• Title, Summary, Keyword: Hunan

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A Multi-center Survey of HPV Knowledge and Attitudes Toward HPV Vaccination among Women, Government Officials, and Medical Personnel in China

  • Zhao, Fang-Hui;Tiggelaar, Sarah M.;Hu, Shang-Ying;Zhao, Na;Hong, Ying;Niyazi, Mayinuer;Gao, Xiao-Hong;Ju, Li-Rong;Zhang, Li-Qin;Feng, Xiang-Xian;Duan, Xian-Zhi;Song, Xiu-Ling;Wang, Jing;Yang, Yun;Li, Chang-Qin;Liu, Jia-Hua;Liu, Ji-Hong;Lu, Yu-Bo;Li, Li;Zhou, Qi;Liu, Jin-Feng;Xu, Li-Na;Qiao, You-Lin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.2369-2378
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: To assess knowledge of HPV and attitudes towards HPV vaccination among the general female population, government officials, and healthcare providers in China to assist the development of an effective national HPV vaccination program. Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiologic survey was conducted across 21 urban and rural sites in China using a short questionnaire. 763 government officials, 760 healthcare providers, and 11,681 women aged 15-59 years were included in the final analysis. Data were analyzed using standard descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Results: Knowledge of HPV among the general female population was low; only 24% had heard of HPV. Less than 20% of healthcare providers recognized sexually na$\ddot{i}$ve women as the most appropriate population for HPV vaccination. There was high acceptance of the HPV vaccine for all categories of respondents. Only 6% of women were willing to pay more than US $300 for the vaccine. Conclusions: Aggressive education is necessary to increase knowledge of HPV and its vaccine. Further proof of vaccine safety and efficacy and government subsidies combined with increased awareness could facilitate development and implementation of HPV vaccination in China.

Anti-inflammatory Constituents of the Aerial Parts of Trichosanthes kirilowii in BV2 Microglial Cells (괄루경엽의 BV2 미세아교세포에서의 항염증 활성 성분)

  • Li, Xiao Jun;Kim, Kwan-Woo;Ko, Wonmin;Kim, Dong-Cheol;Yoon, Chi-Su;Liu, Xiang Qian;Kim, Jong-Su;Jang, Kyu-Kwan;Kang, Dae-Gil;Lee, Ho-Sub;Oh, Hyuncheol;Kim, Youn-Chul
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.7-11
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    • 2016
  • The aerial part of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim. (Cucurbitaceae), has long been used in traditional Korean and Chinese medicines for the treatment of heatstroke. We isolated and identified three flavones, luteolin-7-O-${\beta}$-D-glucopyranoside(1), luteolin-4'-O-${\beta}$-D-glucopyranoside(2), luteolin(3) from its methanolic extract. In the present study, we found that luteolin attenuates the lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced inflammation in BV2 microglial cells. Luteolin significantly inhibited LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide(NO) and prostaglandin $E_2(PGE_2)$ in BV2 microglia in a concentration-dependent manner without cytotoxic effect. Luteolin dose-dependently suppressed the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2). In addition, luteolin also showed significant induction of heme oxygenase(HO)-1. These results suggest that both the aerial part of T. kirilowii and luteolin may be good candidates to regulate LPS-induced inflammatory response.

A Longitudinal Case Study of Late Babble and Early Speech in Southern Mandarin

  • Chen, Xiaoxiang
    • Cross-Cultural Studies
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    • v.20
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    • pp.5-27
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    • 2010
  • This paper studies the relation between canonical/variegated babble (CB/VB) and early speech in an infant acquiring Mandarin Chinese from 9 to 17 months. The infant was audio-and video-taped in her home almost every week. The data analyzed here come from 1,621 utterances extracted from 23 sessions ranging from 30 minutes to one hour, from age 00:09;07 to 01:05;27. The data was digitized, and segments from 23 sessions were transcribed in narrow IPA and coded for analysis. Babble was coded from age 00:09;07 to 01:00;00, and words were coded from 01:00;00 to 01:05;27, proto-words appeared at 11 months, and some babble was still present after 01:10;00. 3821 segments were counted in CB/VB utterances, plus the segments found in 899 word tokens. The data transcription was completed and checked by the author and was rechecked by two other researchers who majored in Chinese phonetics in order to ensure the reliability, we reached an agreement of 95.65%. Mandarin Chinese is phonetically very rich in consonants, especially affricates: it has aspirated and unaspirated stops in labial, alveolar, and velar places of articulation; affricates and fricatives in alveolar, retroflex, and palatal places; /f/; labial, alveolar, and velar nasals; a lateral;[h]; and labiovelar and palatal glides. In the child's pre-speech phonetic repertoire, 7 different consonants and 10 vowels were transcribed at 00:09;07. By 00:10;16, the number of phones was more than doubled (17 consonants, 25 vowels), but the rate of increase slowed after 11 months of age. The phones from babbling remained active throughout the child's early and subsequent speech. The rank order of the occurrence of the major class types for both CB and early speech was: stops, approximants, nasals, affricates, fricatives and lateral. As expected, unaspirated stops outnumbered aspirated stops, and front stops and nasals were more frequent than back sounds in both types of utterances. The fact that affricates outnumbered fricatives in the child's late babble indicates the pre-speech influence of the ambient language. The analysis of the data also showed that: 1) the phonetic characteristics of CB/VB and early meaningful speech are extremely similar. The similarities of CB/VB and speech prove that the two are deeply related; 2) The infant has demonstrated similar preferences for certain types of sounds in the two stages; 3) The infant's babbling was patterned at segmental level, and this regularity was similarly evident in the early speech of children. The three types being coronal plus front vowel; labial plus central and dorsal plus back vowel exhibited much overlap in the phonetic forms of CB/ VB and early speech. So the child's CB/ VB at this stage already shared the basic architecture, composition and representation of early speech. The evidence of similarity between CB/VB and early speech leaves no doubt that phones present in CB/VB are indeed precursors to early speech.