• Title, Summary, Keyword: Honey

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Dynamic Rheological Properties of Honey with Invert Sugar by Small-Amplitude Oscillatory Measurements

  • Choi, Hye-Mi;Kang, Kyoung-Mo;Yoo, Byoung-Seung
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.610-614
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    • 2007
  • Dynamic rheological properties of honeys with invert sugar at different mixing ratios of honey and invert sugar (10/0, 812, and 6/4 ratios) were evaluated at various low temperatures (-15, -10, -5, and $0^{\circ}C$) using a controlled stress rheometer for small-deformation oscillatory measurements. Honey-invert sugar mixtures displayed a liquid-like behavior, with loss modulus (G") predominating over storage modulus (G') (G">>G'), showing the high dependence on frequency (${\omega}$). The magnitudes of G' and G" increased with a decrease in temperature while their predominant increases were noticed at -10 and $-15^{\circ}C$. The greater tan ${\delta}$ values were found at higher temperature and ratio of honey to invert sugar, indicating that the honey samples at subzero temperatures become more viscous with increased ratio of honey to invert sugar and temperature. The time-temperature superposition (TTS) principle was used to bring G" values at various temperatures together into a single master curve. The TTS principle was suitable for the honey samples in the liquid-like state. The progress of viscous property (G") was also described well by the Arrhenius equation with high determination coefficients ($R^2=0.99$). Dynamic rheological properties of honey samples seem to be greatly influenced by the addition of invert sugar.

Classification of honeydew and blossom honeys by principal component analysis of physicochemical parameters

  • Choi, Suk-Ho;Nam, Myoung Soo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.67-81
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    • 2020
  • The physicochemical parameters of honey are used to determine the botanic origin of honey and to specify the composition criteria for honey in regulations and standards. The parameters of honeydew and blossom honeys from Korean beekeepers were determined to investigate whether they complied with the composition criteria for honey in the food code legislated by Korean authority and to establish the parameters which should be subjected to principal component analysis for improved differentiation of honeys. The fructose and glucose contents of the honeydew honey did not comply with the composition criteria. The ash content of the honey was closely correlated with CIE a* and CIE L* The principal component analysis of fructose to glucose ratio, CIE a*, CIE L*, ash content, free acidity, and fructose and glucose contents enabled classification of honeydew, chestnut, multifloral, and acacia honeys. Additional advantage of the principal component analysis (PCA) is that the physicochemical parameters, such as fructose to glucose ratio (F/G) and color, can be determined using the analytical instruments for composition criteria and quality control of honey. This study suggested that composition criteria for honeydew honey should be established in the food code in accordance with international standards. The principal component analysis reported in this study resulted in improved classification of the honeys from Korean beekeepers.

Fermentation Characteristics of Honey Wine by Saccharomyces bayanus (Saccharomyces bayanus를 이용한 벌꿀 발효주의 양조 특성)

  • Jung, Soon-Teck;Rhim, Jong-Whan;Kim, Dong-Han
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.1044-1049
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    • 1999
  • Fermentation characteristics for the production of honey wine (mead and melomel) was investigated. Among the yeast strains tested, Saccharomyces bayanus showed higher alcohol production and better fermentability than the other strains at low temperature. Optimum pH and temperature for the production of honey wine by Saccharomyces bayanus were pH 4.0 and $20^{\circ}C$, respectively, and optimum soluble solid content of diluted honey solution for the fermentation was between 24 and $27^{\circ}Brix$. Total acidity and pH of honey wine (mead) did not change considerably during the whole period of fermentation, but those of Tangerine and Japanese apricot honey wine (melomel) changed during the fermentation. As the fermentation progressed, reducing sugar decreased continuously until the late period of fermentation, while alcohol content increased continuously during the same period. After fermentation of 21 days, honey wine consisted of about $8.5{\sim}9.1^{\circ}Brix$ of soluble solid, $1.90{\sim}2.32%$ of reducing sugar with the conversion rate of $90{\sim}92%$. After 21 days of fermentation, alcohol contents of mead fermented with polyflower and acasia flower were 13.3 and 13.7%, respectively. Final alcohol content was not affected significantly by the source of honey. While pH of the osmotically extracted fruit honey juice decreased rapidly to pH $2.92{\sim}2.97$ after 13 days of fermentation, total titratable acidity of Tangerine and Japanese apricot honey wine were 0.30 and 0.53%, respectively. After 13 days of fermentation, reducing sugar of fruit honey wines were reduced to $2.03{\sim}2.87%$, alcohol content were reached up to 13.1 and 12.5% for Tangerine and Japanese apricot honey wine, respectively. Generally, honey extracted fruit juices were fermented more efficiently than diluted honey juice.

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Comparision of Mineral, Hydroxy Methyl Furfural Content and SDS-PAGE Pattern of Proteins in Different Honeys (다양한 꿀에 함유된 무기물 조성, Hydroxy Methyl Furfural 함량 및 꿀 단백질의 전기영동 패턴 비교)

  • Jung, Mi-Ea;Kim, Cheon-Jei;Paik, Hyun-Dong;Oh, Jae-Wook;Lee, Si-Kyung
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.241-249
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to analyze ash content, mineral composition, hydroxy methyl furfural (HMF) content, stable carbon isotope ratio, and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns to investigate the quality characteristics of various honeys harvested from different sources and to identify differences useful for distinguishing honey sources. Ash content was 0.046-0.012% in acacia honey, 0.565-1.318% in chestnut honey, 0.06-0.582% in polyfloral honey, and 0.237-0.893% in native bee honey. Potassium content was high in order of chestnut honey>native bee honey>polyfloral honey>acacia honey. The Na/K ratio was 0.92-1.97 in acacia honey, 0.02-1.59 in chestnut honey, 0.02-5.30 in polyfloral honey, and 0.22-0.51 in native bee honey. The HMF content was 9.60-12.85, 10.15-25.75, 9.7-33.5, and 6.25-21.5 mg/kg in acacia, chestnut, native bee, and polyfloral honeys, respectively. HMF content was the highest in native bee honey. A 59 kDa protein band was revealed in all samples by SDS-PAGE analysis. Protein bands of 32.1, 31.9, and 33.5 kDa were revealed in some chestnut honeys, and protein bands of 32.3 and 32.5 kDa were shown in native bee honeys. A protein band of 72 kDa was also confirmed in some chestnut honeys.

Brewing and Quality Characteristics of Korean Honey Wine (Mead) with a Variety of Honey and Yeast (다양한 벌꿀과 효모를 이용한 벌꿀와인의 제조 및 품질 특성)

  • Lee, Dae Hyoung;Kang, Heui-Yun;Lee, Yongseon;Cho, Chang-Hui;Park, In-Tae;Kim, Heui-Dong;Lim, Jae-Wook
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.736-742
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    • 2012
  • In this study, the brewing and quality characteristics of a variety of honey and yeast strains in Korea were investigated. After fermenting acacia honey, chestnut honey, citrus honey, and mixed flower honey using commercial yeast, the quality changes during fermentation were investigated. Chestnut honey wine (mead) and mixed flower mead showed the highest ethanol contents of 11.9 and 11.3%, respectively after fermenting for 8 days at $25^{\circ}C$. Acacia mead and citron (Chinese lemon) mead showed 5.0 and 8.2% ethanol contents, respectively. Mixed mead, which fermented with acacia honey and mixed flower honey, in order to advance sensory properties, showed the best sensory properties, generating 10.9% ethanol, while another product with citron honey and mixed flower honey generated 11.1% of ethanol but with a lower sensory value. When adding corium peels to the mixed mead of acacia honey and mixed flower honey, the ethanol content was not increased by addition of corium peels into mixed mead, but its total acceptability was increased by addition of 2% corium peels. To check the mead clarification, it was treated with 0.6% of bentonite and filtered; then, its turbidity was observed over a storage period. The safe result for precipitation was shown at the condition of storing at $10^{\circ}C$ for 15 days with 0.24 NTU (Nepthelometric Turbidity Unit).

A Study on the Strength of Honey-comb and Structure Reinforced by Cylindrical Reinforcement at Equivalent Mass (등가질량을 갖는 Honey-comb구조물과 원통형 보강 구조물의 강성에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Gi-Hun;Kim, Hyeon-Su;Choe, Gyeong-Ho;Kim, Hyeong-Jun
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.503-506
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    • 2003
  • In general, the reinforcement of a structure is performed with cylinders. In this study, it is attempted to compare the safety Circular reinforcement with 4 fins and Honey-comb at the equal mass. Circular reinforcement with 4 fins have two kind of the models One has no hole in the upper and lower plates. The other has holes, and it is divided by 3 cases. And the maximum stress is investigated for the circular reinforcement with 4 fins and Honey-comb. The results shows that honey-comb is more strength than the others. And reinforcement with 4 fins of hole case2's maximum stress is 82% by compare 10 honey-comb.

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Effects of Supplementation with Needles of Pinus densiflora on the Fermentation Characteristics of Honey Wine (솔잎 첨가 벌꿀주의 발효 특성)

  • Lee, Je-Hyuk;Han, Woo-Cheul;Kim, In-Chul;Cheong, Chul;Kang, Soon-Ah;Jang, Ki-Hyo
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.353-359
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    • 2011
  • The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with the needles of Pinus densiflora on the fermentation characteristics of honey wine (Pinus densiflora-honey wine). Honey without supplementation with needles of Pinus densiflora (honey wine) was included as a control. Physiochemical changes were investigated during 30 days of fermentation at $20^{\circ}C$, and following aging. At the beginning of fermentation, pH and viable cell counts of Pinus densiflora-honey wine changed rapidly, while $^{\circ}Bx$ decreased gradually. Viable yeast counts reached maximum levels at 5 to 10 days of fermentation. At day 0, the pH of Pinus densiflora-honey wine was 3.8, while the non-supplemented honey wine had a pH of 3.4. Decease in $^{\circ}Bx$ was faster in Pinus densiflora-honey wine than in non-supplemented honey wine. Supplementation of honey with needles of Pinus densiflora prior to fermentation shifted the initial pH to a more neutral pH, and the presence of Pinus densiflora needles increased the fermentation speed. The final $^{\circ}Bx$, pH, ethanol content, and total titratable acidity of Pinus densiflora-honey wine were $13.7^{\circ}Bx$, pH 3.05, 13.5%, and 0.37%, respectively. A sensory evaluation demonstrated that addition of 4% (w/v) fructose to honey wine supplemented with neddles of Pinus densiflora raised the level of product acceptability.

Analysis of Various Honeys from Different Sources Using Electronic Nose (다른 밀원에서 기원한 꿀의 전자코 분석)

  • Hong, Eun-Jeung;Park, Sue-Jee;Lee, Hwa-Jung;Lee, Kwang-Geun;Noh, Bong-Soo
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.273-279
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    • 2011
  • Various honeys from different sources were analyzed using an electronic nose based on a mass spectrometer. Various honeys were separated with different mixing ratios. Wild honey and artificial honey were blended at ratios of 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15, 80:20, 75:25, and 70:30, respectively. Data obtained from the electronic nose were used for discriminant function analysis (DFA). The DFA plot indicated a significant separation of honey from different sources. As the concentration of artificial honey increased, the first discriminant function score (DF1) moved from positive to negative (DF1: $r^2$=0.9962, F=490.6; DF2: $r^2$=0.9128, F=19.44). Furthermore, when acacia honey was mixed with artificial honey and separated with the mixing ratios, the DF scores were: DF1: $r^2$=0.9957, F=396.64; DF2: $r^2$=0.9447, F=29.3. When artificial honey was added to wild honey, it was possible to predict the following equation; DF1= -0.106${\times}$(concentration of artificial honey)+0.426 ($r^2$= 0.96). For acacia honey, the DF1= -0.112${\times}$(concentration of artificial honey)+0.434 ($r^2$=0.968).

Chemical Composition in Relation to Quality Evaluation of Korean Honey (한국산꿀의 품질특성)

  • Chung, Won-Chul;Kim, Man-Wook;Song, Ki-Joon;Choi, Eon-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.17-22
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    • 1984
  • Quality of five kinds of honey were evaluated. Honey had total soluble sugar above 96% on the dry weight and a little amount of protein. The mineral composition varied with the kinds of honey, but all tested honey showed the highest content of K and Na, and a considerable amount of Fe, Mg, Ca, Zn, and P. Free sugars were mainly composed of fructose and glucose. The fructose/glucose ratio of honey was 1.0-1.39. Buckwheat honey showed comparatively higher content of sucrose and maltose. All tested honey were analyzed to give pH 3.23-4.32, total acid 10.5-23.9 meq/kg, hydroxymethylfurfural 0.58-21.31 mg/kg, diastatic activity 13.95-36.59.

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Grayanotoxin Poisoning from Honey - A Case Report (히말라야 석청으로 인한 중독 1예)

  • Choi, Gi-Hun;You, Ki-Cheol;Wang, Soon-Joo;Park, Tae-Jin
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.37-40
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    • 2012
  • Honey is produced by bees from nectar collected from nearby flowers. Sometimes, honey produced from the Rhododendron species is contaminated by Grayanotoxin (GTX) in Nepal and other countries. There have been reports of GTX intoxication, also known as 'mad honey disease', from honey produced in countries other than Korea. The importation of wild honey has been prohibited by the Korean Food and Drug Administration since 2005, yet it is still distributed within Korea by the occasional tourist. We report a case of GTX intoxication from contaminated honey which included the symptoms of nausea, vomiting, general weakness, dizziness, blurred vision, hypotension and sinus bradycardia. By means of infusion with normal saline and atropine sulfate, the patient's condition fully recovered within 8 hours of hospital admission, and she was discharged without any complications.

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