• Title, Summary, Keyword: Honey

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Two Cases of Mad-Honey Poisoning with Cardiovascular Symptom (외국산 꿀(석청) 복용후 발생한 심혈관계 중독증상 환자 2례)

  • Ko Young-Gil;Kim Kyung-Hwan;Kim Ah-Jin;Shin Dong-Wun;Park Jun-Soek;Roh Jun-Young;Ahn Ji-Young
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.78-81
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    • 2006
  • Mad-honey poisoning is mainly brought about by the honey imported from Napal, Turkey, Brazil and other parts of Europe. This mad honey is extracted from Ericaceae plants of Rhododendron species and contains grayanotoxins that causes poisoning. These toxic compounds exert a specific stimulatory action on membrane permeability to Na+ions in various excitable tissues and cause depolarization of cell membranes. The toxic effects of grayanotoxins contained honey are mainly cardiovascular disturbances with bradycardia, cardiac arrhythmia, hypotension. There are Other symptoms like nausea, vomiting, salivation, dizziness, weakness and loss of consciousness. The precise amount for a toxic dose is not known. In general the severity of the honey poisoning depends on the amount ingested. Two cases of mad-honey poisoning are described here. Both patients showed bradycardia and arterial hypotension after ingestion of honey which was brought from Nepal. They were recovered fully within 24 hours after administration of fluids and atropine sulphate.

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Determination and survey of tetracyclines residue in honey by high performance liquid chromatography (액체크로마토그래피를 이용한 벌꿀 중 테트라싸이클린계 항생물질의 정량분석 및 잔류조사)

  • Lee Sung-Mo;Park Eun-Jeong;Hong Jee-Young;Kim Jung-Im;Lee Jung-Goo;Hwang Hyun-Soon;Kim Yong-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.203-213
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    • 2005
  • Oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline and doxycycline in honey were separated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV/Visible detector. Analysis was carried out using following conditions: XTerra $C_8$ column $(3.9\times150mm\;i.d. 5{\mu}m)$, mobile phase composed of 0.01M oxalic acid : methanol : acetonitrile (820 : 80 : 100, v/v/v), isocratic pump at a flow rate of 0.9 ml/min. and $50{\mu}l$ of injection volume, UV/Visible detector with wavelength of 360nm. The calibration curves of four tetracyclines showed linearity $(\gamma^2>0.999)$ at concentration range of $100\~1,000 ng/ml$. The recoveries in fortified honey represented more than $70\%$ with low coefficient of variation $(<10\%)$ for concentration range of four tetracyclines. The detection limits for oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline and doxycycline were 13.8, 14.6, 26.2 and 24.9ng/g in acacia honey. respectively. We also monitored tetracyclines residue in domestic honey [n : 38, acacia (20), wild flower (18) ] and foreign honey [n=22, legally distributed (13), illegally distributed (9)] using modified Charm II screening and HPLC confirmation methods. Seven of the 60 samples $(11.7\%)$ were suspect positive using modified Charm II screening test. Chlortetracycline residue was found in one foreign honey (illegally distributed) tested at concentrations of 0.22 ppm. Conclusively, for more effective control of tetracyclines used in beekeeping should be further survey for residues in honey and also national guidelines (maximum residue limit : MRL) and methods should be obligatory.

Antifungal Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains Isolated from Natural Honey against Pathogenic Candida Species

  • Bulgasem, Bulgasem Y.;Lani, Mohd Nizam;Hassan, Zaiton;Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan;Fnaish, Sumaya G.
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.302-309
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    • 2016
  • The role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in honey as antifungal activity has received little attention and their mechanism of inhibitory of fungi is not fully understood. In this study, LAB were isolated from honey samples from Malaysia, Libya, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen. Twenty-five isolates were confirmed LAB by catalase test and Gram staining, and were screened for antifungal activity. Four LAB showed inhibitory activity against Candida spp. using the dual agar overlay method. And they were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum HS isolated from Al-Seder honey, Lactobacillus curvatus HH isolated from Al-Hanon honey, Pediococcus acidilactici HC isolated from Tualang honey and Pediococcus pentosaceus HM isolated from Al-Maray honey by the 16S rDNA sequence. The growth of Candida glabrata ATCC 2001 was strongly inhibited (>15.0 mm) and (10~15 mm) by the isolates of L. curvatus HH and P. pentosaceus HM, respectively. The antifungal activity of the crude supernatant (cell free supernatant, CFS) was evaluated using well diffusion method. The CFS showed high antifungal activity against Candida spp. especially The CFS of L. curvatus HH was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited growth of C. glabrata ATCC 2001, C. parapsilosis ATCC 2201, and C. tropicalis ATCC 750 with inhibitory zone 22.0, 15.6, and 14.7 mm, respectively. While CFS of P. pentosaceus HM was significantly (p < 0.05) effective against C. krusei, C. glabrata, and C. albicans with inhibition zone 17.2, 16.0, and 13.3 mm, respectively. The results indicated that LAB isolated from honey produced compounds which can be used to inhibit the growth of the pathogenic Candida species.

Effects of vegetation structure and human impact on understory honey plant richness: implications for pollinator visitation

  • Cho, Yoori;Lee, Dowon;Bae, SoYeon
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2017
  • Background: Though the biomass of floral vegetation in understory plant communities in a forested ecosystem only accounts for less than 1% of the total biomass of a forest, they contain most of the floral resources of a forest. The diversity of understory honey plants determines visitation rate of pollinators such as honey bee (Apis mellifera) as they provide rich food resources. Since the flower visitation and foraging activity of pollinators lead to the provision of pollination service, it also means the enhancement of plant-pollinator relationship. Therefore, an appropriate management scheme for understory vegetation is essential in order to conserve pollinator population that is decreasing due to habitat destruction and disease infection. This research examined the diversity of understory honey plant and studied how it is related to environmental variables such as (1) canopy density, (2) horizontal heterogeneity of canopy surface height, (3) slope gradient, and (4) distance from roads. Vegetation survey data of 39 plots of mixed forests in Chuncheon, Korea, were used, and possible management practices for understory vegetation were suggested. Results: This study found that 113 species among 141 species of honey plant of the forests were classified as understory vegetation. Also, the understory honey plant diversity is significantly positively correlated with distance from the nearest road and horizontal heterogeneity of canopy surface height and negatively correlated with canopy density. Conclusions: The diversity of understory honey plant vegetation is correlated to vegetation structure and human impact. In order to enhance the diversity of understory honey plant, management of density and height of canopy is necessary. This study suggests that improved diversity of canopy cover through thinning of overstory vegetation can increase the diversity of understory honey plant species.

Gross Chemical Analysis for Honey and Pollen Load (봉밀(蜂蜜) 및 화분하(花粉荷)의 순도시험(純度試驗)과 성분조사(成分調査))

  • Suk, Kuy-Duk;Kim, Mi-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.197-200
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    • 1983
  • This study is concerned with quality and analysis of nutritive value of commercially available honey and pollen load. Of thirteen kind of commercially available honeys, acid levels were less than KP IV standard. Color reaction for ammonia, resorcine and varium chloride was negative and trace of starch and dextrine was not detected. There were no extraneous materials in honey samples. Specific gravity of sample was slightly higher than KP IV standard. Total ash lied between 0.01 and 0.15% of honey weight which was less than KP IV standard, except 0.56% of Castanea Honey. Studies on mineral compositions (AAS) for honeys and pollen loads showed that $Na^+,\;K^+,\;Ca^{2+},\;Fe^{2+}\;Cu^{2+}\;and\;CO^{2+}$ were the most commonly occuring minerals. Pollen loads showed higher levels of mineral contents than honeys. Castanea Honey revealed rich in minerals. $Cd^{2+}\;and\;Pb^{2+}$ were found relatively higher level in Robinia Honey. Reducing sugar level showed $60{\sim}70$ in honeys and $25{\sim}30$ in pollen loads. Non reducing sugar varied between 2 to 7% in pollen loads.

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The Effect of Honey Concentration on the Quality of Honeyed Ginseng in the Process of Manufacturing Honeyed Ginseng (봉밀의 농도가 인삼정과의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hae-Jung;Jeong, Dong-Sin;Ju, Hyeon-Gyu
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.128-134
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    • 1985
  • In order to study the effect of honey concentration on the quality of honeyed ginseng in the process of manufacturing honeyed ginseng, honeyed ginseng was manufactured under the various condition of honey concentration, 40 brix, 50 brix, 60 brix and 70 brix and the approximate composition, the yield and organoleptic test of them were investigated. The results obtained were as follows. 1. The higher honey concentration was used, the yield of honeyed ginseng was increased. 2. The higher honey concentration was used, the amount of total sugar was increased while the amount of crude saponin, crude protein. crude fat, crude fiber and crude ash was decreased. 3. Free sugars of honeyed ginseng consist of rhamnose, xylose, fructose, glucose, sucrose and maltose, 4. The amount of saponin lost in the process of manufacturing honeyed ginseng was 2.5%-5.0%, therefore honey concentration was not so effective on the loss of saponin. 5. According to organoleptic test, H-3 and H-2 treating honey concentration at 60 brix and 50 brix was the best and better of all.

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Evaluation of Honey and Rice Syrup as Replacements for Sorbitol in the Production of Restructured Duck Jerky

  • Triyannanto, Endy;Lee, Keun Taik
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.271-279
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    • 2016
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of natural humectants such as honey and rice syrup to replace sorbitol in the production of restructured duck jerky. Each humectant was mixed at 3%, 6%, and 10% (wt/wt) concentrations with the marinating solution. The values of water activity and the moisture-to-protein ratio of all of the samples were maintained below 0.75. Jerky samples treated with honey retained more moisture than those exposed to other treatments. Among all samples, those treated with 10% sorbitol produced the highest processing yield and the lowest shear force values. The highest $L^*$ value and the lowest $b^*$ value were observed for the sorbitol-treated sample, followed by the rice syrup- and honey-treated samples. Duck jerky samples treated with 10% honey showed the highest scores for the sensory parameters evaluated. The overall acceptability scores of samples treated with rice syrup were comparable with those of samples treated with sorbitol. Microscopic observation of restructured duck jerky samples treated with honey showed stable forms and smaller pores when compared with other treatments.

Glass Transition Temperature of Honey Using Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (MDSC): Effect of Moisture Content

  • Kim, Mi-Jung;Yoo, Byoung-Seung
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.356-359
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    • 2010
  • Glass transition phenomena in nine Korean pure honeys (moisture content 18.3~20.1%) and honey-water mixtures by different water contents (0, 2, 5, and 10% w/w) were investigated with modulated different scanning calorimetry (MDSC). The total, reversing, and non-reversing heat flows were quantified during heating using MDSC. Glass transition was observed from reversing heat flow separated from the total heat flow. The glass transition temperatures ($T_g$) of pure honeys, which are in the range of $-42.7^{\circ}C$ to $-50.0^{\circ}C$, varied a lot with low determination coefficient ($R^2$=0.63), whereas those of honey-water mixtures decreased with a decrease in honey content. The $T_g$ values were also more significantly different among honey-water mixtures when compared to pure honeys, indicating that in the honey-water mixture system the $T_g$ values appear to be greatly dependent on moisture content. The measured heat capacity change (${\Delta}C_p$) was not influenced by moisture content.

Determination of Acaricides in Honey by Solid-Phase Extraction and Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry

  • Hong, Joo-Yeon;Jung, Ok-Sang;Ryoo, Jae-Jeong;Hong, Jong-Ki
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.61-66
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    • 2009
  • An analytical method based on solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography / mass spectrometry has been developed for measurement of acaricides (amitraz, bromopropylate, coumaphos, cymiazole, and tetradifon) in honey sample. In the stability test of acaricides in honey, amitraz underwent a rapid degradation into 2,4-dimethylaniline (DMA), 2,4-dimethylphenylformamide (DMPF), and N-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-N'-methylformamidine (DMPMF), whileas other acaricides were found to be stable even for over three months. Extraction of five acaricides from 5g of honey sample was carried out by liquid-liquid extraction using 20mL of ethylacetate. For purification, Florisil-SPE cartridge with elution of 5mL of n-hexane/ acetone (55:45, v/v) was found to remove interferences effectively. Quantification was performed using gas chromatography / mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode. Spiking experiments were carried out to determine the recovery, precision, and limits of detection (LODs) of the method. The overall recovery values from honey spiked at 0.02 and 0.20 ${\mu}g/g$ levels, respectively, were found to be greater than 75% for all acaricides. The method detection limits for acaricides were ranged from 0.1 to 3 ppb. The developed method in this study was applied for the monitoring of acaricides in honey products collected from urban markets in Korea.

Antioxidative and antimelanogenic effects of ethyl acetate fractions of Korean domestic honeys from different floral sources (화종에 따른 국내산 벌꿀 에틸 아세테이트 분획물의 산화방지능 및 멜라닌 생성 억제 효과)

  • Jeong, Ha-Ram;Baek, Youngsu;Kim, Dae-Ok;Lee, Hyungjae
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.50 no.6
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    • pp.660-664
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    • 2018
  • Honey is known to have a variety of health-promoting effects. Ethyl acetate fractions (EAFs) of four Korean domestic honeys from basswood, Korean raisin, chestnut, and acacia as well as a New Zealand manuka honey were analyzed comparatively to evaluate their antioxidative and antimelanogenic effects. The EAFs of basswood, Korean raisin, and chestnut honey had higher antioxidant capacities and tyrosinase inhibition activities than those of manuka honey. Pretreatment of B16F1 melanoma cells with EAFs at $100{\mu}g/mL$ resulted in relative retention of melanin contents as follows: acacia honey (141.0%)>basswood honey (134.3%)>manuka honey (131.5%)>Korean raisin honey (107.3%)>chestnut honey (88.0%). Intracellular tyrosinase activities of B16F1 melanoma cells were significantly (p<0.05) lowered by EAFs of Korean raisin and chestnut honey than by EAF of manuka honey. Consequently, these results suggest that Korean domestic honeys from different floral sources serve as good sources of antioxidative and antimelanogenic agents.