• Title, Summary, Keyword: Holstein dairy cow

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Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System

  • Clark, C.E.F.;Kwinten, N.B.P.;van Gastel, D.A.J.M.;Kerrisk, K.L.;Lyons, N.A.;Garcia, S.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.587-591
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    • 2014
  • Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance.

Blood Chemical Values of Fascioliasis in Holstein Cow (간질에 감염된 젖소의 혈액화학치에 관한 연구)

  • Kim Tae-Jong;Lee Won-Chang;Kim Hak-Jae;Song Kee-Hoe
    • Journal of the korean veterinary medical association
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.226-231
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    • 1990
  • In order to investigate the infectious rate of the internal parasites, A total of nine hundred and five head of Holstein cow in the area of Kyungi Do was randomly selected for the fecal examination. And the chemical values of blood were examined from 20 H

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The effect of lactation number, stage, length, and milking frequency on milk yield in Korean Holstein dairy cows using automatic milking system

  • Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan;Park, Ji Hoo;Ki, Kwang Seok;Lim, Dong Hyun;Kim, Sang Bum;Park, Seong Min;Jeong, Ha Yeon;Park, Beom Young;Kim, Tae Il
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.8
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    • pp.1093-1098
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The aim of the current study was to describe the relationship between milk yield and lactation number, stage, length and milking frequency in Korean Holstein dairy cows using an automatic milking system (AMS). Methods: The original data set consisted of observations from April to October 2016 of 780 Holstein cows, with a total of 10,751 milkings. Each time a cow was milked by an AMS during the 24 h, the AMS management system recorded identification numbers of the AMS unit, the cow being milking, date and time of the milking, and milk yield (kg) as measured by the milk meters installed on each AMS unit, date and time of the lactation, lactation stage, milking frequency (NoM). Lactation stage is defined as the number of days milking per cows per lactation. Milk yield was calculated per udder quarter in the AMS and was added to 1 record per cow and trait for each milking. Milking frequency was measured the number of milkings per cow per 24 hour. Results: From the study results, a significant relationship was found between the milk yield and lactation number (p<0.001), with the maximum milk yield occurring in the third lactation cows. We recorded the highest milk yield, in a greater lactation length period of early stage (55 to 90 days) at a $4{\times}$ milking frequency/d, and the lowest milk yield was observed in the later stage (>201 days) of cows. Also, milking frequency had a significant influence on milk yield (p<0.001) in Korean Holstein cows using AMS. Conclusion: Detailed knowledge of these factors such as lactation number, stage, length, and milking frequency associated with increasing milk yield using AMS will help guide future recommendations to producers for maximizing milk yield in Korean Dairy industries.

Relationship between Estrous Expression Rate, BCS and Transferable Embryos in Holstein Donor Cows

  • Son, Jun-Kyu;Jung, Yeon-Sub;Cho, Sang-Rae;Baek, Kwang-Soo;Yoon, Ho-Beak;Lim, Hyun-Joo;Kwon, Eung-Gi;Kim, Sang-Bum;Choe, Changyong
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.237-243
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    • 2012
  • This research was investigated the relationship between the number of the transferable embryos and estrus expression rate, BCS (Body Condition Score), which affect the nutritional state of the cow, in Holstein donor cows. CIDRs were inserted into the vaginas of twenty two head of Holstein cows, regardless of estrous cycle. Superovulation was induced using folliclar stimulating hormone (FSH). For artificial insemination, donor cows were injected with $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ and estrus was checked about 48 hours after the injection. Then they were treated with 4 straws of semen 3 times, with 12-hour intervals. Embryos were collected by a non-surgical method 7 days after the first artificial insemination. When BCS was $$\leq_-$$2.5, the total number of collected ova was 7.3 + 1.9, which is significantly lower (p<0.05) than the numbers 15.4 + 2.8 and 15.4 + 2.1 that were obtained when BCSs were 2.75 and $$\geq_-$$3.0, respectively. Whereas the numbers of transferable embryos were 5.2 + 1.4 when BCS was $$\leq_-$$2.5, which was smaller than the numbers 6.0 + 2.1 and 8.5 + 1.8 that were obtained when BCSs were 2.75 and $$\geq_-$$3.0, respectively; however, the differences were not significant. As for estrus induction rate, the cow groups whose BCSs were 2.75 and $$\geq_-$$3.0 showed 100.0% and 95.0%, respectively. Whereas the cow group whose BCS was $$\leq_-$$2.5 showed 57.1%, and the differences were significant (p< 0.05). As for estrous expression rate, the cow groups whose BCSs were $$\leq_-$$2.5, 2.75 and $$\geq_-$$3.0 showed 100.0%, 100.0% and 85.7%, respectively; however, the differences were not significant. According to the result of this research, it is considered that the total number of collected ova and the number of transferable embryos will be affected by the nutritional state before and after in vivo embryo production and superovulation treatment, and that although the mechanism is not clear, poor stockbreeding management and nutritional level would cause the decrease of ovum recovery rate and the number of transferable embryos in high-producing cows. On the other hand, diverse researches on the superovulation treatment method that is suitable for high-producing Holstein donor cows would contribute to preventing ovarian cyclicity disorder, as well as to the early multiplication of cows with superior genes by increasing the utilization value of donor cows.

Grazing Soybean to Increase Voluntary Cow Traffic in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System

  • Clark, C.E.F.;Horadagoda, A.;Kerrisk, K.L.;Scott, V.;Islam, M.R.;Kaur, R.;Garcia, S.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.422-430
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    • 2014
  • Pasture-based automatic milking systems (AMS) require cow traffic to enable cows to be milked. The interval between milkings can be manipulated by strategically allocating pasture. The current experiment investigated the effect of replacing an allocation of grazed pasture with grazed soybean (Glycine max) with the hypothesis that incorporating soybean would increase voluntary cow traffic and milk production. One hundred and eighty mixed age, primiparous and multiparous Holstein-Friesian/Illawarra cows were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (n = 90/group) with a $2{\times}2$ Latin square design. Each group was either offered treatments of kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum Hoach ex Chiov.) pasture (pasture) or soybean from 0900 h to 1500 h during the experimental period which consisted of 2 periods of 3 days following 5 days of training and adaptation in each period with groups crossing over treatments after the first period. The number of cows trafficking to each treatment was similar together with milk yield (mean ${\approx}18$ L/cow/d) in this experiment. For the cows that arrived at soybean or pasture there were significant differences in their behaviour and consequently the number of cows exiting each treatment paddock. There was greater cow traffic (more cows and sooner) exiting pasture allocations. Cows that arrived at soybean stayed on the allocation for 25% more time and ate more forage (8.5 kg/cow/d/allocation) relative to pasture (4.7 kg/cow/d/allocation). Pasture cows predominantly replaced eating time with rumination. These findings suggest that replacing pasture with alternative grazeable forages provides no additional incentive to increase voluntary cow traffic to an allocation of feed in AMS. This work highlights the opportunity to increase forage intakes in AMS through the incorporation of alternative forages.

Studies on the Incidence Rate of Reproductive Failure and Bacterial Flora in Vagina in Dairy Cow (유우의 번식장해 발생률과 번식장해우의 질내세균총에 관한 조사연구)

  • Jeong B. H.
    • Journal of the korean veterinary medical association
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    • v.21 no.12
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    • pp.740-747
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    • 1985
  • In these three and half years, the number of dairy cow diagnosed and treated at Veterinary Clinic, College of Animal Husbandary, Kun kuk University was amunted to 4510 heads of Holstein breed. In order to survey the aspect of reproductive failure incidenc

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Effect of Feeding Strategies on Milk Production of Holstein Dairy Cows Managed by Small-Farmers Alpine Grassland in Korea

  • Kim, Tae-Il;Mayakrishnan, Vijayakumar;Lim, Dong-Hyun;Park, Seong-Min;Park, Ji-Hoo;Kim, Sang-Bum;Jung, Jeong-Sung;Ki, Kwang-Seok
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.165-169
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    • 2018
  • The main objective of this experiment was to investigate effects of two different feeding systems on body weight, milk yield, milk composition, and mineral and fatty acids content of Holstein dairy cows' milk. Sixteen of 25 months-old Holstein dairy cows were assigned to two groups (n=8) to study effects of the feeding system for 150 days. Two feeding systems were compared for five months; Group 1 was housed indoors and mainly fed a concentrate diet, Group 2 was maintained outdoors for five-seven hours/day on various kinds grass in a pasture. The experiment was conducted June-October 2017. Results revealed the indoor-fed cows had higher body weight, that was significant compared with the outdoor-based feeding system of Holstein dairy cows (p<0.05). Indoor-raised milking cows had higher milk yield (32.45 kg) as compared with pasture-raised milk yield (26.44 kg). Cows fed indoors significantly increased milk yield, total protein content, lactose, citric acid level, and lowered level of total solid and free fatty acids relative to the pasture-fed milking cows (p>0.05). There were higher levels of mineral content and fatty acid content in the milk of indoor-fed dairy cows than the pasture-raised dairy cows (p>0.05). Our study results demonstrated the potential benefits of the indoor feeding system for increased body weight, milk yield, mineral and fatty acids content summer through autumn when low pasture growth rates and quality may otherwise limit production.

Characteristics of Dairy Cow's Vocalization in Postpartum Related with Calf Isolation (출산 후 새끼와의 분리에 따른 유우의 발성음 특성)

  • Kim, Min-Jin;Son, Seung-Hun;Rhim, Shin-Jae;Chang, Moon-Baek
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.51-56
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to clarify the characteristics of Holstein dairy cow's vocalization in postpartum related with calf isolation. Vocalizations of 16 individuals of cows were recorded 6 hours per day (1:00am~4:00am and 1:00pm~4:00pm) using digital recorder and microphone during October 2008 and May 2009. Vocalizations were divided into 4 types. Characteristics of frequency, intensity and duration were analyzed by GLM (general linear model) and Duncan's multi-test. There were significant differences in frequency and intensity based on analyses of spectrogram and spectrum among 4 types of vocalizations. Frequencies of vocalizations were dramatically decreased on 2nd and 3rd day. Vocalization would be important factor affecting the motheryoung bond in Holstein dairy cattle.

Effects of Black Sugar Supplementation on Dry Matter Intake, Milk Yield, and Milk Composition in Holstein Dairy Cow

  • Seng, Tongheng;Lee, Sang Moo;Kim, Eun Joong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.213-218
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementing additional sucrose, in the form of black sugar (BS), into the diet of Holstein dairy cows on dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, and milk composition. Eight Holstein dairy cows ($741{\pm}65.8kg$ body weight) were divided into two groups, including the control and BS groups. Animals in the control group were offered a total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum, and the BS group was offered TMR with 300 g of BS/head/d. After two weeks of adaptation period, the animal performance, including DMI, milk yield and milk composition, was measured. Cows supplemented with BS appeared to consume more feed than that by the controls (i.e., 17.08 and 18.28 kg/d for the control and BS groups, respectively). However, there were no significant differences between treatments. Milk yield or milk composition, such as milk fat, milk protein, lactose, solids-non-fat, total solids and pH, did not differ between treatments. However, there was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN). The MUN concentration of the BS group was approximately 15% lower than that of the control group (i.e., 18.75 vs. 16.05 mg/dL for the control and BS groups, respectively), which suggests improved nitrogen metabolism in the animals. The somatic cell count was numerically lower in the cows of the BS group compared to those in the control group. However, a significant difference was not noted due to the substantial amount of variation among cows. In terms of the trace mineral composition for milk, the concentration of Cu from BS animals was higher (p<0.05) than that of the control animals. In summary, supplementing the diets of dairy cows with BS marginally affected animal performance and improved nitrogen metabolism. The level of supplementation and other factors, such as animal variation were discussed.

Effects of Feeding Corn-lablab Bean Mixture Silages on Nutrient Apparent Digestibility and Performance of Dairy Cows

  • Qu, Yongli;Jiang, Wei;Yin, Guoan;Wei, Chunbo;Bao, Jun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.509-516
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    • 2013
  • This study estimated the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of corn-lablab bean mixture silages relative to corn silages. The effects of feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages on nutrient apparent digestibility and milk production of dairy cows in northern China were also investigated. Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to determine the ruminal digestion kinetics and ruminal nutrient degradability of corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups of 30 cows each. Two diets were formulated with a 59:41 forage: concentrate ratio. Corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages constituted 39.3% of the forage in each diet, with Chinese wildrye hay constituting the remaining 60.7%. Corn-lablab bean mixture silages had higher lactic acid, acetic acid, dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ash, Ca, ether extract concentrations and ruminal nutrient degradability than monoculture corn silage (p<0.05). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) concentrations of corn-lablab bean mixture silages were lower than those of corn silage (p<0.05). The digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF for cows fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was higher than for those fed corn silage (p<0.05). Feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield and milk protein of dairy cows when compared with feeding corn silage (p<0.05). The economic benefit for cow fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was 8.43 yuan/day/cow higher than that for that fed corn silage. In conclusion, corn-lablab bean mixture improved the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of silage compared with monoculture corn. In this study, feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield, milk protein and nutrient apparent digestibility of dairy cows compared with corn silage in northern China.