• Title, Summary, Keyword: Hypercholesterolemia

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The Specific Food Consumption Pattern and Blood Lipid Profiles of Korean Adults (한국성인의 혈청지질이상과 식품섭취)

  • Kim, Youngok
    • Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.124-139
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    • 2013
  • Unlike studies of Europeans and Americans, many epidemiological studies of the Korean population have indicated that their risk for cardiovascular disease does not decrease with a vegetable-rich diet. The different dietary practices of Koreans, who consume salted vegetables instead of fresh vegetables (common in the Western diet), has been suggested as a reason for this observation. Korea is in a period of rapid epidemiologic transition, which includes dietary and disease patterns; therefore, this study investigated differences in the food consumption pattern and blood lipid profiles of Koreans compared to Europeans and Americans. The identification of dietary patterns related to blood lipid abnormalities was carried out using the 2007~2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey data from 14,056 subjects. Dietary patterns were analyzed according to food group and nutrient intake. Blood lipid abnormalities were classified into three groups: hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL cholesterolemia (hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia). The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia was 12.4%, 16.2%, and 27.7% respectively. In our analysis, the low consumption of all food groups was related to hypercholesterolemia. The high consumption of vegetable-containing foods, alcoholic beverages, and the low consumption of milk products were associated with hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia. Thus, unlike Europeans and Americans, the low consumption of all food groups is related to hypercholesterolemia and a low consumption of milk products is related to hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia. Dietary pattern might play a role in epidemiologic transition of Korean. Also, this study implies necessity of further research using longitudinal data.

Combining Potent Statin Therapy with Other Drugs to Optimize Simultaneous Cardiovascular and Metabolic Benefits while Minimizing Adverse Events

  • Koh, Kwang Kon;Sakuma, Ichiro;Shimada, Kazunori;Hayashi, Toshio;Quon, Michael J.
    • Korean Circulation Journal
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.432-439
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    • 2017
  • Hypercholesterolemia and hypertension are among the most important risk factors for cardiovascular (CV) disease. They are also important contributors to metabolic diseases including diabetes that further increase CV risk. Updated guidelines emphasize targeted reduction of overall CV risks but do not explicitly incorporate potential adverse metabolic outcomes that also influence CV health. Hypercholesterolemia and hypertension have synergistic deleterious effects on interrelated insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. Dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin system is an important pathophysiological mechanism linking insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction to atherogenesis. Statins are the reference standard treatment to prevent CV disease in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Statins work best for secondary CV prevention. Unfortunately, most statin therapies dose-dependently cause insulin resistance, increase new onset diabetes risk and exacerbate existing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pravastatin is often too weak to achieve target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels despite having beneficial metabolic actions. Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors improve both endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance in addition to controlling blood pressure. In this regard, combined statin-based and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitor therapies demonstrate additive/synergistic beneficial effects on endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, and other metabolic parameters in addition to lowering both cholesterol levels and blood pressure. This combined therapy simultaneously reduces CV events when compared to either drug type used as monotherapy. This is mediated by both separate and interrelated mechanisms. Therefore, statin-based therapy combined with RAS inhibitors is important for developing optimal management strategies in patients with hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, or obesity. This combined therapy can help prevent or treat CV disease while minimizing adverse metabolic consequences.

The Antithrombotic and Fibrinolytic Effect of Natto in Hypercholesterolemia Rats

  • Park, Kum-Ju;Kang, Jung-Il;Kim, Tae-Seok;Yeo, Ik-Hyun
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.78-82
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    • 2012
  • Antithrombotic and fibrinolytic activity of natto was evaluated on platelet aggregation in vitro and in vivo. Natto showed inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation induced by adenosine 5’diphosphate (ADP) and collagen. Orally administered natto also showed fibrinolytic activity in hypercholesterolemia rats. Normal levels of natto, when administered for four weeks, shortened euglobulin clot lysis time (ECLT) and prolonged partial thromboplastin time (PATT) significantly compared to non-treated group. In addition, the natto treatment decreased total cholesterol in serum. These results showed that intake of normal levels of natto can elicit antithrombotic and fibrinolytic effects, suggesting its consumption may improve blood circulation.

A Analysis on Serum Total Cholesterol, Atherogenic Index of Medical Check-up Subjects in One University Hospital by Age and Sex (종합 건강검진자에서의 성별.연령별 혈청 총콜레스테롤, 동맥경화지수의 상호연관성 분석)

  • Suk, Sung-Ja;Yoo, Wang-Keun
    • Journal of Society of Preventive Korean Medicine
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 2006
  • Objectives: This study was carried out to establish the normal values of Serum Total Cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol by age and sex for healthy adult and the frequency of dyslipidemia as a risk factor of coronary atherosclerosis. Methods: Total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol measured among 14,485 in general growing people (8,712 males and 5,773 females) aged 20 to 69 years and analyzed to use the auto-analyzer Hitach 7600 in enzyme method. Result: 1. The levels of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and atherogenic index were slightly positively correlated with age in both sexes. The mean values of serum lipid profiles were $190{\pm}32.9mg/dl$ in men and $181{\pm}32.8mg/dl$ in women for cholesterol, $50.1{\pm}11.4mg/dl$ in men and $54.5{\pm}12.0mg/dl$ in women for HDL-cholesterol, $3.9{\pm}1.0$ in men and $3.4{\pm}0.8$ in women for atherogenic index. 2. Mean values of total cholesterol and atherogenic index higher in men than in women at the age 20-40 years but significantly higher in women than in men at the age group 60 years.(p<0.001) 3. The frequency of hypercholesterolemia(${\geq}200mg/dl$) and low HDL-cholesterol(<35mg/dl) were increased with age in both sexs, significantly higher in women at the age group 60 years. The frequency of hypercholesterolemia(${\geq}200mg/dl$) and low HDL-cholesterol(<35mg/dl) in men and women was 37.5%, 25.3%, and 5.5%, 2.8%. Their requencies were higher in men than in women. Conclusion: Theses findings suggest that the mean concentrations of total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in men and women vary with age. The frequency of hypercholesterolemia(${\geq}200mg/dl$) in men and women was about 31.4% and increased with age.

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Effects of Insamsansa-eum (Renshenshanzha-yin) on Hypercholesterolemia and Analysis of Its Effects according to the Pattern Identification

  • Park Seong-Uk;Jung Woo-Sang;Moon Sang-Kwan;Cho Ki-Ho;Kim Young-Suk;Bae Hyung-Sup;Ko Chang-Nam
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.253-261
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    • 2006
  • Backgrounds : Hyperlipidemia is a major cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lowering serum cholesterol levels could reduce the risk of CVD. Insamsansa-eum (Renshenshanzha-yin, ISE), composed of Ginseng Radix and Crataegii Fructus, is a new medicine developed to treat hyperlipidemia and CVD. Objectives : In this study, we intended to explore the clinical effects of ISE on patients with hypercholesterolemia, and moreover we also compared its effects according to the pattern identification. Methods : Subjects were administered ISE with the dose of 600 mg three times a day for 4 weeks. Patterns of subjects were identified with diagnostic scoring system for Yin-Yang and the condition of Excess-Deficiency before treatment. Serum lipids were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks of medication. Results : ISE lowered total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), total lipid(TL), phospholipid(PL) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL) significantly. Compared with the data of our previous study, it was less effective than Atorvastatin but showed equal lipids-lowering effect to Chunghyul-dan (Qingxue-dan, CHD). In Yang pattern group, ISE was less effective in lowering TG and LDL than it was in not-Yang-not-Yinpattern group. On safety assessment, there was no adverse effect, hepatic or renal toxicity. Conclusions : We suggest that ISE is a safe and useful herbal medicine for hypercholesterolemia, and moreover it could be more useful when it is used for patients with not Yang pattern.

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Relative and Attributable Risks of Obesity, Hypertension and Hyperglycemia to Hypercholesterolemia in Korean Adult Males (한국 성인 남자의 고콜레스테롤혈증에 대한 비만, 고혈압 및 고혈당의 상대적 위험도 및 기여도)

  • 허영란;임현숙
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.80-88
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    • 1999
  • Hypercholesterolemia is a well known major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, now the leading cause of death in Korea. This study was carried out to examine the relationships of hypercholesterolemia(HC$\geq$240 mg/dL) with obesity, blood pressure and blood glucose level in 649 male subjects aged 20-69 in Kwangju, Korea. The mean plasma total cholesterol level was 212${\pm}$43 mg/dL, and 25.3% of the subjects was diagnosed as HC and 39.3% as nomorcholesterolemia(NC〈200 mg/dL). The prevalence of HC seemed to increase with age. The subjects with HC were highly overweighted and had higher body mass index(BMI) than the NC subjects. The incidence of overweight(25$\leq$BMI〈30) and obesity(BMI$\geq$30) among the HC subjects were 44.5%, and 1.8%, respectively. The HC subjects had higher systolic(SBP) and diastolic blood pressure(DBP) than the NC subjects. The incidence of borderline hypertension (160/95〉SBP/DBP$\geq$140/90) and hypertension(SBP/DBP$\geq$160/95) among the HC subjects were 18.3%, and 9.1%, respectively. However, there was no difference in blood glucose level between the HC and NC subjects. The plasma total cholesterol level had positive relationships with BMI(P〈0.001), weight(P〈0.001), DBP(P〈0.001), SBP(P〈0.01), and age(P〈0.01), whereas inverse relationships with height/weight ratio(P〈0.001), and height(P〈0.01). The relative risks on HC were 1.99 for obesity, 1.53 for overweight, 1.82 for hypertension, 1.44 for borderline hypertension and 1.08 for hyperglycemia. Attributable risks on HC were 0.25 for obesity, 0.11 for overweight, 0.20 for hypertension, 0.10 for borderline hypertension and 0.02 for hyperglycemia. The results indicate that the level of plasma total cholesterol was closely associated with the incidences of obesity and hypertension. (Korean J of Human Ecology 2(1) : 80-88, 1999)

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Comparisons of Food Consumption and Food Sources of Nutrients in the Diets of Postmenopausal Women with Normocholesterolemia and Hypercholesterolemia in Seoul, Korea

  • Kim, Sangyeon;Kyungah Jung;Yukyung Chang
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.174-182
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    • 2004
  • Women have a greater incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) after menopause. This relates to hormone imbalance-induced changes in known CHD risk factors, especially hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to explore d1e differences in food consumption and food sources of nutrients in the Korean diet between postmenopausal women aged 50-74 years with normocholesterolemia(NC) and those with hypercholesterolemia(HC). Each subject was either classified as part of the NC group (n=39, serum total cholesterol con. <200 mg/$dl$) or the HC group (n=31, serum total cholesterol con. $\geq$240 mg/dl) based on the Guideline for Korean Hyperlipidemia.l Diet was assessed through a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Consumption of foods such as biscuits and/or crackers, squid and eggs was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the HC group than in the NC group. On the other hand, consumption of potatoes/starches and carrots was significantly (p<0.05) lower in the HC group than in the NC group. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the consumption of legumes and legume products containing phytoestrogen and we could not find a relationship between legumes and legume products and serum cholesterol levels. Consumption of green tea tended to be lower in the HC group than in the NC group. Major sources of cholesterol, cholesterol-saturated index and vitamin A in the diets of the HC group consisted of foods high in cholesterol. Our results confirm that postmenopausal women with hypercholesterolemia in Korea tend to consume cholesterol-rich foods and dishes.

Inhibitory Effects of Hwao-tang on the Atherosclerosis and the Venous Thrombosis

  • Hong Mun Yoob;Choi Dall Yoong;Kim Cherl Ho;Kim Beob Jin;Kim Han Geu;Ahan Jong Chan;Lee Soo Kyung;Chung Tae Wook;Park Won Hwan
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.380-388
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    • 2002
  • The inhibitory effects of the traditional herbal medicine Hwao-tang on the progression of the atherosclerotic lesions were studied using the spontaneous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) model, Kurosawa and Kusanagi-hypercholesterolemic (KHC) rabbits. Hwao-tang is activate blood circulation, vital energy and regulate menstruation, etc. Nowadays, Hwao-tang is mainly used for the treatment of inflammation, hyperlipemia and arteriosclerosis. However, pharmacological mechanisms of Hwao-tang on lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis formation are poorly understood. We have investigated the pharmacological effects of Hwao-tang on hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis using a spontaneous experimental model. In conclusion, the protection of extracts of HOT and its herbs on the ischemic infarction induced artificially might be related to their inhibitory effects on DIC, platelet coagulation and thrombic action. These suggest that Hwao-tang has inhibitory effects on the development of atheromatous plaque formation in spontaneous FH model rabbits. It is possible that the anti oxidative effects of Hwao-tang on LDL led to the beneficial effects observed in this study.

Thr-6Pro missense mutation in human lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) gene in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia in Korea

  • Hwang, Hye-Suk;Hwang, Jung-Hee;Kim, Hyun-Sup;Kim, Nam-Keun;Kim, Se-Jae;Lee, Chung-Choo;Chung, Ki-Wha
    • Journal of Genetic Medicine
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.65-70
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    • 1998
  • Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) plays a central role in the intracellular degradation of neutral lipids derived from plasma lipoproteins. In this study, we investigated the missense mutation within exon 2 of human LAL gene changing of codon -6 of prepeptide from threonine to proline. The Thr-6Pro mutation was detected by the HaeIII restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). We analyzed the mutation in subjects with 221 unrelated randomly selected control samples and 86 patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in Korea. We observed that mutation is present with high frequency in Korea compared to other populations studied previously. The frequency of PP homozygote in the FH group was observed considerably higher than that of control. However, there was no significant difference of genotype frequency between two groups. These results, together with the fact that plasma lipids and lipoproteins levels between genotypes showed no statistical difference, suggest that the Thr-6Pro mutation in the LAL gene may have no association with the increased risk of FH development.

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Effects of Cinnamomi Cortex on Hypercholesterolemia Induced by Estradiol Valerate in Rats (육계(肉桂)가 Estradiol valerate에 의하여 유발된 고콜레스테롤 혈증에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Eu-Gene;Kim, Hyung-Woo;Chung, Hee-Jin;Joung, Young-Min;Shin, Dong-Sung;Cho, Su-In
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.264-269
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    • 2011
  • This study was designed to investigate the effects of Cinnamomi Cortex extract (CC) on hypercholesterolemia induced by Estradiol valerate (EV) in female rats. We investigated the effects of CC on Changes in body weights for 5 weeks. In addition, we examined the effects on fasting blood glucose (FBS) and tested oral glucose tolerance test after oral administration of CC for 5 weeks. We also investigated the effects on levels of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in serum. Treatment with CC restored weight gain rates suppressed by EV significantly. CC did not affect serum glucose level and glucose tolerance. Levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride were lowered by administration of CC compared to EV treated control respectively. These result suggest that CC can lower serum cholesterol level then prevent weight loss induced by EV. We also suggest the possibility as anti-hyperlipidemic agent of CC.