashmiri Population, India

  • Irtiza, Syed;Samie, Amat Us;Ali, Shakir;Siddiqi, Mushtaq A;Naqash, Sameer H;Sameer, Aga Syed
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.1987-1992
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    • 2015
  • The aim of this research was to investigate the possible association between gastric carcinoma (GC) and polymorphisms of the IL-$1{\beta}$ gene in the Kashmiri population using peripheral blood DNA from 150 gastric carcinoma cases and 250 population controls with detailed data for clinicopathological characteristics of the disease. Two SNPs in the IL-$1{\beta}$ gene were selected for this study. Expression of IL-$1{\beta}$ was studied in 50 gastric carcinoma cases using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR and then correlated with genotype. The frequency of the IL-$1{\beta}$-511 C allele was significantly higher in the GC case group (53.3%) than in controls (45.4%) with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.73 and a P value of 0.03. Multivariate regression analysis showed associations of gastric carcinoma with mutant form of IL-$1{\beta}$-511 TT (OR 0.309; P value <0.001) and the CC genotype of IL-$1{\beta}$-31 (OR 0.313; P value of 0.002). Haplotype analysis of IL-$1{\beta}$-31 and IL-$1{\beta}$-511 showed decreased association of IL-$1{\beta}$-31 T with IL-$1{\beta}$-511 C with gastric carcinoma (OR 0.728; P value 0.03). Expression study of 50 samples by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and RT-PCR showed association with grade III and stage III+IV. After correlating the expression with polymorphism no association was found.