• Title, Summary, Keyword: Hydrogen

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Protective Effect of Radiation-induced New Blackberry Mutant γ-B201 on H2O2-induced Oxidative Damage in HepG2 Cells (H2O2 에 의해 유도된 HepG2 세포의 산화적 스트레스에 대한 신품종 방사선 돌연변이 블랙베리 γ-B201의 세포 보호 효과)

  • Cho, Byoung Ok;Lee, Chang-Wook;So, Yangkang;Jin, Chang-Hyun;Yook, Hong-Sun;Byun, Myung-Woo;Jeong, Yong-Wook;Park, Jong Chun;Jeong, Il-Yun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.384-389
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    • 2014
  • The objective of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition of anthocyanin-enriched extract of radiation-induced blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L.) mutant (${\gamma}$-B201) as well as the protective effect of ${\gamma}$-B201 against oxidative stress in vitro. The cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capacity, and DNA damage were assessed by WST-1 assay, flow cytometry, and comet assay, respectively. Lactate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were determined by using a commercial kit. The in vitro results showed that ${\gamma}$-B201 increased the cell viability, reduction of lactate dehydrogenase release, and intracellular ROS scavenging capacity in hydrogen peroxide ($H_2O_2$)-treated HepG2 cells. Furthermore, treatment with ${\gamma}$-B201 attenuated DNA damage in $H_2O_2$-treated HepG2 cells and treatment with ${\gamma}$-B201 restored the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in $H_2O_2$-treated HepG2 cells. In conclusion, the present study suggests that ${\gamma}$-B201 blackberry extract can exert a significant cytoprotective effect against $H_2O_2$-induced cell damage.

Establishment of an Ice Core Processing Method and Analytical Procedures for Fundamental Proxies (빙하코어의 전처리 방법 및 기초 프록시 분석법 확립)

  • Jun, Seong Joon;Hong, Sang Bum;Hur, Soon Do;Lee, Jeonghoon;Kang, Jung-Ho;Hwang, Hee Jin;Chung, Ji Woong;Jung, Hye Jin;Han, Changhee;Hong, Sungmin
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.13-24
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    • 2014
  • We established the first complete ice core processing method and analytical procedures for fundamental proxies, using a 40.2 m long ice core drilled on the Mt. Tsambagarav glacier in the Mongolian Altai mountains in July 2008. The whole core was first divided into two sub ice core sections and the measurements of the visual stratigraphy and electrical conductivity were performed on the surface of these sub core sections. A continuous sequence of samples was then prepared for chemical analyses (stable isotope ratios of oxygen ($^{18}O/^{16}O$) and hydrogen ($^2H/^1H$), soluble ions and trace elements). A total of 29 insoluble dust layers were identified from the measurement of visual stratigraphy. The electrical conductivity measurement (ECM) shows 11 peaks with the current more than 0.8 ${\mu}A$ Comparing the profiles of $SO_4{^{2-}}$ and $Cl^-$ concentrations to correlate with known volcanic eruptions, the first two ECM peaks appear to be linked to the eruptions (January and June 2007) of Kliuchevskoi volcano on the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia, which supports the reliability of our ECM data. Finally, the composition of stable isotopes (${\delta}^{18}O$ and ${\delta}D$) shows a well-defined seasonal variation, suggesting that various chemical proxies may have been well preserved in the successive ice layers of Tsambagarav ice core. Our ice core processing method and analytical procedures for fundamental proxies are expected to be used for paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental studies from polar and alpine ice cores.

The Deposition of Tear Protein according to Soft Lens Materials and The Cleaning Efficacy of Multi-purpose Solution according to the Surfactant Types (소프트렌즈 재질 별 누액단백질 침착 및 계면활성제 종류에 따른 다목적용액의 세척효율)

  • Park, Mijung;Kwon, Young Dae;Lee, Wang Jae;Kim, So Ra
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.179-188
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The present study was aimed to investigate the cleaning efficacy of multi-purpose solutions containing different types and content of surfactants and their effect on the visible light transmittance of soft lens. Methods: Soft lenses made of different materials (etafilcon A and hilafilcon B) were deposited tear proteins by using the artificial tear and then compared the resulting cleaning efficacy and visible light transmittance after cleaning the lens with 6 types of multi-purpose solutions containing different content of surfactants. Results: The cleaning efficacy of multi-purpose solutions was variously shown as approximately 23~43% according to the active concentration of surfactants and surface tension in multi-purpose solution when etafilcon A lens cleaned with rubbing. The highest cleaning efficacy was detected when cleaned with the multi-purpose solution containing hydrogen peroxide besides surfactant however, the amount of remaining protein was still high on the lens. After washed with multi-purpose solution, the visible light transmittance of lens was in 89.8 to 90.8%. The amount of protein deposited on hilafilcon B lens was very small compared with it on etafilcon A lens even though it was incubated in artificial tears for 7 days, which showed 5~10% of protein amount in etafilcon A lens and the decrease of visible light transmittance was also not significant. In case of rubbing with multi-purpose solution, the cleaning efficacy on hilafilcon B lens was in 45.4 to 67.4% however, the order of cleaning efficacy of multi-purpose solution was different from it on etafilcon A lens. The visible light transmittance of hilafilcon B lens has been restored to the level of new lens. Conclusions: From the result, it is concluded that the appropriate multi-purpose solution should be selected according to the lens material and the amount of protein deposit on the basis of understanding surfactants and active principle for proper care of protein deposit on soft lens and the cleaning with rubbing is more efficient for lens care regardless of manufacturer's guideline.

Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Euptelea Pleiosperma Ethanol Extract (Euptelea pleiosperma 에탄올 추출물의 항산화 및 항염증 활성)

  • Jin, Kyong-Suk;Park, Jung Ae;Lee, Ji Young;Kang, Ji Sook;Kwon, Hyun Ju;Kim, Byung Woo
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.170-176
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    • 2014
  • In this study, the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of Euptelea pleiosperma ethanol extract (EPEE) were evaluated using in vitro assays and cell culture model systems. EPEE possessed a more potent scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl than the ascorbic acid used as a positive control. EPEE effectively suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in addition to hydrogen peroxide induced reactive oxygen species on RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, EPEE induced the expression of the anti-oxidative enzyme heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and its upstream transcription factor, nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), dose and time dependently. The modulation of HO-1 and Nrf2 expression might be regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinases and phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase/Akt as their upstream signaling pathways. On the other hand, EPEE inhibited LPS induced nitric oxide (NO) formation without cytotoxicity. Suppression of NO formation was the result of the down regulation of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) by EPEE. Suppression of NO and iNOS by EPEE may be modulated by their upstream transcription factor, nuclear factor ${\kappa}B$, and AP-1 pathways. Taken together, these results provide important new insights into E. pleiosperma, namely that it possesses anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities, indicating that it could be utilized as a promising material in the field of nutraceuticals.

Operating Optimization and Economic Evaluation of Multicomponent Gas Separation Process using Pressure Swing Adsorption and Membrane Process (압력 순환 흡착과 막 분리공정을 이용한 다성분 기체의 분리공정 조업 최적화 및 경제성 평가)

  • Kim, Hansol;Lee, Jaewook;Lee, Soobin;Han, Jeehoon;Lee, In-Beum
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 2015
  • At present, carbon dioxide ($CO_2$) emission, which causes global warming, is a major issue all over the world. To reduce $CO_2$ emission directly, commercial deployment of $CO_2$ separation processes has been attempted in industrial plants, such as power plant, oil refinery and steelmaking plant. Besides, several studies have been done on indirect reduction of $CO_2$ emission from recycle of reducing gas (carbon monoxide or hydrogen containing gas) in the plants. Unlike many competing gas separation technologies, pressure swing adsorption (PSA) and membrane filtration are commercially used together or individually to separate a single component from the gas mixture. However, there are few studies on operation of sequential separation process of multi-component gas which has more than two target gas products. In this paper, process simulation model is first developed for two available configurations: $CO_2$ PSA-CO PSA-$H_2$ PSA and $CO_2$ PSA-CO PSA-$H_2$ membrane. Operation optimization and economic evaluation of the processes are also performed. As a result, feed gas contains about 14% of $H_2$ should be used as fuel than separating $H_2$, and $CO_2$ separation should be separated earlier than CO separation when feed gas contains about 30% of $CO_2$ and CO. The simulation results can help us to find an optimal process configuration and operation condition for separation of multicomponent gas with $CO_2$, CO, $H_2$ and other gases.

Microbiological Pollution Investigation of Lowland Spring Water at the Jeju City Waterfront, Jeju Island (제주도 내 제주시 해안가 저지대용천수의 미생물학적 오염도 조사)

  • Kim, Man-Chul;Han, Yong-Jae;Heo, Moon-Soo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.324-331
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    • 2012
  • Bacteriological examination of spring water in Jeju City was conducted. A total of 21 spring water samples were collected from January to April, 2010. During the study period, the range of temperature was 0.6 to $15.4^{\circ}C$, and the results of the analyses showed that hydrogen ion concentrations (pH) for spring water were 0.43 to 7.9. Salinity levels for the samples averaged from 3.0 to 1.64%, and levels of water-dissolved oxygen were 1.85 to 6.06 mg/l. The range of total coliforms in spring water samples at 21 stations located in the designated spring water were <1.8->1,600 MPN/100 ml. Furthermore, the range of geometric means of total coliforms was 9.9-151.6 MPN/100 ml, while the range of fecal coliforms in spring water samples at 21 stations located in the designated spring water area was <1.8->1,600 MPN/100 ml. Finally, the range of geometric mean of fecal coliforms was 3.1-151.6 MPN/100 ml. The level of microbial contamination was examined in 21 samples for indications of bacterial contamination such as heterotrophic bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Shigella spp. were frequently detected in the spring water. Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and S. aureus were detected in the range of $0-0.5{\times}10^1$, $0-0.1{\times}10^1$, $0-0.1{\times}10^1$, and $0-0.3{\times}10^1$ CFU/ml, respectively, while E. coli O157:H7 was not detected in the examined spring water samples.

Recovery of Lipids from Chlorella sp. KR-1 via Pyrolysis and Characteristics of the Pyrolysis Oil (Chlorella sp. KR-1 열분해에 의한 지질 회수 및 열분해 오일 특성 분석)

  • Lee, Ho Se;Jeon, Sang Goo;Oh, You-Kwan;Kim, Kwang Ho;Chung, Soo Hyun;Na, Jeong-Geol;Yeo, Sang-Do
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.672-677
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    • 2012
  • Lipids in microalgal biomass were recovered by using pyrolysis method. The pyrolysis experiments of two Chlorella sp. KR-1 samples, which have triglyceride contents of 10.8% and 36.5%, respectively were carried out at $600^{\circ}C$ to investigate the effects of lipid contents in the cells on the reaction characteristics. The conversion and liquid yield of the lipid-rich sample were higher than those of the lipid-lean sample since its carbon to hydrogen ratio was low. There were low molecular weight organic acids, ketones, aldehydes and alcohols in the liquid products from both KR-1 samples, but the pyrolysis oil of the lipid-rich sample was abundant in free fatty acids, particularly palmitic acid, oleic acid and stearic acid while the content of nitrogen containing organic compounds was low. The microalgal pyrolysis oil had two layers composed of the light hydrophobic fraction and the heavy hydrophilic fraction. The light fraction might be originated from triglycerides and the heavy fraction might be from carbohydrates and proteins. In the light fraction of the liquid products, there were considerable linear alkanes such as pentadecane and heptadecane as well as free fatty acids, implying that deoxygenation reaction including decarboxylation was occurred during the pyrolysis. The yield of the liquid products from the pyrolysis of the KR-1 sample having triglyceride content of 36.5% was 56.9% and the light fraction in the liquid products was 68.2%. Also more than 80% of the light fraction was free fatty acids and pure hydrocarbons, thus showing that most triglycerides could be extracted in the form of suitable raw materials for biofuels.

Measurements of Dissociation Enthalpy for Simple Gas Hydrates Using High Pressure Differential Scanning Calorimetry (고압 시차 주사 열량계를 이용한 단일 객체 가스 하이드레이트의 해리 엔탈피 측정)

  • Lee, Seungmin;Park, Sungwon;Lee, Youngjun;Kim, Yunju;Lee, Ju Dong;Lee, Jaehyoung;Seo, Yongwon
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.666-671
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    • 2012
  • Gas hydrates are inclusion compounds formed when small-sized guest molecules are incorporated into the well defined cages made up of hydrogen bonded water molecules. Since large masses of natural gas hydrates exist in permafrost regions or beneath deep oceans, these naturally occurring gas hydrates in the earth containing mostly $CH_4$ are regarded as future energy resources. The heat of dissociation is one of the most important thermal properties in exploiting natural gas hydrates. The accurate and direct method to measure the dissociation enthalpies of gas hydrates is to use a calorimeter. In this study, the high pressure micro DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter) was used to measure the dissociation enthalpies of methane, ethane, and propane hydrates. The accuracy and repeatability of the data obtained from the DSC was confirmed by measuring the dissociation enthalpy of ice. The dissociation enthalpies of methane, ethane, and propane hydrates were found to be 54.2, 73.8, and 127.7 kJ/mol-gas, respectively. For each gas hydrate, at given pressures the dissociation temperatures which were obtained in the process of enthalpy measurement were compared with three-phase (hydrate (H) - liquid water (Lw) - vapor (V)) equilibrium data in the literature and found to be in good agreement with literature values.

A Study on Stable Isotope Ratio of Circulated Honey in Korea (국내 유통 벌꿀의 안정동위원소 비율에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Yoon-Jae;Kim, Jae-Young;Chang, Moon-Ik;Kang, Kyung-Mo;Park, Yong-Chjun;Kang, Il-Hyun;Do, Jung-Ah;Kwon, Ki-Sung;Oh, Jae-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.401-410
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    • 2012
  • This study examines the authenticity discrimination of the circulated honey by using stable isotope ratio methods. In the case of domestic honey, the range of ${\delta}^{13}C$ for the samples labeled as pure honey was about -27- -21‰ at the $C_3$ origin, and the range of that for artificial honey was over -19‰ at the $C_4$ origin. The range of ${\delta}^{13}C$ for all imported honey was over -27- -23‰ originating from the $C_3$ plant. According to the nectar-source, ${\delta}^2H$ and ${\delta}^{18}O$ for domestic honey were significantly different for 6 and 5 groups, respectively. However, we could not explain the detailed relationship as well as the geographical feature of ${\delta}^2H$ and ${\delta}^{18}O$. The difference for ${\delta}^2H$ and ${\delta}^{18}O$ in the wide range of latitude, such as between Australia and Canada, was more or less shown. However, it was difficult to find out the trends of ${\delta}^2H$ and ${\delta}^{18}O$ for imported honey versus the geographical information in the similar latitudinal country.

Advanced Treatment of Sewage and Wastewater Using an Integrated Membrane Separation by Porous Electrode-typed Electrolysis (분리막/다공 전극형 전기분해 조합공정을 이용한 하.폐수의 고도처리)

  • Choi, Yong-Jin;Lee, Kwang-Hyun
    • Membrane Journal
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.95-103
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    • 2012
  • To treat nitrate and non-biodegradable organics effectively in sewage, industrial wastewater and livestock wastewater, the activated sludge process integrated by a membrane separation and a porous electrode- electrolysis was proposed and its efficiency was investigated. The proposed system was consisted of 3 processes; activated sludge, membrane filtration and electrolysis. In the study, the membrane filtration played a role in reducing the load of the electrolysis to operate the proposed process stably. The electrolysis consisted of a porous electrode to increase the efficiency due to the extension of the specific surface area. Additionally, redox reaction in the electrolysis was induced by decomposing influent water as current was applied. As a result, hydrogen free radicals and oxygen radicals as intermediates were produced and they acted as oxidants to play a role in decomposing non-degradable organics. It was environmentally-friendly process because intermediates produced by porous electrode were used to treat waste matters without supplying external reagent. Experimental data showed that the proposed process was more excellent than activated sludge process. SS removal efficiencies of the proposed process, membrane filtration and activated sludge process were about 100%, about 100% and about 90%, respectively. COD removal efficiencies of the proposed system, membrane filtration and activated sludge process were about 92%, about 84% and about 78%, respectively. T-N removal efficiencies of the proposed system, membrane filtration and activated sludge process were about 88%, about 67%, and about 58%, respectively. The SS data showed that SS was efficiently removed in the single of the membrane filtration. The COD/T-N data showed that COD/T-N of membrane hybrid process was treated by removing a little soluble organics and SS, and that COD/T-N of electrolysis hybrid process was treated by oxidize organics with high removal rate.