• Title, Summary, Keyword: Homologous Recombination

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Effect of Non-homologous Spacing in Target DNA Sequence on the Frequency of Cloning Based Homologous Recombination (Target DNA 염기서열 내에 존재하는 비상동성 간격이 상동성재조합을 이용한 클로닝 빈도에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim Jae-Woo;Do Eun-Ju;Yoon Se-Lyun;Jeong Yun-Hee;Yoon Young-Ho;Leem Sun-Hee;Sunwoo Yangil;Park In-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.239-245
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    • 2005
  • Transformation-Associated Recombination (TAR) cloning technique allows selective isolation of chromosomal regions and genes from complex genomes. The procedure requires knowledge of relatively small genomic sequences that reside adjacent to the chromosomal region of interest. This technique involves homologous recombination during yeast spheroplast transformation between genomic DNA and a TAR vector that has 5' and 3' gene targeting sequences. In this study, we examined the effect of non-homologous spacing sequence in target hooks on homologous recombination using a plasmid model system. The efficiency of homologous recombination between the modified his3-TRP1-his3 fragments and HlS3 gene on plasmid were analyzed by the characterization of $Ura^+$ transformants. The numbers of $Ura^+$ transformant showed same level when seven different modified his3-TRP1-his3 fragments were used. But the percentage of positive recombinants. $Trp^+His^-$, dramatically decreased when used the modified his3-TRP1-his3 fragments contained incorrect spacing of nonhomologous region. As a result, we suggest that incorrect spacing inhibits the homologous recombination between target hook and substrate DNA. Therefore, we should consider the correct spacing in target hook when the target hook are used for cloning of orthologue gene.

Ku complex suppresses recombination in the absence of MRX activity during budding yeast meiosis

  • Yun, Hyeseon;Kim, Keunpil
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.52 no.10
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    • pp.607-612
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    • 2019
  • During meiosis, programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired via recombination pathways that are required for faithful chromosomal segregation and genetic diversity. In meiotic progression, the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway is suppressed and instead meiotic recombination initiated by nucleolytic resection of DSB ends is the major pathway employed. This requires diverse recombinase proteins and regulatory factors involved in the formation of crossovers (COs) and non-crossovers (NCOs). In mitosis, spontaneous DSBs occurring at the G1 phase are predominantly repaired via NHEJ, mediating the joining of DNA ends. The Ku complex binds to these DSB ends, inhibiting additional DSB resection and mediating end joining with Dnl4, Lif1, and Nej1, which join the Ku complex and DSB ends. Here, we report the role of the Ku complex in DSB repair using a physical analysis of recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during meiosis. We found that the Ku complex is not essential for meiotic progression, DSB formation, joint molecule formation, or CO/NCO formation during normal meiosis. Surprisingly, in the absence of the Ku complex and functional Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) complex, a large portion of meiotic DSBs was repaired via the recombination pathway to form COs and NCOs. Our data suggested that Ku complex prevents meiotic recombination in the elimination of MRX activity.

Mitotic Cohesin Subunit Mcd1 Regulates the Progression of Meiotic Recombination in Budding Yeast

  • Lee, Min-Su;Yoon, Sang-Wook;Kim, Keun Pil
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.598-605
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    • 2015
  • The cohesin complex holds sister chromatids together and prevents premature chromosome segregation until the onset of anaphase. Mcd1 (also known as Scc1), the α-kleisin subunit of cohesin, is a key regulatory subunit of the mitotic cohesin complex and is required for maintaining sister chromatid cohesion, chromosome organization, and DNA repair. We investigated the function of Mcd1 in meiosis by ectopically expressing Mcd1 during early meiotic prophase I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mcd1 partially regulated the progression of meiotic recombination, sister chromatid separation, and nuclear division. DNA physical analysis during meiotic recombination showed that Mcd1 induced double-strand breaks (DSBs) but negatively regulated homologous recombination during DSB repair; Mcd1 expression delayed post-DSB stages, leading to inefficiencies in the DSB-to-joint molecule (JM) transition and subsequent crossover formation. These findings indicate that meiotic cells undergo Mcd1-mediated DSB formation during prophase I, and that residual Mcd1 could regulate the progression of JM formation during meiotic recombination.

Enhanced Homologous Recombination in Fusarium verticillioides by Disruption of FvKU70, a Gene Required for a Non-homologous End Joining Mechanism

  • Choi, Yoon-E.;Shim, Won-Bo
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2008
  • Fusarium verticillioides (teleomorph Gibberella moniliformis) is associated with maize worldwide causing ear rot and stalk rot, and produces fumonisins, a group of mycotoxins detrimental to humans and animals. While research tools are available, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with fungal virulence and fumonisin biosynthesis in F. verticillioides is still limited. One of the restraints that hampers F. verticillioides gene characterization is the fact that homologous recombination (HR) frequency is very low (<2%). Screening for a true gene knock-out mutant is a laborious process due to a high number of ectopic integrations. In this study, we generated a F. verticillioides mutant (SF41) deleted for FvKU70, a gene directly responsible for non-homologous end-joining mechanism, with the aim of improving HR frequency. Here, we demonstrate that FvKU70 deletion does not impact key Fverticillioides phenotypes, e.g., development, secondary metabolism, and virulence, while dramatically improving HR frequency. Significantly, we also confirmed that a high percentage (>85%) of the HR mutant strains harbor a desired mutation with no additional copy of the mutant allele inserted in the genome. We conclude that SF41 is suitable for use as a type strain when performing high-throughput gene function studies in F. verticillioides.

Hed1 Promotes Meiotic Crossover Formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  • Kong, Yoon-Ju;Joo, Jeong-Hwan;Kim, Keun Pil;Hong, Soogil
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.405-411
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    • 2017
  • Homologous recombination occurs between homologous chromosomes and is significantly involved in programmed double-strand break (DSB) repair. Activation of two recombinases, Rad51 and Dmc1, is essential for an interhomolog bias during meiosis. Rad51 participates in both mitotic and meiotic recombination, and its strand exchange activity is regulated by an inhibitory factor during meiosis. Thus, activities of Rad51 and Dmc1 are coordinated to promote homolog bias. It has been reported that Hed1, a meiosis-specific protein in budding yeast, regulates Rad51-dependent recombination activity. Here, we investigated the role of Hed1 in meiotic recombination by ectopic expression of the protein after pre-meiotic replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DNA physical analysis revealed that the overexpression of Hed1 delays the DSB-to-joint molecule (JM) transition and promotes interhomolog JM formation. The study indicates a possible role of Hed1 in controlling the strand exchange activity of Rad51 and, eventually, meiotic crossover formation.

Histone deacetylases inhibitor and RAD51 recombinase increase transcription activator-like effector nucleases-mediated homologous recombination on the bovine β-casein gene locus

  • Park, Da Som;Kim, Se Eun;Koo, Deog-Bon;Kang, Man-Jong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.1023-1033
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    • 2020
  • Objective: The efficiency of the knock-in process is very important to successful gene editing in domestic animals. Recently, it was reported that transient loosening of the nucleosomal folding of transcriptionally inactive chromatin might have the potential to enhance homologous recombination efficiency. The objective of this study was to determine whether histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitor and RAD51 recombinase (RAD51) expression were associated with increased knock-in efficiency on the β-casein (bCSN2) gene locus in mammary alveolar-large T antigen (MAC-T) cells using the transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) system. Methods: MAC-T cells were treated with HDAC inhibitors, valproic acid, trichostatin A, or sodium butyrate for 24 h, then transfected with a knock-in vector, RAD51 expression vector and TALEN to target the bCSN2 gene. After 3 days of transfection, the knock-in efficiency was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing of the target site. Results: The level of HDAC 2 protein in MAC-T cells was decreased by treatment with HDAC inhibitors. The knock-in efficiency in MAC-T cells treated with HDAC inhibitors was higher than in cells not treated with inhibitors. However, the length of the homologous arm of the knock-in vector made no difference in the knock-in efficiency. Furthermore, DNA sequencing confirmed that the precision of the knock-in was more efficient in MAC-T cells treated with sodium butyrate. Conclusion: These results indicate that chromatin modification by HDAC inhibition and RAD51 expression enhanced the homologous recombination efficiency on the bCSN2 gene locus in MAC-T cells.

Foldback Intercoil DNA and the Mechanism of DNA Transposition

  • Kim, Byung-Dong
    • Genomics & Informatics
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.80-86
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    • 2014
  • Foldback intercoil (FBI) DNA is formed by the folding back at one point of a non-helical parallel track of double-stranded DNA at as sharp as $180^{\circ}$ and the intertwining of two double helixes within each other's major groove to form an intercoil with a diameter of 2.2 nm. FBI DNA has been suggested to mediate intra-molecular homologous recombination of a deletion and inversion. Inter-molecular homologous recombination, known as site-specific insertion, on the other hand, is mediated by the direct perpendicular approach of the FBI DNA tip, as the attP site, onto the target DNA, as the attB site. Transposition of DNA transposons involves the pairing of terminal inverted repeats and 5-7-bp tandem target duplication. FBI DNA configuration effectively explains simple as well as replicative transposition, along with the involvement of an enhancer element. The majority of diverse retrotransposable elements that employ a target site duplication mechanism is also suggested to follow the FBI DNA-mediated perpendicular insertion of the paired intercoil ends by non-homologous end-joining, together with gap filling. A genome-wide perspective of transposable elements in light of FBI DNA is discussed.

Hop2 and Sae3 Are Required for Dmc1-Mediated Double-Strand Break Repair via Homolog Bias during Meiosis

  • Cho, Hong-Rae;Kong, Yoon-Ju;Hong, Soo-Gil;Kim, Keun Pil
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.39 no.7
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    • pp.550-556
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    • 2016
  • During meiosis, exchange of DNA segments occurs between paired homologous chromosomes in order to produce recombinant chromosomes, helping to increase genetic diversity within a species. This genetic exchange process is tightly controlled by the eukaryotic RecA homologs Rad51 and Dmc1, which are involved in strand exchange of meiotic recombination, with Rad51 participating specifically in mitotic recombination. Meiotic recombination requires an interaction between homologous chromosomes to repair programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs). In this study, we investigated the budding yeast meiosis-specific proteins Hop2 and Sae3, which function in the Dmc1-dependent pathway. This pathway mediates the homology searching and strand invasion processes. Mek1 kinase participates in switching meiotic recombination from sister bias to homolog bias after DSB formation. In the absence of Hop2 and Sae3, DSBs were produced normally, but showed defects in the DSB-to-single-end invasion transition mediated by Dmc1 and auxiliary factors, and mutant strains failed to complete proper chromosome segregation. However, in the absence of Mek1 kinase activity, Rad51-dependent recombination progressed via sister bias in the $hop2{\Delta}$ or $sae3{\Delta}$ mutants, even in the presence of Dmc1. Thus, Hop2 and Sae3 actively modulate Dmc1-dependent recombination, effectively progressing homolog bias, a process requiring Mek1 kinase activation.

Current status and prospects of the meiosis-specific function of recombinase in plants (식물의 감수분열에서 상동 재조합 효소 특이 기능의 연구현황 및 전망)

  • Jung, Yu Jin;Nam, Ki Hong;Kim, Tae Sung;Lee, In Hae;Cho, Yong-Gu;Kang, Kwon Kyoo
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2018
  • Meiosis is a specialized cell division, essential in most reproducing organisms to halve the number of chromosomes, thereby enabling the restoration of ploidy levels during fertilization. A key step in meiosis is homologous recombination, which promotes homologous pairing and generates crossovers (COs) to connect homologous chromosomes until their separation at anaphase I. These CO sites, seen cytologically as chiasmata, represent a reciprocal exchange of genetic information between two homologous non-sister chromatids. RAD51, the eukaryotic homolog of the bacterial RecA recombinase, plays a central role in homologous recombination (HR) in yeast and animals. Loss of RAD51 function causes lethality in the flowering plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that RAD51 has a meiotic stage-specific function that is different from homologous pairing activity.

Generation of Fibroblasts Lacking the Sal-like 1 Gene by Using Transcription Activator-like Effector Nuclease-mediated Homologous Recombination

  • Kim, Se Eun;Kim, Ji Woo;Kim, Yeong Ji;Kwon, Deug-Nam;Kim, Jin-Hoi;Kang, Man-Jong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.564-570
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    • 2016
  • The Sal-like 1 gene (Sall1) is essential for kidney development, and mutations in this gene result in abnormalities in the kidneys. Mice lacking Sall1 show agenesis or severe dysgenesis of the kidneys. In a recent study, blastocyst complementation was used to develop mice and pigs with exogenic organs. In the present study, transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated homologous recombination was used to produce Sall1-knockout porcine fibroblasts for developing knockout pigs. The vector targeting the Sall1 locus included a 5.5-kb 5' arm, 1.8-kb 3' arm, and a neomycin resistance gene as a positive selection marker. The knockout vector and TALEN were introduced into porcine fibroblasts by electroporation. Antibiotic selection was performed over 11 days by using $300{\mu}g/mL$ G418. DNA of cells from G418-resistant colonies was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to confirm the presence of fragments corresponding to the 3' and 5' arms of Sall1. Further, mono- and bi-allelic knockout cells were isolated and analyzed using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The results of our study indicated that TALEN-mediated homologous recombination induced bi-allelic knockout of the endogenous gene.