• Title, Summary, Keyword: Hybrid column

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Structural behaviors of sustainable hybrid columns under compression and flexure

  • Wu, Xiang-Guo;Hu, Qiong;Zou, Ruofei;Zhao, Xinyu;Yu, Qun
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.52 no.5
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    • pp.857-873
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    • 2014
  • Structural behaviors of a sustainable hybrid column with the ultra high performance cementitious composites (UHPCC) permanent form under compression and flexure were studied. Critical state and failure stage characters are analyzed for large and small eccentricity cases. A simplified theoretical model is proposed for engineering designs and unified formulas for loading capacity of the hybrid column under compression and flexure loads are derived, including axial force and moment. Non-linear numerical analysis is carried out to verify the theoretical predictions. The theoretical predictions agree well with the numerical results which are verified by the short hybrid column tests recursively. Compared with the traditional reinforced concrete (RC) column, the loading capacity of the sustainable hybrid column is improved significantly due to UHPCC confinements.

Analysis of rectangular hybrid steel-GFRP reinforced concrete beam columns

  • El-Heloua, Rafic G.;Aboutaha, Riyad S.
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.245-260
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    • 2015
  • In this study, nominal moment-axial load interaction diagrams, moment-curvature relationships, and ductility of rectangular hybrid beam-column concrete sections are analyzed using the modified Hognestad concrete model. The hybrid columns are primarily reinforced with steel bars with additional Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) control bars. Parameters investigated include amount, pattern, location, and material properties of concrete, steel, and GFRP. The study was implemented using a user defined comprehensive $MATLAB^{(R)}$ simulation model to find an efficient hybrid section design maximizing strength and ductility. Generating lower bond stresses than steel bars at the concrete interface, auxiliary GFRP bars minimize damage in the concrete core of beam-column sections. Their usage prevents excessive yielding of the core longitudinal bars during frequent moderate cyclic deformations, which leads to significant damage in the foundations of bridges or beam-column spliced sections where repair is difficult and expensive. Analytical results from this study shows that hybrid steel-GFRP composite concrete sections where GFRP is used as auxiliary bars show adequate ductility with a significant increase in strength. Results also compare different design parameters reaching a number of design recommendations for the proposed hybrid section.

Seismic behavior of steel reinforced concrete (SRC) T-shaped column-beam planar and 3D hybrid joints under cyclic loads

  • Chen, Zongping;Xu, Jinjun;Chen, Yuliang;Xue, Jianyang
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.555-572
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    • 2015
  • This paper presents an experimental study of three two-dimensional (2D/planar) steel reinforced concrete (SRC) T-shaped column-RC beam hybrid joints and six 3D SRC T-shaped column-steel beam hybrid joints under low cyclic reversed loads. Considering different categories of steel configuration types in column cross section and horizontal loading angles for the specimens were selected, and a reliable structural testing system for the spatial loading was employed in the tests. The load-displacement curves, carrying capacity, energy dissipation capacity, ductility and deformation characteristics of the test subassemblies were analyzed. Especially, the seismic performance discrepancies between planar hybrid joints and 3D hybrid joints were intensively compared. The failure modes for planar loading and spatial loading observed in the tests showed that the shear-diagonal compressive failure was the dominating failure mode for all the specimens. In addition, the 3D hybrid joints illustrated plumper hysteretic loops for the columns configured with solid-web steel, but a little more pinched hysteretic loops for the columns configured with T-shaped steel or channel-shaped steel, better energy dissipation capacity & ductility, and larger interlayer deformation capacity than those of the planar hybrid joints. Furthermore, it was revealed that the hysteretic loops for the specimens under $45^{\circ}$ loading angle are generally plumper than those for the specimens under $30^{\circ}$ loading angle. Finally, the effects of steel configuration type and loading angle on the seismic damage for the specimens were analyzed by means of the Park-Ang model.

Cyclic Loading Tests of Concrete-Filled Composite Beam-Column Connections with Hybrid Moment Connections (복합모멘트접합을 갖는 콘크리트 충전 보-기둥 합성접합부의 반복하중 실험)

  • Lim, Jong Jin;Kim, Dong Gwan;Lee, Sang Hyun;Lee, Chang Nam;Eom, Tae Sung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.345-354
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    • 2016
  • In the present study, hybrid moment connections of welding and bar reinforcement for composite beam-column connections were proposed. Concrete-filled octagonal tube and U-section were used for the column and beam, respectively. In the beam-column connection, the top flange and web of the beam U-section were connected to the column plate by welding. However, to reduce stress concentration at the weld joints, the bottom flange of the beam was not welded to the column plate. Instead, to transfer the tension force of the beam flange, reinforcing bars passing through the column plate were used. Four exterior connections with conventional welded and hybrid moment connections were tested under cyclic loading and their cyclic behaviors were investigated. The test results showed that the hybrid moment connections successfully transferred the beam moment to the column. The strength and ductility of the hybrid moment connections were comparable to the conventional welded moment connection with exterior diaphragm; however, the connection performance was significantly affected by the details of the hybrid moment connection.

Performance of hybrid beam-column joint cast with high strength concrete

  • Al-Osta, M.A.;Al-Khatib, A.M.;Baluch, M.H.;Azad, A.K.;Rahman, M.K.
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.603-617
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    • 2017
  • This paper presents investigation into the behavior of beam-column joints, with the joint region concrete being replaced by steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) and by ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC). A total of ten beam-column joint specimens (BCJ) were tested experimentally to failure under monotonic and cyclic loading, with the beam section being subjected to flexural loading and the column to combined flexural and axial loading. The joint region essentially transferred shear and axial stresses as received from the column. Steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) and ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) were used as an innovative construction and/or strengthening scheme for some of the BCJ specimens. The reinforced concrete specimens were reinforced with longitudinal steel rebar, 18 mm, and some specimens were reinforced with an additional two ties in the joint region. The results showed that using SFRC and UHPC as a replacement concrete for the BCJ improved the joint shear strength and the load carrying capacity of the hybrid specimens. The mode of failure was also converted from a non-desirable joint shear failure to a preferred beam flexural failure. The effect of the ties in the SFRC and UHPC joint regions could not be observed due to the beam flexural failure. Several models were used in estimating the joint shear strength for different BCJ specimens. The results showed that the existing models yielded wide-ranging values. A new concept to take into account the influence of column axial load on the shear strength of beam-column joints is also presented, which demonstrates that the recommended values for concrete tensile strength for determination of joint shear strength need to be amended for joints subject to moderate to high axial loads. Furthermore, finite element model (FEM) simulation to predict the behaviour of the hybrid BCJ specimens was also carried out in an ABAQUS environment. The result of the FEM modelling showed good agreement with experimental results.

Pseudo-dynamic and cyclic loading tests on a steel-concrete vertical hybrid structure

  • Wang, Bo;Wu, Tao;Dai, Huijuan;Bai, Guoliang;Wu, Jian
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.399-409
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    • 2019
  • This paper presents the experimental investigations on the seismic performance of a peculiar steel-concrete vertical hybrid structural system referred to as steel truss-RC tubular column hybrid structure. It is typically applied as the supporting structural system to house air-cooled condensers in thermal power plants (TPPs). Firstly, pseudo-dynamic tests (PDTs) are performed on a scaled substructure to investigate the seismic performance of this hybrid structure under different hazard levels. The deformation performance, deterioration behavior and energy dissipation characteristics are analyzed. Then, a cyclic loading test is conducted after the final loading case of PDTs to verify the ultimate seismic resistant capacity of this hybrid structure. Finally, the failure mechanism is discussed through mechanical analysis based on the test results. The research results indicate that the steel truss-RC tubular column hybrid structure is an anti-seismic structural system with single-fortification line. RC tubular columns are the main energy dissipated components. The truss-to-column connections are the structural weak parts. In general, it has good ductile performance to satisfy the seismic design requirements in high-intensity earthquake regions.

Experimental Cyclic Behavior of Precast Hybrid Beam-Column Connections with Welded Components

  • Girgin, Sadik Can;Misir, Ibrahim Serkan;Kahraman, Serap
    • International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.229-245
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    • 2017
  • Post-earthquake observations revealed that seismic performance of beam-column connections in precast concrete structures affect the overall response extensively. Seismic design of precast reinforced concrete structures requires improved beam-column connections to transfer reversed load effects between structural elements. In Turkey, hybrid beam-column connections with welded components have been applied extensively in precast concrete industry for decades. Beam bottom longitudinal rebars are welded to beam end plates while top longitudinal rebars are placed to designated gaps in joint panels before casting of topping concrete in this type of connections. The paper presents the major findings of an experimental test programme including one monolithic and five precast hybrid half scale specimens representing interior beam-column connections of a moment frame of high ductility level. The required welding area between beam bottom longitudinal rebars and beam-end plates were calculated based on welding coefficients considered as a test parameter. It is observed that the maximum strain developed in the beam bottom flexural reinforcement plays an important role in the overall behavior of the connections. Two additional specimens which include unbonded lengths on the longitudinal rebars to reduce that strain demands were also tested. Strength, stiffness and energy dissipation characteristics of test specimens were investigated with respect to test variables. Seismic performances of test specimens were evaluated by obtaining damage indices.

Analytical Modelling of Column-Type Hybrid Damper and Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings (기둥 복합댐퍼의 해석모델 구축 및 기존 건축물에 대한 내진보강 효과분석)

  • Choi, Ki-Sun;You, Young-Chan;Kim, Keung-Hwan;Cho, Hae-Jin
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.285-288
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    • 2008
  • Analytical studies are performed to evaluate the feasibility of column-type hybrid damper for seismic rehabilitation of existing buildings. For this purpose, at first, analytical model which can simulate the hysteretic behavior of column-type hybrid damper is proposed for use of commercially-available structural analysis program (MIDAS). Also seismic rehabilitation effects by column-type hybrid damper were evaluated by time history analysis for the existing building with vertical extension. From the analysis, it was found that base shear of typical building is reduced about 20% and story drift was reduced around 20% at critical story.

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Novel steel bracket and haunch hybrid system for post-earthquake retrofit of damaged exterior beam-column sub-assemblages

  • Kanchanadevi, A.;Ramanjaneyulu, K.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.73 no.3
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    • pp.239-257
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    • 2020
  • In the present study, an innovative steel bracket and haunch hybrid scheme is devised, for retrofitting of earthquake damaged deficient beam-column sub-assemblages. Formulations are presented for evaluating haunch force factor under combined load case of lateral and gravity loads for the design of double haunch retrofit. The strength hierarchies of control and retrofitted beam-column sub-assemblages are established to showcase the efficacy of the retrofit in reversing the undesirable strength hierarchy. Further, the efficacy of the proposed retrofit scheme is demonstrated through experimental investigations carried out on gravity load designed (GLD), non-ductile and ductile detailed beam-column sub-assemblages which were damaged under reverse cyclic loading. The maximum load carried by repaired and retrofitted GLD specimen in positive and negative cycle is 12% and 28% respectively higher than that of the control GLD specimen. Further, the retrofitted GLD specimen sustained load up to drift ratio of 5.88% compared with 2.94% drift sustained by control GLD specimen. Repaired and retrofitted non-ductile specimen, could attain the displacement ductility of three during positive cycle of loading and showed improved ductility well above the expected displacement ductility of three during negative cycle. The hybrid haunch retrofit restored the load carrying capacity of damaged ductile specimen to the original level of control specimen and improved the ductility closer to the expected displacement ductility of five. The total cumulative energy dissipated by repaired and retrofitted GLD, non-ductile and ductile specimens are respectively 6.5 times, 2.31 times, 1.21 times that of the corresponding undamaged control specimens. Further, the damage indices of the repaired and retrofitted specimens are found to be lower than that of the corresponding control specimens. The novel and innovative steel bracket and haunch hybrid retrofit scheme proposed in the present study demonstrated its effectiveness by attaining the required displacement ductility and load carrying capacity and would be an excellent candidate for post-earthquake retrofit of damaged existing RC structures designed according to different design evolutions.

Behavior of Hybrid Double Skin Concrete Filled Circular Steel Tube Columns

  • Kim, Jin-Kook;Kwak, Hyo-Gyoung;Kwak, Ji-Hyun
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.191-204
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    • 2013
  • A hybrid double skin concrete filled (HDSCF) circular steel tube column is proposed in this study. The yield strength of the outer steel tube is larger than 690MPa and the inner tube has less strength. In order to achieve efficiency with the high strength outer tube, a feasibility study on reducing the thickness of the tube below the specified design codes for CFTs was conducted based on an experimental approach. The experiment also took variables such as thickness of the inner tube, hollow ratio, and strength of concrete into consideration to investigate the behavior of the HDSCF column. In order to estimate the applicability of design equations for CFTs to the HDSCF column, test results from CFT and HDSCF columns with design codes were compared. It was found that the axial compressive performance of the proposed HDSCF column is equivalent to that of the conventional CFT member irrespective of design variables. Furthermore, the design equation for a circular CFT given by EC4 is applicable to estimate the ultimate strength of the HDSCF circular steel tube column.