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Gene Frequencies and Phenotypes of Transferrin C Subtypes and Haptoglobin in Korean Population (한국인집단의 Transferrin C Subtypes와 Haptoglogin Phenotypes의 분포와 유전자 빈도)

  • 이정주;오문유
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.211-217
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    • 1983
  • Genetic polymorphism of transferrin $(T_f)$ subtypes in Jeju population was studied by isoelectric focusing of human sera on polyacrylamide gels under high voltage, and haptolobin (Hp) polymorphism in Seoul and Jeju population was studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Among 946 normal samples, three common types of transferrin, $T_{f}C_{1}, T_{f}C_{1}-C_{2} and T_{f}C_{2}$ were observed with some variants migrating slower than $T_{f}C$ subtypes, while among 139 patient (hepatitis) samples, only three common types were found. The gene frequencies were calculated as follows; in normal population, $T_{f}C^{1}$ was 0.7220; $T_{f}C^{2}, 0.2743; T_{f}D^{Jeju}, 0.0037$, and in patient population, $T_{f}C^{1} was 0.7194; T_{f}C^{2}, 0.2806$ respectively. Among 460 samples in Seoul and 502 in Jeju population, three types of haptoglobin, Hp 1-1, Hp 2-1 and Hp 2-2 were observed. The gene frequency of $Hp^1$ was 0.304, $Hp^2$, 0.696 in Seoul and in Jeju, $Hp^1$ was 0.269 and $Hp^2$, 0.731, respectively. The frequencies of the genes and the polymorphic phenotypes were discussed comparatively with the other populations.

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Toxicity of Hematoporphyrin-Coated Magnetic Ferrofluid in Rats

  • Hwang Youn-Hwan;Lim Jong-Hwan;Park Byung-Kwon;Kim Myoung-Suk;Kim Chong-Oh;Yun Hyo-In
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.55-59
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the toxicity of hematoporphyrin-coated magnetic ferrofluid (HP-MF) through intravenous administration in Sprague-Dawley rats. Each group was treated with either saline, or the HP-MF at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 4 ml/kg body weight (b.w.) for the observation of survival rate, clinical symptoms, laboratory values and histopathological findings. In this study, HP-MF was evaluated for the survival rates, symptoms, laboratory values and histopathological examination after treatments. The result revealed that the animals in the group of HP-MF at 2 and 4 ml/kg b.w. showed some lethality. In serum biochemistry, the levels of AST, ALT and ALP were increased in the MF and HP-MF treated groups. However, histopathological examination for the suspected organs showed no evidence of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of typical iron poisoning. Though the toxicity of HP-MF was higher than that of HP, long retention of hematoporphyrin via HP-MF provides additional benefit over conventional hematoporphyrin. HP-MF could be utilized as a potential photodynamic agent in cancer therapy. It is suggested to develop an efficient external magnetic device to attract hematoporphyrin in the target site, thereby enabling to administering a small amount of HP-MF.

Effects of Hydrolysis pH on Distribution of Molecular Weights of Alginates of Sea Tangle Laminaria japonica (다시마 (Laminaria japonica) 알긴산의 분자량 분포에 미치는 가수분해 pH의 영향)

  • Lim, Yeong-Seon;You, Byeong-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.313-317
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    • 2006
  • To prepare oligouronic acids from high-molecular-weight alginates, sea tangle (Laminaria japonica) alginates were hydrolyzed at various pHs for 1 hr at 80$^{\circ}C$. The effects of hydrolysis pH (HpH) on the average molecular weight (AMW) and MW distribution ratios (DRs) in the hydrolyzed alginates were investigated. As HpH decreased, the DRs of the alginates with MW>500 kDa and MW=300-500 kDa decreased exponentially, while it increased exponentially for MW<50 kDa. For MW=100-300 kDa, DR increased exponentially as HpH fell from 5.0 to 3.5, and then decreased exponentially. Similarly, for MW=50-100 kDa, DR increased exponentially as HpH increased to 1.0 from 5.0, and then decreased exponentially. As HpH decreased, the MW cutoff size and AMW of alginates fraction with the highest DR were decreased. For HpH 4.5 and 5.0, the MW cutoff size with the highest DRs was MW=300-500 kDa; the DRs were 28.9 and 32.6%, respectively; and the AMW of both was about 400 kDa, for HpH 3.5 and 4.0, the cutoff size was MW=100-300 kDa; the DRs were about 28%: and the AMWs were both about 200 kDa. For HpH 3.0, the cutoff size was MW=50-100; the DR was 29.0%; and the AMW was 73 kDa. For HpH values below 2.0, the MW cutoff size with the highest DRs was MW<50 kDa, and all of the AMWs were below 28 kDa.

Effect of Carbon Tetrachloride on the Changes of Xanthine Oxidase Activity in Rate Previously Fed Low or High Protein Diet (식이성 단백질 함량에 따른 흰쥐에 사염화탄소 투여가 Xanthine Oxidase활성에 미치는 영향)

  • 윤종국;이상일;신중규
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.527-537
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    • 1991
  • To evaluate an effect of liver xanthine oxidase on the induction of liver damage, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was intraperitoneally injected twice at 0.1ml/100g body weight to the rate fed a low (LP)or high protein diet(HP) while the control group fed LP or HP received only olive oil. The changing rate of liver xanthine oxidas activity was compared with that of a free radical generating enzyme, liver aniline hydroxylase and a scavenging enzyme, glutathions S-transferase activity between the rate fed a LP and those fed HP, and the two groups treated with CCl4. Concomitantly, the degree of liver damage which could be considered as the paramete for CCl4 metabolism in case of CCl4-intoxicated animal was observed in the present experimental conditions and the effect of allopurinol, xanthine oxidase inhibitor, on the CCl4-toxicity of rate liver was alos demostrated. On the other hand, the comparative effect of actinomycin D on the liver and serum xanthine oxidase of CCl4-treated rats fed HP with that of those fed LP and the kinetics of purifed liver enzyme from the liver of CCl4-treated rats fed HP was also compared with that of those fed LP to clarify the differences of xanthine oxidase activity between two groups. The increasing rate of liver weigth/body wt, serum levels of ALT and the decreasing rate of hepatic ALT activity and protein contents to each control group were higher in CCl4-treated rats fed HP than those fed LP. Under the animal models as indentified by the present data herein, the liver xanthine oxidase activity was higher in CCl4-treated rats fed HP than those fed LP, and the control group fed HP also showed the much higher activity xanthine oxidase than that fed LP, whereas there were no differences in the activity of hepatic aniline hydroxylase and glutathions S-transferase between the two group treated with CCl4. Although the hepatic aniline hydroxylase activity was somewhat higher in the rats fed HP than those fed LP, the increasing rate of liver xanthine oxidase to the rats fed LP was higher in those fed HP than that of liver aniline hydroxylase. The degree of liver damage identified such as liver weight and serum ALT activity was less in the CCl4-treated rats pretreated with allopurinol. These results suggest that even a system at which xanthine oxidase acts as well as the drug metabolizing enzyme may influence the acelatin of CCl4 metabolism. In addition, the purified liver xanthine oxidase from CCl4-treated rats fed HP showed decreased Km value when compared to its control group. The Km value of liver xanthine oxidase of CCl4-treated rats fed LP showed a similar Km value with its control group. Furthermore, the decreasing rate of liver and serum xanthine oxidase acitivity in CCl4-treated rats pretreated with actinomycin D to the CCl4-treated rats was higher in rats fed HP than in those fed LP. These results suggest that the inductino of xanthine oxidase in CCl4-treated rats fed HP may be greater than in those fed LP.

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Growth Responses of Eggplant (Solanum melongena) to Hydrophilic Polymer Mixture Ratio in Growing Medium for Lower Maintenance Urban Agriculture via Green Roofs (옥상 내 저관리 도시농업에서 친수성 중합체 배합비에 따른 가지(Solanum melongena)의 생육반응)

  • Ju, Jin-Hee;Kim, Won-Tae;Xu, Hui;Yoon, Young-Han;Choi, Eun-Young
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.625-633
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to investigate the influence of hydrophilic polymer (HP) mixture ratio (Control, 1.0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, and 10.0%) on growth of eggplant (Solanum melongena) for lower maintenance urban agriculture via green roofs. Although it was not statistically significant (p > 0.05), substrate temperature was decreased as hydrophilic polymer mixture ratio were increased. High substrate water content (95%) was found consistently in growing media under elevated hydrophilic polymer mixture ratio at over 5% during the entire growing period. Substrate electronic conductivity was increased as hydrophilic polymer mixture ratio were increased. Growth index was decreased as hydrophilic polymer mixture ratio was increased. It was reduced about 1/3 and 1/5 compared to that of Control in HP5.0 and HP10.0 treatment plants, respectively. Number of leaves, leaf length, and leaf width were decreased in following order: Control> HP1.0> HP2.5> HP5.0> HP10.0 treatments. There numbers were significantly lower in HP5.0 and HP10.0 treatment plants. Dry weight of shoot and root were decreased as hydrophilic polymer mixture ratio was increased. They were reduced by 1/4 compared to those of Control treatment plants. In addition, visual value was decreased as hydrophilic polymer mixture ratio was increased. Plants grown in HP1.0, HP2.5, and HP5.0 treatments all survived. However, plants grown in the HP10.0 treatment had the lowest survival rate (56%) after 3 months of growing. These results indicate that the advantage of adding hydrophilic polymer to green roof growing media may greater during dry periods. However, the proper mixture proportion of hydrophilic polymer should be determined according to different characteristics of growing media and plant species.

Relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and iron-deficiency anemia in infants and children (영유아에서 Helicobacter pylori 감염과 철결핍성 빈혈과의 관계 연구)

  • Son, Meong Hi;Yeom, Jung Suk;Park, Ji Suk;Park, Eun Sil;Seo, Ji Hyun;Lim, Jae Young;Park, Chan Hoo;Woo, Hyang Ok;Youn, Hee Shang
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.52 no.5
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    • pp.544-548
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    • 2009
  • Purpose : To elucidate a potential association between Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) in infants and children in terms of the other factors related to iron utilization and storage although the association of ferritin was previously studied. Methods : We evaluated 135 infants (aged 6-24 months) admitted at Gyeongsang National University Hospital from 2000 to 2006. Western blot assays using the HP CagA antigen (120 kD) were conducted to identify infections. The concentrations of six parameters were measured: hemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin, soluble serum transferrin receptors, interleukin-6, prohepcidin, and C-reactive protein. In addition, the infants were classified into IDA, anemia from inflammation (AI), unclassified anemia (UCA), and normal groups on the basis of Hb and ferritin concentrations. Results : In the IDA group (n=20), seven infants were infected with HP, with the other infants showing no evidence of infection. The mean Hb levels in the IDA group were significantly lower in HP-infected infants than those uninfected (7.1 vs. 8.2 g/dL, respectively); the mean ferritin levels were also significantly lower in the infected infants (3.2 vs. $6.8{\mu}g/L$). The other four parameters did not differ significantly among the IDA infants. No correlations were found between the six parameters and HP infection status in the other groups. Conclusion : There were no significant differences in the HP infection rates among the study groups. However, in the IDA group, the HP-infected infants had significantly lower serum ferritin and Hb levels than the HP-negative infants (P<0.05).

뇌로의 악물송달(I) - 사람, 랫트 및 가토에 있어서의 할로페리돌의 약물속도론 연구

  • 박경호;이민화
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.63-63
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    • 1992
  • 할로페리돌(HP)은 정신분열증 환자에 널리 사용되는 Dopamine D$_2$-receptor의 antagonist인 antipsychotic drug이다. 이 약물의 혈장농도와 임상 반응사이의 'curvilinear'한 상관성 존재여부와 여기에 대한 대사체(reduced haloperidol, RH)의 영향에 대해 논란은 많지만, 본 연구 팀에서도 위의 상관성이 존재하며 또한 여기에 RH가 영향을 미칠 것으로 보고한바 있다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 앞의 결과에 대한 기전을 밝히고, 궁극적으로 효율적인 뇌송달 시스템의 개발가능성을 검토하기위한 1차적 인구로 HP의 약물속도론적 연구를 사람, 랫트 및 가토에서 실시하여 그특성을 비교하였다. 사람경우는 13명의 정신분열증 초기환자를 대상으로 경구(20mg HP, 5명) 및 주사(10mg HP, 8명) 투여한 후, 또한 랫트 및 가토의 경우는 마리당 5mg의 HP 및 RH를 각각 정맥주사한 후 경시적으로 혈장중 HP 및 RH의 농도를 측정하여 체내동태 특성을 검토하였다.

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Molecular Cloning of $\beta$-Galactosidase from Bacillus subtilis HP-4

  • Kim, Jeong-Ho;Lee, Jae-Chang;Huh, Jeong-Won;Chung, Ki-Chul
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.1 no.4
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    • pp.227-231
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    • 1991
  • A gene coding for a $\beta$-galactosidase of Bacillus subtilis HP-4 was cloned in E. coli JM109 by inserting HindIII digested fragment of B. subtilis HP-4 chromosomal DNA into the site of pBR322 and selecting recombinant transformant showing blue color on X-gal plate. The recombinant plasmid, named pBG109, was found to contain the 1.4 Kbp HindIII fragment originated from B. subtilis HP-4 chromosomal DNA by Southern hybridization. The cloned gene was stably maintained and expressed in E. coli JM109 and the pBG109 encoded $\beta$-galactosidase had the same enzymatic properties as those of $\beta$-galactosidase produced by B. subtilis HP-4.

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Inhibitory Effect of Ponciretin on Helicobacter pylori VacA Toxin-induced Vacuolation in HeLa Cells

  • KIM JONG-MI;SHIN JI-EUN;BAE EUN-AH;HAN MYUNG JOO;KIM DONG-HYUN
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.46-51
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    • 2006
  • The inhibitory effects of flavanone derivatives on Helicobacter pylori (HP) growth, infection and VacA toxininduced vacuolation were investigated. Among flavanones tested, ponciretin potently inhibited the growth of HP with a MIC value of 0.01 mg/ml and VacA toxin-induced vacuolation in HeLa cells with $IC_{50}$ value of 0.078 mM. However, other flavanones inhibited neither HP growth nor VacA toxininduced vacuolation. All flavanones tested did not inhibit HP infection to KATO III cells. Ponciretin also inhibited activation of procaspase-3 to caspase-3 in HeLa cell induced by HP VacA toxin, but did not affect Bax and Bcl-2 protein levels. These findings indicate that ponciretin inhibits growth as well as vacuolation by HP VacA toxin, which induces cell death via proteolytic activation of a cascade of caspases.

Protective Effect of HP08-0111 on Ligature-Induced Periodontitis

  • Park, Young-Ran;Cho, Hyoung-Kwon;Soh, Yun-Jo
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.145-151
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    • 2010
  • Periodontitis is an inflammatory disorder of the periodontium and is characterized by destruction of the tooth supporting tissues, mediated by the upregulation of synthesis and release of a variety of pro-inflammatory factors. Inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins upregulate RANKL and its subsequent binding to RANK stimulates osteoclast formation, resorption activity, and survival. In our present study, we investigated the effects of HP08-0111, composed of Coptis japonica (Thunb.) Makino, vitamin C and vitamin E, upon inflammatory responses, osteoclastogenesis and alveolar bone loss. HP08-0111 decreased the expression of IL-1$\beta$ and COX2 on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells and inhibited osteoclast-specific genes such as c-Fos, MMP-9, and TRAP. HP08-0111 also exhibited protective effects against alveolar bone loss in rats with ligature-induced periodontitis. Our results suggest that HP08-0111 is potentially an important therapeutic tool for the treatment of disorders associated with bone loss such as periodontitis.