• Title, Summary, Keyword: Hypercholesterolemia

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Characteristics of the Anthropometry and Plasma Lipid Profiles of Patients with Simple and Combined Hypercholesterolemia (단순형과 혼합형 고콜레스테롤혈증 환자의 체위 및 혈장지질 특성)

  • 허영란;황금희;임현숙
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.186-193
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    • 1999
  • Recent epidemiologic and clinical students have shown that plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels are independent risk factors for coronary heart disease. However, there is not much data on the characteristics of anthropometry and lipid profiles of hypercholesterolemia patients with hypertiglyceridemia. In this study, 112 hypercholesterolemic subjects$(T.C{\ge}240mg/dl)$ were divided into two groups by their plasma triglyceride levels. We compared the anthropometric measurements and lipid profiles of the subjects between the two groups : the simples hypercholesterolemic group(SHC, TG<200mg/dl) and the combined hypercholesterolemic group$(CHC, TG{\ge}250mg/dl)$. The distribution of the subjects into the SHC and CHC groups was 36.6% and 47.3%, respectively. The frequency of the CHC patients decreased with age. The subjects in this group had higher weight, BMI, HWR, cricumferences of mid arm, waist, hip and thigh, and skinfold thicknesses of biceps and triceps than those of the SHC subjects. The difference of plasma total cholesterol level was mainly due to the difference of VLDL-C levels. These differences resulted in the CHC subjects having higher atherogenic indexes and T-C/HDL-C ratios than those of the SHC subjects. Also, the former had higher Apo-B and insulin levels than those the latter. However, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and HDL-C levels were not significantly different between the two groups. These results suggest that hypercholesterolemic patients with hypertriglyceridemia have riskier lipid profiles for CHD than those of patients with normal triglyceridemia. They also indicate that CHC is closely associated with glucose resistance syndrome(obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia), and more prevalent in young people.

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Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Pharmacologic Treatment in Hypercholesterolemia (고콜레스테롤혈증 치료 약물들에 대한 비용-효과 분석)

  • 정경래;문옥륜
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.70-94
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    • 1999
  • This paper was performed for a cost-effectiveness analysis of pharmacologic treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Agents modeled were cholestyramine, gemfibrozil. bezafibrate, lovastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin. Pharmacologic effectiveness was estimated by regression from reported clinical trials. Pharmacologic effects were expressed as the percent change of blood cholesterol level. Cost estimates included patients' travel expenses and time loss as well as resource consumption in the health care sector. Bezafibrate was the most efficient agent for reducing total cholesterol levels, having an cost over 1 year of ₩31.400 per percent reduction in total cholesterol. Simvastatin (10mg/d) was also efficient(₩33,100 per percent reduction). Chole styramine(8g/d) was least efficient at ₩90,200. For low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. simvastatin(10mg/d) was most efficient, at ₩23,200 per percent reduction, followed by lovastatin(20mg/d) at ₩28,000. Gemfibrozil was least efficient at ₩77,800 per percent reduction. For high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. bezafibrate(400mg/d) was most efficient at ₩39,300 per percent increase of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Cholestyramine was least efficient at ₩514,700. Analyses combining low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density cholesterol effects suggest that bezafibrate(600mg/d) and simvastatin (10mg/d) were most efficient for reducing cardiovascular risk. The cost-effectiveness analysis results show that both simvastatin and bezafibrate could be efficient treatment. Simvastatin provide more effective treatment at higher cost, whereas bezafibrate is more cost-effective, as it may be less effective, at lower cost. Therefore, clinicians should choose reasonable treatment according to the patient's needs This pharmacoeconimc analysis will provide a guideline for efficient pharmacologic treatment and also be reference data for pricing new drugs.

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A Study of Hyperlipidemia in Koreans -I. Specially Related to physical Characteristics and It's Risk Factors for Hypercholesterolemia- (한국인의 고지혈증에 관한 연구 -I. 고콜레스테롤혈증 소견자의 신체 특성과 그 위험인자를 중심으로-)

  • 허영란
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.279-289
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    • 1999
  • This study was conducted to investigate the physical characteristics and risk factors for hyperchol-esterolemia (HC) in Korean. 344 adult men who took the annual health check-ups at D or J hospitals were participated in this cross-sectional study. The subjects were grouped by plasma total cholesterol level in to three groups: normal cholesterolemic (n=139) borderline hypercholesterolemic(n=93) and hypercholesterolemic (n=112) groups. The data of height weight and plasma cholesterol level were col-lected from medical records. Body circumferences(midarm, waist, hip, and thight) skinfold thicknesses (biceps, triceps, subcostal, abdomen, and suprailic), and body composition (fat mass and fat free mass) were measured. Body mass index (BMI) height/weight ratio (HWR) waist/hip circumference ratio (WHR) waist/ thigh circumference ratio (WTR) central skinfold thickenss (CSF) and peripheral skin-fold thickness were calculated. The subjects with HC had significantly higher weight BMI waist cir-cumference skinfold thickness and body fat mass than those of the normal subjects. The relative and attributable risks on HC were 1.61 and 0.17 for obesity (BMI$\geq$25) 1,30 and 0.11 for upper body obesity (WTR$\geq$1.30) and 1.54 and 0.18 for central body obesity (CSF$\geq$95.7). Plasma total cholesterol level was positively correlated with several antropometric parameters: BMI (p<0.001) weight(p<0.001) waist circumference(p<0.001) and skinfold thickness of abdomen (p<0.001) spraillic (p<0.01) triceps(p<0.01) subcostal (p<0.01) and biceps (p<0.05) In conclusion the major influencing factors to plasma cholesterol level was BMI. Among the each physical parameters the circumference of waist the skinfol-d thickness of abdomen and the percentage of body fat were closely related to plasma cholesterol level. The important risk factor for hypercholesterolemia was obesity specially upper body obesity and central body obesity.

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A Study on Hyperlipidemia in Koran -Specially Related to Hematological Characteristics and Risk Factors of Hypercholesterolemia- (한국인의 고지혈증에 관한 연구 -고콜레스테롤혈증 소견자의 혈액학적 특성과 위험인자를 중심으로-)

  • 황금희;노영희;허영란
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.710-721
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    • 1999
  • This study was conducted to investigate the hematological characteristics and risk factors of hypercholesterolemia(HC) in Korean. 344 adult men who took the annual health check ups at D or J hospitals were participated in this cross sectional study. The subjects were grouped by plasma total cholesterol level into three groups: normal cholesterolemic(n=139), borderline hypercholesterolemic (n=93) and hypercholesterolemic(n=112) groups. The data of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP), hemoglobin, plasma glucose, albumin and cholesterol levels were collected from medical records. The levels of plasma triglyceride(TG), HDL C, phospholipid, insulin, apo A and apo B were measured. The levels of plasma LDL C, VLDL C and atherogenic index(AI) were calculated. The subjects with HC had significantly higher SBP and DBP, albumin, TG, phospholipid, HDL C, LDL C, VLDL C and apo B level than those of the normal subjects. The relative and attributable risks on HC were 1.59 and 0.18 for hypertension(SBP/DBP$\geq$160/95), 2.08 and 0.35 for hypertriglyceridemia (TG $\geq$400mg/dl). Plasma total cholesterol level was positively correlated with several hematologic parameters: age(r=0.1242, p<0.05), DBP(r=0.1194, p<0.05), albumin(r=0.2029, p<0.001), plasma TG(r= 0.3829, p<0.001), phospholipid(r=0.6036, p<0.001), LDL C(r=0.8572, p<0.001), HDL C(r=0.2399, p< 0.001), AI(r=0.3116, p<0.001), apo B(r=0.2602, p<0.05) and Lp(a)(r=0.1372, p<0.05). However, plasma total cholesterol level was negatively correlated with the levels of Apo A1(r= 0.2922, p<0.001), and ABR(r= 0.3598, p<0.001).

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Effects of Ethanol Extract of Onion on the Lipid Profiles in Patients with Hypercholesterolemia (양파의 알코올 추출물이 고콜레스테롤혈증 환자의 지질 성상에 미치는 영향)

  • Nam, Kyung-Hui;Baik, Hyun-Wook;Choi, Tae-Youn;Yoon, Soon-Gyu;Park, Se-Won;Joung, Hyo-Jee
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.242-248
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    • 2007
  • It is known that onion increases antioxidative and antibiotic capacity, and decreases blood pressure and cholesterol levels. The study was carried out to investigate whether ethanol extract of onion can enhance blood lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic patients. Foully three hypercholesterolemic patients were randomly divided into 2 groups; 25 in controls and 18 in experimental group. The control group was offered to take placebo for 4 weeks (200 ml/day), and experimental group was offered to consume ethanol extract of onion for 8 weeks (200 ml/day that corresponds to 500 g of onion). There were no differences in sex, age, body mass index (BMI) and educational levels between groups before treatment. After 8 weeks of onion extract consumption, plasma triglycerides level was significantly decreased in experimental group compared to control (p<0.05). Total cholesterol level was tended to decrease in experimental group, but there was no significant difference of change between control and experimental group. The levels of plasma glucose and LDL-cholesterol were not changed significantly after onion extract consumption. In summary, alcohol extract of onion may have a positive effect on the lipid profiles of hypercholesterolemia patients through decreasing plasma triglyceride concentration.

Comparison between the Effect of Intravascular Laser Irradiation Therapy with the Exterior Vascular Laser Irradiation Therapy on Hypercholesterolemia (침습, 비침습 혈관레이저에 의한 고콜레스테롤혈증의 치료효과 비교)

  • Kwon, Mi-Jung;Youn, Hyoun-Min;Kim, Young-Kyun;Kim, Won-Ill
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.121-132
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    • 2005
  • Objectives : The purpose of study was to compare and analyze the effect of the Intravascular Laser Irradiation Therapy and the Exterior vascular Laser Irradiation Therapy on Hypercholesterolemia. Methods : The 73 Sam-se-han-bang hospital patients who were irradiated to the Intravascular Laser and the 57 Sam-se-han-bang hospital patients who were irradiated to the Exterior vascular Laser were the study group. They had the treatment two or three times a week, and had checked total cholesterol before and after the ten times irradiation therapy. Results : Both the Intravascular Laser Irradiation Therapy and the Exterior vascular Laser Irradiation Therapy were effective on decreasing total cholesterol. The effect on decreasing total cholesterol was more definite at the abnormal group than the border line group, and the border line group than the normal group. The effect on decreasing total cholesterol was more definite at the Exterior vascular Laser Irradiation Therapy than the Intravascular Laser Irradiation Therapy, but this result was unavailable in the statistics. Conclusion : Both the Intravascular Laser Irradiation Therapy and the Exterior vascular Laser Irradiation Therapy had available effect on decreasing total cholesterol.

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The Effect of 3-(4-hydroxyl -33,53-dimethoxyphenyl)propionic Acid in Chinese Cabbage Kimchi on Lowering Hypercholesterolemia (배추김치의 활성성분인 3-(4-hydroxyl-33,53-dimethoxyphenyl)propionic acid의 고지혈증 치료 효과)

  • 김현주;권명자;서정민;김재곤;송수희;서홍석;송영옥
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.52-58
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    • 2004
  • The active principle responsible for lipid lowering in Chinese cabbage kimchi, 3-(4-hydroxyl-3'5'-dimethoxyphenyl)propionic acid, of molecular weight 226, was chemically synthesized and then used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia in male New Zealand white rabbit. Hypercholesterolemia in rabbits were induced by feeding 0.5% cholesterol added chow diet for 5 weeks. Each experimental group has four rabbits in it. for the 1st experiment,3-(4-hydroxyl-3'5'-dimethoxyphenyl)propionic acid or simvastatin was injected to the ear vein of rabbit every other day for 16 days (2 mg/3 kg/2 days) while normal chow diet was provided. Blood was drawn every 4th day. For the 2nd experiment, all the experimental condition was same as the 1st trial except 0.5% cholesterol diet was provided while 16 days. Plasma cholesterol level was decreased when cholesterol in the diet was removed. Decreased in cholesterol in kimchi and simvastatin groups were 18.65 and 29.67%, respectively compared to the control when the normal diet was given, and cholesterol increase was inhibited by 33.79 and 21.81% for kimchi and simvastatin groups, respectively, when 0.5% cholesterol diet was provided. The drop in LDL-C level by the active principle of kimchi and simvastatin was not significant when normal diet was given, however the changes was significant (p<0.05), approximately 130% decrease, when 0.5% cholesterol diet was given. The 105% and 62% decreased in triglyceride concentration were observed from 0.5% cholesterol diet fed kimchi and simvastatin groups respectively HDL cholesterol levels in experimental groups were not changed significantly from the both trials. The HMG-CoA reductase activity of kimchi and simvastatin groups were found to be higher than that of control to compensate the hypercholesterolemic condition induced by 0.5% cholesterol diet in these groups. In conclusion, diet is an important factor to control the hypercholesterolemia besides drug treatment. 3-(4-hydroxyl-3'5'-dimethoxyphenyl)propionic acid that is the active principle in Chinese cabbage kimchi seems a beneficial to the hypercholesterolemia and its effect is comparable to that of simvastatin.

Effects of Saengshik Supplementation on Health Improvement in Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rats (고지혈증 유발 흰쥐에 있어서 생식의 건강개선효과)

  • 강상모;심지영;황성주;홍성길;장혜은;박미현
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.906-912
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    • 2003
  • The study was conducted to investigate the effect of Saengshik supplementation on lipid metabolism in rats fed high cholesterol diets. Male Spraque-Dawley rats were administrated 1% cholesterol to induce hypercholesterolemia and were fed on diet containing Saengshik (30%, w/w). Serum and liver lipid profiles and fecal bile acids excretion were examined after 7 weeks of experimental diet. The feeding of diet containing 30% Saengshik significantly decreased total cholesterol (TC) contents in liver and plasma. Since cholesterol was balanced by entero-hepatic circulation through bile acid synthesis and reabsorption, inhibition of bile acid re-uptake in intestine decreases total cholesterol in liver and blood. In this point, significant increament of fecal bile acid excretion in Shaengshik group decreased TC and improved hypercholesterolemia. Also plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) decreasing risk for coronary heart disease in Saengshik supplemented group was significantly higher than control group, whereas low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) accumulation in arterial vessel wall was significantly lower than control group. In this result, we supposed that supplementation of Saengshik, uncooked natural food, may improve hypercholesterolemia through increment of cholesterol excretion.

Effects of Change in Body Mass Index on Change in Serum Total Cholesterol Levels among Industrial Workers (산업장 근로자들의 BMI 변화가 혈청총콜레스테롤의 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoon, Seok-Han;Lee, Myung-Jun;Cho, Young-Chae
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.278-290
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of total cholesterol levels (TC) and the incidence of hypercholesterolemia in response to changes in BMI. The subjects included a total of 28,249 industrial workers (25,548 male and 2,701 female) aged 30-69 years old who had received regular medical check-ups at least once per year from 2002 to 2012 (over 11 years). Data from this period were categorized into a first term (2002-2005), middle term (2006-2009), and last term (2010-2012). Then, the average TC was stratified by BMI, which was obtained from the initial examination results of each individual. In addition, average changes in TC were analyzed by stratifying with changes in BMI over 10 years (starting in 2002). The annual occurrence rates of hypercholesterolemia stratified by BMI were further assessed in patients with normal ranges of TC. In all three terms, the average TC was significantly elevated in the obese group ($25.0kg/m^2$) compared to the low weight group ($18.5kg/m^2$) and the normal weight group ($18.5-25.0kg/m^2$). Similarly, the group with higher BMI presented elevated rates of hypercholesterolemia compared to the groups with low BMI. In addition, increased BMI over the 10 year period significantly influenced TC. Consequently, it is suggested that evaluation and intervention for obesity control may be needed in order to manage the risk of high serum lipid levels.

Black ginseng extract ameliorates hypercholesterolemia in rats

  • Saba, Evelyn;Jeon, Bo Ra;Jeong, Da-Hye;Lee, Kija;Goo, Youn-Kyoung;Kim, Seung-Hyung;Sung, Chang-Keun;Roh, Seong-Soo;Kim, Sung Dae;Kim, Hyun-Kyoung;Rhee, Man-Hee
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.160-168
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    • 2016
  • Background: Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a well-characterized medicinal herb listed in the classic oriental herbal dictionary as "Shin-nong-bon-cho-kyung." Ginseng has diverse pharmacologic and therapeutic properties. Black ginseng (BG, Ginseng Radix nigra) is produced by repeatedly steaming fresh ginseng nine times. Studies of BG have shown that prolonged heat treatment enhances the antioxidant activity with increased radical scavenging activity. Several recent studies have showed the effects of BG on increased lipid profiles in mice. In this study report the effects of water and ethanol extracts of BG on hypercholesterolemia in rats. To our knowledge, this is the first time such an effect has been reported. Methods: Experiments were conducted on male Sprague Dawley rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with the water and ethanol extracts of BG (200 mg/kg). Their blood cholesterol levels, serum white blood cell levels, and cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were determined. Liver and adipose tissues were histologically analyzed. Results: We found that BG extracts efficiently reduced the total serum cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels with increased food efficiency ratio and increased number of neutrophil cells. It also attenuated the key genes responsible for lipogenesis, that is, acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) acetyltransferase 2, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, at the mRNA level inside liver cells. Furthermore, the BG extract also reduced the accumulation of fat in adipose tissues, and inhibited the neutral fat content in liver cells stained with hematoxylin and eosin and oil red O. Conclusion: Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects.