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Physicochemical properties and oxidative stabilities of chicken breast jerky treated various sweetening agents (당침지 처리된 닭 가슴살 육포의 이화학적 특성 및 산화안정성)

  • Nam, Dong-Geon;Jeong, Beom-Gyun;Chun, Jiyeon
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.84-92
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    • 2017
  • Chicken breast jerky (CJ) was prepared by drying chicken breast at $50^{\circ}C$ for 9 hrs after marinating it in a various sweetening sauce including white sugar (WS), brown sugar (BS), rice syrup (RS), fructooligosaccharide (FO), pineapple concentrate (PC), Rubus coreanus extract (RCE), or honey (H), and its physicochemical and sensory properties were investigated. The CJ was found to contain 22.5-25.0% moisture, 41.0-46.6% protein, and 0.4-1.0% fat, which indicates that it could serve as a high-protein and low-fat snack. The type of sweeteners significantly affected the yield, pH, total viable cell count, and water activity of the CJ, showing ranges of 40.9-50.1%, 5.2-5.9, $2.5-6.2{\times}10^4CFU/g$, and 0.74-0.81, respectively. Both the water activity and pH were the lowest in CJ-RCE where of the highest in CJ-WS. The cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness of the CJ significantly differed depending on the type of sweeteners (p<0.05). CJ-RCE showed the best taste and overall acceptability in a sensory test. After storage at $50^{\circ}C$ for 2 weeks, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) content (58.3 malondialdehyde (MDA) mg/kg) of CJ-RCE was much lower than those of control beef (75.6 MDA mg/kg) and pork jerky (98.0 MDA mg/kg), showing the good oxidative stability of CJ-RCE. Overall, marination in RCE sauce was suitable for the preparation of CJ with good quality in terms of its water activity, fat and protein contents, sensory property and oxidative stability.

Risk Assessment of Fipronil on Honeybee (Apis mellifera) (Fipronil의 꿀벌 (Apis mellifera)에 대한 위해성 평가)

  • Kim, Byung-Seok;Yang, Yu-Jung;Park, Yeon-Ki;Jeong, Mi-Hye;You, Are-Sun;Park, Kyung-Hun;Ahn, Young-Joon
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.39-44
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the actual risk of fipronil on worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) through acute contact toxicity test, acute oral toxicity test, toxicity of residues on foliage test, and small scale field test. The $48h-LD_{50s}$ of fipronil SC on honeybee were $0.005{\mu}g$ a.i./bee in acute contact toxicity test and $0.004{\mu}g$ a.i./bee in acute oral toxicity test, respectively. In toxicity of residues on foliage test, fipronil showed over 90% of mortality during 28days after treatment at recommended application rate. The $DT_{50}$ of dislodgeable foliar residue was 9 days. Finally, In small scale field test, fipronil showed similar toxicity in the residues on foliage test. It was concluded that fipronil has very high acute toxicity and long residual toxicity to honeybee. Therefore, fipronil is highly toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment or residues on blooming crops or weeds. Do not apply this product or allow it to drift to blooming crops or weeds if bees are visiting the treatment area. To protect honeybee and wild pollinators from outdoor use of fipronil, ultimately it should need to limit for only indoor use to prevent pollinators from unintentionally exposure of fipronil.

Study on Development Effect on Zebrafish Embryo by Alacholr, Butachlor and Fipronil (농약 alacholr, butachlor 및 fipronil이 제브라피쉬 배아 발생에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Soo Jin;Jeong, Mihye;Paik, Min-Kyoung;Lee, Je-Bong;You, Are-Sun;Hong, SoonSung;Ihm, Yang Bin
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.14-20
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    • 2014
  • This study is aimed to search the possibility of developmental toxicity test using the zebrafish from the pesticide. We selected herbicides alachlor and butachlor, reported for fish toxicity, and insecticide fipronil reported for the high fish toxicity and the honey bee risk among the pesticides with high usability for the examples of the pesticides in this experiment. In this study, we showed those effects on the zebrafish embryo development by exposing different kinds of pesticide with different concentration and exposed time periods. As a result, the rates of hatching and abnormality of the zebrafish embryo after treatments of alachlor were increased in 24-48 hpf group, and the juvenile fishes in every group exposed to $40{\mu}M$ or more of alachlor displayed sever morphological changes such as bent tails, edema and activity failures. In case of the butachlor, the rates of hatching and the abnormality in 24-48 hpf group were higher than the other groups exposed in different time periods. The fatality before hatching was high in $40{\mu}M$ or more of butachlor treatment, and entire zebrafish embryos in 48 hpf group died before hatching. All the living juvenile fishes showed morphological changes as like as the treatment of alachlor. The rate of hatching and the survival of the zebrafish embryo by the fipronil were higher than other pesticides. However, morphological changes such as bent tails were observed from the most of living juvenile fishes. Therefore, the effects of three different pesticides with different concentrations and exposing time periods on the development of zebrafish embryos showed that all the pesticides effects were proportional to the concentration, and exposing time periods may cause the morphological abnormality.

Immunomodulatory Effects of Propolis and Fermented-propolis in BALB/c Mice (프로폴리스 및 발효 프로폴리스의 섭취가 BALB/c mice의 면역활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Yoon-Hee;Kwon, Hyuck-Se;Kim, Dae-Hwan;Park, IL-Hwan;Park, Sang-Jae;Shin, Hyun-Kyung;Kim, Jin-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.574-579
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    • 2008
  • Propolis is the generic term for the resinous substance collected by honey bees from a variety of plant sources. In this study, we have assessed the immunomodulatory properties of propolis (P) and fermented-propolis (FP) in BALB/c mice. Mice were subjected to gavage once a day (for 14 days) with 50, 100, 200 mg/kg body weight P, FP, or vehicle. Lymphocytes were isolated from the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and the immune cell proportions, proliferative activities, and cytokine production were evaluated. The P- and FP-administration induced similar, but differential, alterations in the percentage of immune cell populations and their biological functions, including cytokine production and NK cell cytotoxicity. The proportion of$ CD4^+$ and $CD8^+$ T cells in the spleen was increased slightly in the P- and FP-administered mice as compared to the vehicle-treated mice. In MLN, the percentage of $CD4^+$ T cells was increased significantly in the 200 mg/kg P-treated mice. The mice which were treated with P and FP evidenced significantly increased interferon-$\gamma$ and interleukin-4 production in concanavalin A-stimulated splenocytes, whereas the production of theses cytokines was not shown to be induced by P-treatment. In addition, NK cell activity was also increased dramatically by the administration of P and FP. Collectively, these findings showed that P and FP are wide-spectrum immunomodulators, which may modulate both innate and adaptive immune responses.

A Study on the Analytical Method of Artificial Sweeteners in Foods (식품 중 인공감미료의 분석법에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Hee-Yun;Yoon, Hae-Jung;Hong, Ki-Hyung;Lee, Chang-Hee;Park, Sung-Kwan;Choi, Jang-Duck;Choi, Woo-Jeong;Park, Sun-Young;Kim, Ji-Hye;Lee, Chul-Won
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.14-18
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    • 2004
  • Analysis methods of artificial sweeteners, aspartame, acesulfame potassium, sodium saccharin, and sucralose isolated from foods were developed using high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC conditions for aspartame, acesulfame potassium, and sodium saccharin were: column, Symmetry $C_{18}(3.9mm\;i.d{\times}150mm,\;5{\mu}m)$; mobile phase, 0.05M sodium phosphate monobasic : acetonitrile (9 : 1, pH 3.5, containing 0.01M tetrapropylammonium hydroxide); detector, UV detector at 210 nm. HPLC condition for sucralose were : column, Symmetry $C_{18}(3.9mm\;i.d{\times}150mm,\;5{\mu}m)$; mobile phase, water:methanol (7 : 3); detector, refractive index detection (sensitivity = 16). Recoveries of artificial sweeteners in foods including soft drinks, fruit and vegetable beverages, alcoholic beverages, fermented milk beverages, soybean milk, ice cream, snacks, chewing gums, jam, honey, kimchi salted food, special dietary products, processed fish products, candies, food additive mixtures, chocolate and cocoa were 76.1-101.3%, 82.3-103.2%, 83.1-103.7%, and 80,6-99.5% for aspartame, acesulfame potassium, sodium saccharin, and sucralose, respectively.

Effect of GA Paste on Physiological Fruit Drop and Fruit Characteristics in 'Formosa' Plums (Prunus salicina Lindl.) (GA 도포제 처리가 '포모사' 자두의 생리적 낙과 및 과실 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Yun, Seok Kyu;Bae, Haejin;Yoon, Ik Koo;Nam, Eun Young;Kwon, Jung Hyun;Jun, Ji Hae;Chung, Kyeong Ho
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.309-315
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    • 2013
  • Fruit drop is a serious problem in plum trees during fruit development after pollination and fertilization. In order to increase fruit yields, physiological fruit drop in plum trees at the early stages of fruit development must be reduced. In this study, the effect of gibberellic acid paste (GA paste 2.7%) applied on 'Formosa' plum was determined to reduce fruit drop. GA paste was applied one time on one set of the fruit stalk at 3 days after full bloom (DAFB), and on another set of the fruit stalk at 13 DAFB, and then the fruit-set rate was observed at 70 DAFB. GA paste application increased the fruit-set rate up to 61%. In 'Formosa', the time of GA application had a strong influence on reducing fruit drop. GA application increased the fruit-set rate up to 61% in treatments at 3 DAFB, and to 15% in treatments at 13 DAFB when the fruit-set rate was 5% in the control group. The same results were observed in 'Honey Red' and 'Akihime' plums. GA application impacted on fruit enlargement in the 'Formosa' cultivar, compared with the control trees, which had no GA application. The rate of fruit enlargement with GA application was similar to that of the control fruits until 70 DAFB, whereas the enlargement rate was slightly higher in the GAtreated trees than the control from 70 DAFB until harvest. In GA-treated fruit, fruit weight increased more than in the control, while total acidity and firmness was lower than in the control group. Additionally, GA application accelerated sucrose increase in maturing fruit. Our data indicated that GA paste application can reduce fruit drop, and subtly promote fruit enlargement and maturation in plum trees.

Fermentation Conditions for High Acceptability of Korean Traditional Fermented Beverage Kyejang (전통 발효음청류 계장의 기호도 우수 발효조건)

  • Jung, Jin-Kyoung;Song, Kyung-Mo;Yi, Sung-Hoon;Kim, Hyo-Jin;Han, Young-Sook;Lee, Myung-Ki
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.137-144
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    • 2015
  • Kyejang is a Korean traditional beverage manufactured from medicinal plants and fruits using honey, sugar, or starch in cold water. In this study, cinnamon-containing kyejang, which is a type of beverage Jang, was reproduced based on Imwonsibyukji's method published in 1827 in the Korean literature. Kyejang made by nuruk, cinnamon, and medicinal plants was prepared at various temperatures and periods. Kyejang was assayed for physiochemical properties (pH and acidity), contents of metabolites (organic acids, sugars, and amino acids), and sensory characteristics (aroma and taste). During fermentation, content of organic acids (e.g. lactic acid, acetic acid, and shikimic acid) increased, which lowered pH, increased acidity, and increased intensity of sour taste. In the case of free sugars, fructose and maltose levels decreased while glucose and mannitol levels increased during fermentation periods, and sweetness decreased. The main amino acid in kyejang was tryptophan, followed by asparagine, proline, and arginine. The sensory evaluation score of overall preference was highest for kyejang which was fermented at $20^{\circ}C$ for 3 days. The results will be provide the basic data of fermentation conditions for standardized manufacturing process of kyejang.

Inhibitory Effects of Functional Sujeonggwa (Cinnamon Drink) on Lipid Peroxidation and DNA Damage in Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemic ApoE Knockout Mice (고콜레스테롤혈증 ApoE Knockout 마우스에서 기능성 수정과의 지질과산화 및 산화적 DNA 손상 억제 효과)

  • Park, Eunju;Baek, Aran;Kim, Mijeong;Lee, Seon Woo;Lee, Eunji;Choi, Mi-Joo;Lee, Jeehyun;Song, Yeong Ok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.11
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    • pp.1627-1634
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    • 2014
  • The recipe for sujeonggwa, a Korean traditional sweet drink containing cinnamon, ginger, sugar, or honey, was modified by replacing sugar with alternative sweeteners [stevia or short-chain frutooligosaccharide (scFOS)] in order to improve the health functionality of sujeonggwa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of modified sujeonggwa on lipid peroxidation and oxidized DNA damage in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic ApoE knockout mice. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in 6-week-old male mice by administration of a high cholesterol diet (1.25% cholesterol, 0.5% cholic acid, and 10% coconut oil) for 4 weeks, after which mice were divided into five groups: sucrose solution-fed control group, sujeonggwa containing sucrose group, sucrose+stevia group, sucrose+stevia+scFOS group, and commercially available sujeonggwa group as a positive control. After 6 weeks, sujeonggwa supplementation resulted in reduced hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), regardless of sweetener type. However, reduction of hepatic TBARS by commercially available sujeonggwa was insignificant. Both endogenous and $H_2O_2$-induced DNA damage in hepatocytes and splenocytes were significantly reduced only in the sujeonggwa containing stevia group compared to the sucrose-fed control group. There were no significant effects of sujeonggwa supplementation on total radical trapping potential, lipid peroxidation, or DNA damage in blood. These results suggest that sujeonggwa has protective effects against hepatic lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in hepatocytes or splenocytes from diet-induced hypercholesterolemic ApoE knockout mice, and the type of sweetener should be modified to improve the health benefits of sujeonggwa.

Effect of Cold Storage on Quality of Geocoris pallidipennis and Micromus angulatus (저온저장이 포식성 천적인 참딱부리긴노린재와 갈고리뱀잠자리붙이의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Seo, Meeja;Kim, Jeong Hwan;Seo, Bo Yoon;Park, Bueyong;Lee, Sang Gu;Kim, Kwang Ho;Cho, Jum Rae
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.58 no.2
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    • pp.151-157
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    • 2019
  • It was available to store both nymphs and adults of Geocoris pallidipennis at $5^{\circ}C$ for 3 weeks without negative effects on their survival, fecundity, and Bemisia tabaci predation. Fecundities of G. pallidipennis showed the tendency to be decreased with increasing cold storage duration, but up to 4 weeks, storage at $5^{\circ}C$ didn't affect their fecundity. When Micromus angulatus adults were stored at $5^{\circ}C$ with honey solution as preys, it was possible to store up to 140 days showing approximately 50% of cumulative survival, but over 2 week cold storage was not suitable for their fecundity. With the increase of cold storage duration, the aphid predation by M. angulatus decreased, but it could be possible to cold store until 5 weeks without any significant effect on their aphid predation. Thus, short term cold storage of G. pallidipennis and M. angulatus could be useful for inundative biological strategies.

Changes in Growth and Physiological Characteristics of Tetradium daniellii (Benn.) T. G. Hartley Container Seedlings by Shading Treatment (차광처리에 따른 쉬나무 용기묘의 생장 및 생리적 특성 변화)

  • Choi, Kyu Seong;Sung, Hwan In;Kim, Jong Jin;Song, Ki Seon
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.130-140
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    • 2020
  • This study was conducted in order to closely examine about optimum shading for superior seedling production a container seedling of Tetradium daniellii, which is being increased the demand for a seedling due to being used for alternative energy, ecological restoration and honey plant. The experiment of investigating the optimum shading on T. daniellii was carried out by using plastic container types (350 ml/cavity) for the forestry facility cultivation. The shading level was treated with full sunlight and with 35%, 55%, 75% of the full sunlight. As a result of having surveyed height and root collar diameter growth of a containerized seedling in T. daniellii, a case of the shading experiment showed a noticeably high value was indicated in the full sunlight. It was surveyed that the stronger shading level leads to the lower growth value. Root development was most active in full sunlight. Dry matter production, it was investigated to be the highest in full sunlight. It was surveyed to be the similar tendency to the outcome of height and root collar diameter growth. QI, which is index of showing the quality of a seedling, stood at 0.98 in full sunlight, thereby having been investigated to be the highest. As for the chlorophyll content in a seedling, the highest chlorophyll content was indicated in the 75% shading treatment with the relatively highest shading level. The photosynthetic rate and the water use efficiency were surveyed to be the highest in full sunlight with 8.48 μmolCO2·m-2s-1, 1.40 μmolCO2·mmolm-1H2O, respectively. As a result of surveying the whole experiment, optimum shading level for superior seedling production a container seedling of T. daniellii is determined in full sunlight (0%). It is expected that this will be used as a basic data for mass production.