• Title, Summary, Keyword: Hp

Search Result 1,714, Processing Time 0.049 seconds

Nutrient Utilization, Body Composition and Lactation Performance of First Lactation Bali Cows (Bos sondaicus) on Grass-Legume Based Diets

  • Sukarini, I.A.M.;Sastradipradja, D.;Sutardi, T.;Mahardika, IG.;Budiarta, IG.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.13 no.12
    • /
    • pp.1681-1690
    • /
    • 2000
  • A study on energy and protein utilization, and milk production of Bali cows on grass-legume diets was carried out using 12 first lactation cows (initial BW $263.79{\pm}21.66kg$) during a period of 16 weeks starting immediately post calving. The animals were randomly allotted into 4 dietary treatment groups R1, R2, R3 and R4, receiving from the last 2 months of pregnancy onwards, graded improved rations based on a mixture of locally available grass and legume feed ad libitum. R1 contained on a DM basis 70% elephant grass (PP, Penisetum purpureum) plus 30% Gliricidia sepia leaves (GS), R2 was 30% PP plus 55% GS supplemented with 15% Hibiscus tilliactus leaves (HT, defaunating effect), R3 and R4 were 22.5% PP+41.25% GS+11.25% HT+25% concentrate, where R3 was not and R4 supplemented with zinc di-acetate. TDN, CP and zinc contents of the diets were 58.2%, 12.05% and 18.3 mg/kg respectively for R1, 65.05%, 16.9% and 25.6 mg/kg respectively for R2, 66.03%, 16.71% and 29.02 mg/kg respectively for R3 and 66.03%, 16.71% and 60.47 mg/kg respectively for R4. Milk production and body weight were monitored throughout the experimental period. In vivo body composition by the urea space technique validated by the body density method and supported by carcass data was estimated at the start and termination of the experiment. Nutrient balance and rumen performance characteristics were measured during a balance trial of 7 days during the 3rd and 4th week of the lactation period. Results indicated that quality of ration caused improvement of ruminal total VFA concentration, increments being 52 to 65% for R2, R3 and R4 above R1, with increments of acetate being less (31 to 48%) and propionate being proportionally more in comparison to total VFA increments. Similarly, ammonia concentrations increased to 5.24 to 7.07 mM, equivalent to 7.34 to 9.90 mg $NH_3-N/100ml$ rumen fluid. Results also indicated that feed quality did not affect DE and ME intakes, and heat production (HP), but increased GE, UE, energy in milk and total retained energy (RE total) in body tissues and milk. Intake-, digestible- and catabolized-protein, and retained-protein in body tissues and milk (Rprot) were all elevated increasing the quality of ration. Similar results were obtained for milk yield and components with mean values reaching 2.085 kg/d (R4) versus 0.92 kg/d (R1) for milk yield, and 170.22 g/d (R4) vs 71.69 g/d (R1), 105.74 g/d (R4) vs 45.35 g/d (R1), 101.34 g/d (R4) vs 46.36 g/d (R1) for milk-fat, -protein, and -lactose, respectively. Relatively high yields of milk production was maintained longer for R4 as compared to the other treatment groups. There were no significant effects on body mass and components due to lactation. From the relationship $RE_{total}$ (MJ/d)=12.79-0.373 ME (MJ/d); (r=0.73), it was found that $ME_{m}=0.53MJ/kgW^{0.75}.d$. Requirement of energy to support the production of milk, ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 kg/d, follows the equation: Milk Prod. ($Q_{mp}$, kg/d)=[-2.48+4.31 ME($MJ/kg^{0.75}.d$)]; (r=0.6) or $Q_{mp}$=-3.4+[0.08($ME-RE_{body\;tissue}$)]MJ/d]; (r=0.94). The requirement for protein intake for maintenance ($IP_m$) equals $6.19 g/kg^{0.75}.d$ derived from the relationship RP=-47.4+0.12 IP; (r=0.74, n=9). Equation for protein requirement for lactation is $Q_{nl}$=[($Q_{mp}$)(% protein in milk)($I_{mp}$)]/100, where $Q_{nl}$ is g protein required for lactation, $Q_{mp}$ is daily milk yield, Bali cow's milk-protein content av. 5.04%, and $I_{mp}$ is metabolic increment for milk production ($ME_{lakt}/ME_{m}=1.46$).

Climate Change Impact on Nonpoint Source Pollution in a Rural Small Watershed (기후변화에 따른 농촌 소유역에서의 비점오염 영향 분석)

  • Hwang, Sye-Woon;Jang, Tae-Il;Park, Seung-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
    • /
    • v.8 no.4
    • /
    • pp.209-221
    • /
    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of climate change on the nonpoint source pollution in a small watershed using a mid-range model. The study area is a basin in a rural area that covers 384 ha with a composition of 50% forest and 19% paddy. The hydrologic and water quality data were monitored from 1996 to 2004, and the feasibility of the GWLF (Generalized Watershed Loading function) model was examined in the agricultural small watershed using the data obtained from the study area. As one of the studies on climate change, KEI (Korea Environment Institute) has presented the monthly variation ratio of rainfall in Korea based on the climate change scenario for rainfall and temperature. These values and observed daily rainfall data of forty-one years from 1964 to 2004 in Suwon were used to generate daily weather data using the stochastic weather generator model (WGEN). Stream runoff was calibrated by the data of $1996{\sim}1999$ and was verified in $2002{\sim}2004$. The results were determination coeff, ($R^2$) of $0.70{\sim}0.91$ and root mean square error (RMSE) of $2.11{\sim}5.71$. Water quality simulation for SS, TN and TP showed $R^2$ values of 0.58, 0.47 and 0.62, respectively, The results for the impact of climate change on nonpoint source pollution show that if the factors of watershed are maintained as in the present circumstances, pollutant TN loads and TP would be expected to increase remarkably for the rainy season in the next fifty years.

Simultaneous Analysis of 13 Pesticides in Groundwater and Evaluation of its Persistent Characteristics

  • Song, Dahee;Park, Sunhwa;Jeon, Sang-Ho;Kim, Ki-In;Hwang, Jong Yeon;Kim, Moonsu;Jo, Hun-Je;Kim, Deok-hyun;Lee, Gyeong-Mi;Kim, Hye-Jin;Kim, Tae-Seung;Chung, Hyen Mi;Kim, Hyun-Koo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
    • /
    • v.50 no.5
    • /
    • pp.434-451
    • /
    • 2017
  • For this study, groundwater samples for 3 years from 2011 through 2013 were collected at 106 groundwater monitoring site in Korea. These groundwater samples were analyzed for 13 pesticides such as cabofuran, pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, simazine, atrazine, lindane (gamma-HCH), alachlor, heptachlor, chlordane (total), endosulfan (1, 2), dieldrin, endrin, 4,4-DDT. The objectives of this study were to determine the detection frequency and their concentrations of 13 pesticides and evaluate the health risk level considering ingestion, inhalation, and skin contact using concentrations of 13 pesticides in groundwater samples. An analysis was used for the simultaneous determination for 13 pesticides using GC-MS. GC-MS was performed on HP-5ms, using helium ($1ml\;min^{-1}$) as carrier gas. The average recoveries of the pesticides were from 92.8% to 120.8%. The limits of detection (LODs) were between $0.004{\mu}g\;L^{-1}$ and $0.118{\mu}g\;L^{-1}$ and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were between $0.012{\mu}g\;L^{-1}$ and $0.354{\mu}g\;L^{-1}$. 106 groundwater wells were selected. 54 wells were from well to monitor background groundwater quality and 52 wells were from well to monitor groundwater quality in industrial or contamination source area. Eight pesticides including pentachlorobenzene, lindane (Gamma-HCH), heptachlor, chlordane (total), Endosulfan (1, 2), dieldrin, endrin, and 4,4-DDT were not detected in groundwater samples. The detection frequency for hexachlorobenzene, alachlor, carbofuran and simazine was 23.4%, 11.4%, 7.3%, and 1.0%, respectively. Atrazine was detected once in 2011. The average concentrations were $0.00423{\mu}g\;L^{-1}$ for carbofuran, $0.000243{\mu}g\;L^{-1}$ for alachlor, $0.00015{\mu}g\;L^{-1}$ for simazine, and $0.00001{\mu}g\;L^{-1}$ for hexachlorobenzene. The detection frequency of hexachlorobenzene was high, but the average concentration was low. In the contaminated groundwater, the detection frequency for hexachlorobenzene, alachlor, carbofuran, simazine and atrazine was 26.1%, 21.3%, 7.1%, 1.9% and 0.3%, respectively. In the uncontaminated groundwater, detection frequency for hexachlorobenzene, carbofuran and alachlor were 20.2%, 7.5%, and 1.9% respectively. Simazine and atrazine were not detected at uncontaminated groundwater wells. According to the purpose of groundwater use, atrazine was detected for agricultural groundwater use. Hexachlorobenzene showed high detection frequency at agricultural groundwater use area where the animal feeding area and golf course area were located. Alachlor showed more than 50% detection frequency at cropping area, pollution concern river area, and golf course area. Atrazine was detected in agricultural water use area. By land use, the maximum detection frequency of alachlor was found near an orchard. For human risk assessment, the cancer risk for the 5 pesticides was between $10^{-7}$ and $10^{-10}$, while the non-cancer risk (HQ value) was between $10^{-4}$ and $10^{-6}$. For conclusion, these monitoring study needs to continue because of the possibility of groundwater contamination based on various purpose of groundwater use.

Safety and Efficacy of Fowl Adenovirus Serotype-4 Inactivated Oil Emulsion Vaccine (닭 유래 아데노 바이러스 혈청형 4형(FAdV-4) 사독 오일 백신의 안전성 및 효능 평가)

  • Kim, Ji-Ye;Kim, Jong-Nyeo;Mo, In-Pil
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
    • /
    • v.37 no.3
    • /
    • pp.255-263
    • /
    • 2010
  • Inclusion body hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (IBH-HPS) is an acute viral disease usually found in broilers aged from 3 to 5 weeks and causes up to 75% mortality. Among the 12 serotypes of fowl adenovirus group 1, serotype-4 (FAdV-4) was identified as a primary agent of IBH-HPS and was usually isolated in IBH-HPS cases in Korea since 2007. To prevent these IBH-HPS outbreaks in Korea, we developed the FAdV-4 inactivated vaccine using Korean isolate (ADL070244) and evaluated the efficacy of this vaccine. For the efficacy test, 2-week-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens intramuscularly inoculated with 1 or 2 dose of inactivated vaccine were used and challenged with FAdV-4 through either intramuscular or oral route at 2 weeks after vaccination. The vaccine induced good seroconversion which was confirmed by agar gel precipitation (AGP) test. In addition, the vaccine could decrease the FAdV-4 detection rate and histological lesion severity such as lymphocyte infiltration and necrosis in the liver comparing with those of non-vaccination group. Based on the current results, the developed FAdV-4 inactivated vaccine in this study was effective in the terms of reduction of virus detection rate and histological lesions severity. However, it was difficult to confirm the efficacy of the vaccine clearly because of no mortality and clinical signs in the non-vaccinated group after challenge. Therefore, we need further study to develop a standard challenged model system which could clearly evaluate the efficacy of the vaccines for FAdV-4.

Construction of X-band automatic radar scatterometer measurement system and monitoring of rice growth (X-밴드 레이더 산란계 자동 측정시스템 구축과 벼 생육 모니터링)

  • Kim, Yi-Hyun;Hong, Suk-Young;Lee, Hoon-Yol
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
    • /
    • v.43 no.3
    • /
    • pp.374-383
    • /
    • 2010
  • Microwave radar can penetrate cloud cover regardless of weather conditions and can be used day and night. Especially a ground-based polarimetric scatterometer has advantages of monitoring crop conditions continuously with full polarization and different frequencies. Kim et al. (2009) have measured backscattering coefficients of paddy rice using L-, C-, X-band scatterometer system with full polarization and various angles during the rice growth period and have revealed the necessity of near-continuous automatic measurement to eliminate the difficulties, inaccuracy and sparseness of data acquisitions arising from manual operation of the system. In this study, we constructed an X-band automatic scatterometer system, analyzed scattering characteristics of paddy rice from X-band scatterometer data and estimated rice growth parameter using backscattering coefficients in X-band. The system was installed inside a shelter in an experimental paddy field at the National Academy of Agricultural Science (NAAS) before rice transplanting. The scatterometer system consists of X-band antennas, HP8720D vector network analyzer, RF cables and personal computer that controls frequency, polarization and data storage. This system using automatically measures fully-polarimetric backscattering coefficients of rice crop every 10 minutes. The backscattering coefficients were calculated from the measured data at a fixed incidence angle of $45^{\circ}$ and with full polarization (HH, VV, HV, VH) by applying the radar equation and compared with rice growth data such as plant height, stem number, fresh dry weight and Leaf Area Index (LAI) that were collected at the same time of each rice growth parameter. We examined the temporal behaviour of the backscattering coefficients of the rice crop at X-band during rice growth period. The HH-, VV-polarization backscattering coefficients steadily increased toward panicle initiation stage, thereafter decreased and again increased in early-September. We analyzed the relationships between backscattering coefficients in X-band and plant parameters and predicted the rice growth parameters using backscattering coefficients. It was confirmed that X-band is sensitive to grain maturity at near harvesting season.

Development of Korean Green Business/IT Strategies Based on Priority Analysis (한국의 그린 비즈니스/IT 실태분석을 통한 추진전략 우선순위 도출에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jae-Kyeong;Choi, Ju-Choel;Choi, Il-Young
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
    • /
    • v.20 no.3
    • /
    • pp.191-204
    • /
    • 2010
  • Recently, the CO2 emission and energy consumption have become critical global issues to decide the future of nations. Especially, the spread of IT products and the increased use of internet and web applications result in the energy consumption and CO2 emission of IT industry though information technologies drive global economic growth. EU, the United States, Japan and other developed countries are using IT related environmental regulations such as WEEE(Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment), RoHS(Restriction of the use of Certain Hazardous Substance), REACH(Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of CHemicals) and EuP(Energy using Product), and have established systematic green business/IT strategies to enhance the competitiveness of IT industry. For example, the Japan government proposed the "Green IT initiative" for being compatible with economic growth and environmental protection. Not only energy saving technologies but energy saving systems have been developed for accomplishing sustainable development. Korea's CO2 emission and energy consumption continuously have grown at comparatively high rates. They are related to its industrial structure depending on high energy-consuming industries such as iron and steel Industry, automotive industry, shipbuilding industry, semiconductor industry, and so on. In particular, export proportion of IT manufacturing is quite high in Korea. For example, the global market share of the semiconductor such as DRAM was about 80% in 2008. Accordingly, Korea needs to establish a systematic strategy to respond to the global environmental regulations and to maintain competitiveness in the IT industry. However, green competitiveness of Korea ranked 11th among 15 major countries and R&D budget for green technology is not large enough to develop energy-saving technologies for infrastructure and value chain of low-carbon society though that grows at high rates. Moreover, there are no concrete action plans in Korea. This research aims to deduce the priorities of the Korean green business/IT strategies to use multi attribute weighted average method. We selected a panel of 19 experts who work at the green business related firms such as HP, IBM, Fujitsu and so on, and selected six assessment indices such as the urgency of the technology development, the technology gap between Korea and the developed countries, the effect of import substitution, the spillover effect of technology, the market growth, and the export potential of the package or stand-alone products by existing literature review. We submitted questionnaires at approximately weekly intervals to them for priorities of the green business/IT strategies. The strategies broadly classify as follows. The first strategy which consists of the green business/IT policy and standardization, process and performance management and IT industry and legislative alignment relates to government's role in the green economy. The second strategy relates to IT to support environment sustainability such as the travel and ways of working management, printer output and recycling, intelligent building, printer rationalization and collaboration and connectivity. The last strategy relates to green IT systems, services and usage such as the data center consolidation and energy management, hardware recycle decommission, server and storage virtualization, device power management, and service supplier management. All the questionnaires were assessed via a five-point Likert scale ranging from "very little" to "very large." Our findings show that the IT to support environment sustainability is prior to the other strategies. In detail, the green business /IT policy and standardization is the most important in the government's role. The strategies of intelligent building and the travel and ways of working management are prior to the others for supporting environment sustainability. Finally, the strategies for the data center consolidation and energy management and server and storage virtualization have the huge influence for green IT systems, services and usage This research results the following implications. The amount of energy consumption and CO2 emissions of IT equipment including electrical business equipment will need to be clearly indicated in order to manage the effect of green business/IT strategy. And it is necessary to develop tools that measure the performance of green business/IT by each step. Additionally, intelligent building could grow up in energy-saving, growth of low carbon and related industries together. It is necessary to expand the affect of virtualization though adjusting and controlling the relationship between the management teams.

Estimation of Paddy Rice Growth Parameters Using L, C, X-bands Polarimetric Scatterometer (L, C, X-밴드 다편파 레이더 산란계를 이용한 논 벼 생육인자 추정)

  • Kim, Yi-Hyun;Hong, Suk-Young;Lee, Hoon-Yol
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
    • /
    • v.25 no.1
    • /
    • pp.31-44
    • /
    • 2009
  • The objective of this study was to measure backscattering coefficients of paddy rice using a L-, C-, and X-band scatterometer system with full polarization and various angles during the rice growth period and to relate backscattering coefficients to rice growth parameters. Radar backscattering measurements of paddy rice field using multifrequency (L, C, and X) and full polarization were conducted at an experimental field located in National Academy of Agricultural Science (NAAS), Suwon, Korea. The scatterometer system consists of dual-polarimetric square horn antennas, HP8720D vector network analyzer ($20\;MHz{\sim}20\;GHz$), RF cables, and a personal computer that controls frequency, polarization and data storage. The backscattering coefficients were calculated by applying radar equation for the measured at incidence angles between $20^{\circ}$ and $60^{\circ}$ with $5^{\circ}$ interval for four polarization (HH, VV, HV, VH), respectively. We measured the temporal variations of backscattering coefficients of the rice crop at L-, C-, X-band during a rice growth period. In three bands, VV-polarized backscattering coefficients were higher than hh-polarized backscattering coefficients during rooting stage (mid-June) and HH-polarized backscattering coefficients were higher than VV-, HV/VH-polarized backscattering coefficients after panicle initiation stage (mid-July). Cross polarized backscattering coefficients in X-band increased towards the heading stage (mid-Aug) and thereafter saturated, again increased near the harvesting season. Backscattering coefficients of range at X-band were lower than that of L-, C-band. HH-, VV-polarized ${\sigma}^{\circ}$ steadily increased toward panicle initiation stage and thereafter decreased, and again increased near the harvesting season. We plotted the relationship between backscattering coefficients with L-, C-, X-band and rice growth parameters. Biomass was correlated with L-band hh-polarization at a large incident angle. LAI (Leaf Area Index) was highly correlated with C-band HH- and cross-polarizations. Grain weight was correlated with backscattering coefficients of X-band VV-polarization at a large incidence angle. X-band was sensitive to grain maturity during the post heading stage.

Measurement of Backscattering Coefficients of Rice Canopy Using a Ground Polarimetric Scatterometer System (지상관측 레이다 산란계를 이용한 벼 군락의 후방산란계수 측정)

  • Hong, Jin-Young;Kim, Yi-Hyun;Oh, Yi-Sok;Hong, Suk-Young
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
    • /
    • v.23 no.2
    • /
    • pp.145-152
    • /
    • 2007
  • The polarimetric backscattering coefficients of a wet-land rice field which is an experimental plot belong to National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology in Suwon are measured using ground-based polarimetric scatterometers at 1.8 and 5.3 GHz throughout a growth year from transplanting period to harvest period (May to October in 2006). The polarimetric scatterometers consist of a vector network analyzer with time-gating function and polarimetric antenna set, and are well calibrated to get VV-, HV-, VH-, HH-polarized backscattering coefficients from the measurements, based on single target calibration technique using a trihedral corner reflector. The polarimetric backscattering coefficients are measured at $30^{\circ},\;40^{\circ},\;50^{\circ}\;and\;60^{\circ}$ with 30 independent samples for each incidence angle at each frequency. In the measurement periods the ground truth data including fresh and dry biomass, plant height, stem density, leaf area, specific leaf area, and moisture contents are also collected for each measurement. The temporal variations of the measured backscattering coefficients as well as the measured plant height, LAI (leaf area index) and biomass are analyzed. Then, the measured polarimetric backscattering coefficients are compared with the rice growth parameters. The measured plant height increases monotonically while the measured LAI increases only till the ripening period and decreases after the ripening period. The measured backscattering coefficientsare fitted with polynomial expressions as functions of growth age, plant LAI and plant height for each polarization, frequency, and incidence angle. As the incidence angle is bigger, correlations of L band signature to the rice growth was higher than that of C band signatures. It is found that the HH-polarized backscattering coefficients are more sensitive than the VV-polarized backscattering coefficients to growth age and other input parameters. It is necessary to divide the data according to the growth period which shows the qualitative changes of growth such as panicale initiation, flowering or heading to derive functions to estimate rice growth.

Long-tenn Evaluation of Extruded Pellet Diets Compared to Raw Fish Moist Pellet Diet for Growing Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (넙치 미성어 건조 배합사료 및 습사료의 장기사육 평가)

  • Kim Kang-Woong;Kang Yong Jin;Kim Kyong-Min;Lee Hae Young;Kim Kyoung-Duck;Bai Sungchul C.
    • Journal of Aquaculture
    • /
    • v.18 no.4
    • /
    • pp.225-230
    • /
    • 2005
  • This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of extruded pellets and raw fish-based pellet on olive flounder Paralichthys. olivaceus. Six diets were prepared for this study: two formulated extruded pellets (FEP1 & FEP2), three commercially available extruded pellets (CEP1, CEP2 & CEP3) and moist pellet (MP). Weight gain offish fed FEP1 and CEP3 were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of fish fed FEP2, CEP1, CEP2 and MP, while that of fish fed MP was not significantly different (f<0.05) from those of fish fed the FEP2, CEP1 and CEP2. Feed efficiency of fish fed CEP2 was significantly lower (P<0.05) than those of fish fed FEP1, FEP2, CEP1, CEP3 and MP. There was no significant difference in protein efficiency ratio and hepatosomatic index between fish fed FEP1 and CEP3, and among fish fed FEP2, CEP1 and CEP2. There was no significant difference in condition factor among fish fed the FEP1 and CEP3, and between fish fed FEP2, CTP1 and MP. However, fish fed MP had a lower survival rate than fish fed the other five EP These results suggest that diet FEPl could be developed to replace MP for the owing stage of flounder without adverse effects on growth performance.

Review on the Triassic Post-collisional Magmatism in the Qinling Collision Belt (친링 충돌대의 트라이아스기 충돌 후 화성작용에 대한 리뷰)

  • Oh, Chang Whan;Lee, Byung Choon;Yi, Sang-Bong;Zhang, Cheng Li
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
    • /
    • v.23 no.4
    • /
    • pp.293-309
    • /
    • 2014
  • The Qinling-Dabie-Sulu-Hongseong-Odesan collision belt was formed by the collision between the North China and South China Cratons during late Permian to Triassic. During the collision, Triassic post-collision igneous rocks regionally intruded in the Qinling and the Hongseong-Odesan collision belts which represent the western and eastern ends of the collision belt, respectively. However, no and minor Triassic post-collision igneous activities occur in the Dabie and Sulu belts respectively. The peak metamorphic pressure conditions along the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu-Hongseong-Odesan belt indicate that the slab break-off occurred at the depth of ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic condition in the Dabie and Sulu belts and at the depths of high pressure (HP) or high pressure granulite (HPG) metamorphic condition in the Qinling and Hongseong-Odesan belts. In the Dabie and Sulu belts the heat supply from the asthenospheric mantle through the gab formed by slab break-off could not cause an extensive melting in the lower continental crust and lithospheric mantle directly below it due to the very deep depth of slab break-off. On the other hand, in the Qinling and Hongseong-Odesan belts, shallower slab break-off caused the emplacement of regional post collision igneous rocks. The post-collision igneous rocks occur in the area to the north of the Mianlu Suture zone in the western Qinling belt and crop out continuously eastwards into the areas to the north of the Shangdan Suture zone in the eastern Qinling belt through the areas within the South Qinling block. This distribution pattern of post collision igneous rocks suggests that the Triassic collision belt in the Mianleu Suture zone may be extended into the Shangdan Suture zone after passing through the South Qinling block instead into the boundary between the South Qinling block and the South China Craton.