• Title, Summary, Keyword: Holstein Cows

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Effects of Lactation Stage and Milk Yield on Reproductive Performance in Holstein Dairy Cows (Holstein 젖소의 비유단계 및 산유량이 번식성적에 미치는 영향)

  • Baek, Kwang-Soo;Son, Jun-Kyu;Lim, Hyun-Joo;Yoon, Ho-Beak;Lee, Wang-Shik;Kim, Tae-Il;Hur, Tai-Young;Choe, Chang-Yong;Jung, Young-Hun;Ki, Kwang-Seok;Kwon, Eung-Gi;Jung, Yeon-Sub;Lee, Hyun-Min
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.135-141
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    • 2013
  • This study aimed to improve the reproductive efficiency of dairy herds by comparison and analyzing estrous appearance rate, conception and non-conception rate according to the stage of lactation using the lactation and reproductive records of average (less than 10,000 liters milk in 305 days) and high yielding (more than 10,000 liters milk in 305 days) Holstein cows (n=102). Milk production and reproduction data were collected between January 2010 and December 2012 from Holstein cows kept in the commercial dairy farms. Average (n=32) and high yielding (n=24) Holstein cows used to analyze the relationship between milk yield and reproductive performance. Our results showed that estrous appearance rate according to the stage of lactation was 25.0% (30~59d), 40.6% (60~89d), 25% (90~110d) and 9.4% (>111d) in average yielding cows and 16.7% (30~59d), 20.8% (60~89d), 12.5% (90~110d) and 50.0% (>111d) in high yielding cows, respectively. Conception rate according to the stage of lactation was 87.5% (30~59d), 61.5% (60~89d), 75.0% (90~110d) and 66.7% (>111d) in average yielding cows and 25.0% (30~59d), 0% (60~89d), 33.3% (90~110d) and 50.0% (>111d) in high yielding cows, respectively. Days between parturition and conception was 23.7% (<149d), 0% (150~209d) and 0% (>210 d) in average yielding cows and 69.0% (<149 d), 77.8% (150~209d) and 38.9% (>210d) in high yielding cows, respectively. Conception rate from 110 days postpartum in high yielding cows was 41.7% (110~150d), 50.0% (151~180d) and 50.0% (>181d). Body condition score (BCS) in 120 days postpartum was $2.64{\pm}0.1$ in average yielding cows and $2.28{\pm}0.1$ in high yielding cows, respectively.

Odds Ratio and Probability of Conception of Holstein Friesian Dairy Cows in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

  • Ali, A.K.A.;ALEssa, A.A.;Alshaikh, M.A.;Aljumaah, R.S.;Al-Haidary, A.A.;Alkraidees, M.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.308-313
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    • 2005
  • Logistic Regression Analysis was used to compute the odds ratio (OR) and probability of conception of Holstein dairy cows of AL-MARAIE company. Data consisted of 103,778 reproductive records collected from three farms in the central region in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Records were classified according to lactation number, season of calving and milk level. At first lactation, OR of first service was 0.63 of other services and probability of pregnancy from first services was 0.39. Odds ratio increased to 1.72 at fourth lactation or probability of conception reached 0.63. The probability of conception increased from 0.39 for cows inseminated at first services to 0.75 at fifth service insemination. Odds ratio of cows calving in winter were higher than those calving in summer. Odds ratio of conception of low producing cows is about twice as likely to occur from first service as from other services. However, OR of conception of high producing cows was higher than one (probability=0.56) from first service and increased to 1.63 (probability=0.65) from third service. Odds ratio was in favor of the right uterus horn where probability of conception from first service was slightly greater than 50% in first and second lactations and less than 50% in favor of left horn in later lactations.

Association of Leptin Polymorphism with Production, Reproduction and Plasma Glucose Level in Iranian Holstein Cows

  • Moussavi, A. Heravi;Ahouei, M.;Nassiry, M.R.;Javadmanesh, A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.627-631
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    • 2006
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of genetic differences in the bovine leptin gene and milk yield, reproduction, body condition score (BCS), and plasma glucose level in Iranian Holstein cows. In total, two hundred and thirty eight cows were used and genotyped for a restricted fragment length polymorphism at the leptin gene locus. Two genotypes, AA and AB, have been distinguished which have the frequencies of 0.89 and 0.11, respectively. The genotypes were distributed according to the Hardy - Weinberg equilibrium ($x^2$ = 0.733). During the first 12 wk of lactation, milk yield and composition, live weight, BCS and plasma glucose were measured in 50 cows. Data were analyzed based on a repeated measures ANOVA. During this period, milk yield and composition, live weight, BCS and plasma glucose level were similar among the genotypes. The first cumulative 60-d milk yield, 305-d milk yield, days to first breeding, days open and days from first breeding to conception using previous lactation records were also analyzed using Standard Least Square within mixed models. Fixed effects were year, season, parity and age at calving, and sire. For the reproductive traits the cumulative first 60-d milk yield was also added to the model. Animal was fitted as a random effect. A significant association was detected between the RFLP-AB genotype and 305-d milk yield (p<0.05). The first 60-d cumulative milk yield was similar for the two genotypes (p = 0.21) and tended to be higher in the heterozygous cows. The heterozygous genotypes at the above mentioned locus had a trend to better reproductive performance than the homozygous. The results demonstrate that the RFLP B-allele can yield a higher 305-d milk production with a trend to better reproductive performance.

The carryover effects of high forage diet in bred heifers on feed intake, feed efficiency and milk production of primiparous lactating Holstein cows

  • Chemere, Befekadu;Lee, Bae Hun;Nejad, Jalil Ghassemi;Kim, Byong Wan;Sung, Kyung Il
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.208-215
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    • 2017
  • This study was designed to investigate the carryover effects of high-forage to concentrate (F: C) diet in bred heifers on feed intake, feed efficiency (FE) and milk production of primiparous lactating Holstein cows. The experiment was conducted for 589 days (d) from onset of pregnancy through to the end of first lactation. Twenty-four bred heifers (Body weight: $BW=345.8{\pm}45.4kg$ and $15{\pm}1.2mon$ of age) randomly assigned to two groups of 3 pens containing 4 heifers each and fed high forage (HF) diet with F: C ratio of 91.7: 8.3% and low forage (LF) diet with F: C ratio of 77.8: 22.2% throughout the pregnancy period. After calving, lactating cows were fed total mixed ration (TMR) based diet. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed in dry matter intake (DMI) of bred heifers and primiparous lactating cows in both HF and LF groups. The FE of mid-to-late lactation period was higher (p< 0.05) in HF than LF group. However, the HF group showed higher (p < 0.05) milk yield, 4 % fat corrected milk (FCM) and energy corrected milk (ECM) than LF group during the 305 d lactation. The LF group showed higher (p < 0.05) milk fat, crude protein (CP), milk urea nitrogen (MUN), solid not fat (SNF) and somatic cell count (SCC) than HF group. It is concluded that restriction of F: C ratio to 91.7: 8.3% to bred heifers has the potential carryover effects to maintain higher milk yield and FE with no adverse effect on feed intake and milk composition of primiparous lactating Holstein cows.

Effects of Black Sugar Supplementation on Dry Matter Intake, Milk Yield, and Milk Composition in Holstein Dairy Cow

  • Seng, Tongheng;Lee, Sang Moo;Kim, Eun Joong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.213-218
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementing additional sucrose, in the form of black sugar (BS), into the diet of Holstein dairy cows on dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, and milk composition. Eight Holstein dairy cows ($741{\pm}65.8kg$ body weight) were divided into two groups, including the control and BS groups. Animals in the control group were offered a total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum, and the BS group was offered TMR with 300 g of BS/head/d. After two weeks of adaptation period, the animal performance, including DMI, milk yield and milk composition, was measured. Cows supplemented with BS appeared to consume more feed than that by the controls (i.e., 17.08 and 18.28 kg/d for the control and BS groups, respectively). However, there were no significant differences between treatments. Milk yield or milk composition, such as milk fat, milk protein, lactose, solids-non-fat, total solids and pH, did not differ between treatments. However, there was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN). The MUN concentration of the BS group was approximately 15% lower than that of the control group (i.e., 18.75 vs. 16.05 mg/dL for the control and BS groups, respectively), which suggests improved nitrogen metabolism in the animals. The somatic cell count was numerically lower in the cows of the BS group compared to those in the control group. However, a significant difference was not noted due to the substantial amount of variation among cows. In terms of the trace mineral composition for milk, the concentration of Cu from BS animals was higher (p<0.05) than that of the control animals. In summary, supplementing the diets of dairy cows with BS marginally affected animal performance and improved nitrogen metabolism. The level of supplementation and other factors, such as animal variation were discussed.

Survey on Rate of Twin Pregnancy and Parturition in Dairy Cows in Korea (국내 유우(Holstein)의 쌍태임신율 및 분만에 관한 조사)

  • Cho, Jin-Haeng;Kim, Myung-Cheol;Jeong, Seong-Mok;Lee, Jae-Yeon;Shin, Sang-Tae;Shin, Beom-Jun
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.33-37
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    • 2012
  • This study was performed to evaluate the rate of twin pregnancy and parturition in dairy cows. Calving records of Holstein dairy cows from 1998 to 2009 comprising Goyang and Paju cities herd with 20,990 calving events representing 820 twin births were used to evaluate twinning rate, calf sex ratio, periods of pregnancy and complication after parturition in single and twin births. Overall, the reported twinning rate was 3.9% in Holstein dairy cows. Rate of bicornual pregnancy (75%) was larger than that of unicornual pregnancy (25%) among cows having twin. Regardless of parity, the greatest twinning rate was observed in fall season from September to November. Calf sex ratios (male, M; female, F) were 48.0% FM, 28.9% MM, 21.5% FF and 0.9% mummifications for twin calves. Parturition type among cows having twins included normal (4.7%), premature (66.9%), delayed (9.2%), abortion (18.4%) and mummification (0.8%). The period of pregnancy in twin pregnancy (mean 272.6 days) was shorter than single pregnancy (mean 278.1 days). The retained placenta after parturition was over fourth times such as twin parturition (34.8%) higher than single parturition (8.5%) and the abomasal displacement was over two times such as twin parturition (10.2%) higher than single parturition (4.9%). The distribution of twin pregnancy with parities was high rate during the 2~3 parities. The prevalence of complication such as retained placenta and abomasal displacement with twin parturition revealed higher than single parturition.

Results of Embryo Transfer with Hanwoo Embryos Produced In-Vivo or In-Vitro to Holstein Cows as Recipients (체내 또는 체외에서 생산된 한우 수정란을 젖소 수란우에 이식한 결과)

  • Kim, Yong-Jun;Park, Hoon;Lee, Hae-Lee;Shin, Dong-Su;Jo, Sung-Woo;Kim, Yong-Su;Kim, Sue-Hee
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.167-175
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    • 2008
  • This study was performed to investigate the result that in-vivo or in-vitro embryos of Hanwoo cows were transferred to Holstein cows. Seventeen Hanwoo cows were used as donors for production of in-vivo embryos and fresh hanwoo in-vivo embryos were transferred to 1,150 Holsteins. And 2 embryos were transferred to 188 Holstein recipients to produce twin calves. Diagnosis on pregnancy was performed by rectal palpation at $60\sim90$ days after transfer. The pregnancy rate of Holstein recipients was 55.8% after transfer with Hanwoo in-vivo embryos and 38.2% after transfer with Hanwoo in-vitro embryos. The delivery rate of pregnant Holstein recipients was 88.4% after transfer with Hanwoo in-vivo embryos and 75.6% after transfer with Hanwoo in-vitro embryos. The rate of delivery of Holstein recipients transferred with two Hanwoo embryos was 36.2% and the rate of twin production was 25.9%. The rate of twin production by embryo transfer with in-vivo embryos was 30.4%, whereas the fate with in-vitro embryos was 15.6%. The pregnancy rate according to the grade of corpus luteum of Holstein recipients transferred with Hanwoo in-vitro embryos was 41.5 and 36.0% for A and B grade, respectively. The pregnancy rate according to the transfer in site in the uterine lumen of recipients was 40.9 and 32.7% for anterior and middle site, respectively. The pregnancy rate according to day of embryo transfer after estrus of recipients was 45.5, 38.8 and 39.7% for day 6, day 7 and day 8, respectively. There was difference of pregnancy rate according embryo transfer technician ($30.5\sim45.8%$) individual dairy farm ($21.1\sim51.0%$). These results are supposed to indicate that the rate of pregnancy after transfer with Hanwoo embryos to Holstein recipients was similar to that within the same breed, and consequently that this method would be beneficial to enhance the productivity in Hanwoo reproduction.

EFFECTS OF PHOSPHORUS AND CALCIUM ON FEED INTAKE AND YIELD AND COMPOSITION OF MILK OF HOLSTEIN COWS

  • Morse, D.;Head, H.H.;Wilcox, C.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.231-237
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    • 1994
  • Three concentrations of P (0.33, 0.43 and 0.54%) and two concentrations of Ca (0.60 and 0.97%) in ration dry matter were evaluated for effects on dry matter intake and on milk yield and composition using 24 Holstein cows. Cows were arranged in a $3{\times}2$ factorial experiment as an incomplete randomized block design with three 28-day periods. Each cow consumed at least one ration with each concentration of Ca. Dry matter intake, yield of 3.5% Fat Corrected Milk, and milk composition were not affected by concentration of P, but milk yield was greater when lowest concentration of P was fed (22.8 vs. 22.1 kg/day; p<0.07). Cows fed rations containing 0.60% Ca had greater milk (22.7 vs. 21.9 kg/day; p<0.02) and 3.5% Fat Corrected Milk yields (p<0.03) and slightly greater protein content than when fed 0.97% Ca. Dietary Ca:P ratios between 1.1:1 and 2.9:1 had no effect on dry matter intake, milk yield, or composition. Concentrations of P in plasma were within the normal range for all rations. Because cows had high dry matter intake, mean daily intakes of both P and Ca were greater than required for their level of milk yield.

Effects of Dystocia on the Postpartum Complications, Milk Production and Reproductive Performance in Dairy Cows

  • Kim, Dong-Uk;Lee, Soo-Chan;Jeong, Jae-Kwan;Choi, In-Soo;Moon, Sung-Ho;Kang, Hyun-Gu;Kim, Ill-Hwa
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.87-92
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    • 2016
  • This field study investigated the effects of dystocia on the postpartum complications, milk production, and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows. Calving difficulty was scored on a rank scale of 1 to 5. Cows with a calving score of three or higher were judged to have dystocia. The cows (n = 565) were categorized based on the presence (n = 61) or absence (n = 504, control) of dystocia. The incidence of retained placenta (45.9% vs. 16.3%), metritis (39.3% vs. 17.1%), endometritis (47.5% vs. 16.3%) and pyometra (9.8% vs. 1.2%) were greater in cows from the dystocia group than those from the control group (p < 0.0001); however, there was no difference in the incidence of metabolic disorders (32.8% vs. 31.0%) between the two groups (p > 0.05). The prevalence of culling was higher in cows from the dystocia group (26.2%) than in those from the control group (14.5%, p < 0.05). During the 5-month postpartum period, milk production was lower (p < 0.05) in cows from the dystocia group than in those from the control group. Furthermore, the hazard of insemination by 150 days in milk (DIM) was lower in cows from the dystocia group (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.64, p < 0.005) than in those from the control group. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio for the probability of pregnancy after the first artificial insemination was 0.36 times (p < 0.05) higher in cows from the dystocia group than in those from the control group. The hazard of pregnancy by 360 DIM was lower in cows from the dystocia group (HR = 0.45, p = 0.0001) than in those from the control group. In conclusion, dystocia resulted in increased postpartum complications, and decreased milk production and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows, leading to increased culling.

Immunohistochemical observation on the functions of follicles developed in ovaries of pregnant cows (임신우에서 발생된 난포의 기능에 대한 면역조직화학적 관찰)

  • Kwak, Soo-Dong;Koh, Phil-Ok;Yang, Je-Hoon;Won, Chung-Kil;Kang, Chung-Boo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.555-561
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    • 2003
  • Incidence of estrum or abortions in pregnant cows may be affected by large follicles developed together with corpus luteum in pair ovaries of pregnant cows. But the follicles of pregnant phase were not assessed about histological findings. Determination of the healthy and atretic follicles by presence of proliferative cells or apoptotic cells and histological compositions of follicles would be used as important data on measurements of ovarian functions. This study was focussed mainly to investigate macroscopical, histological and immunohistochemical findings of ovarian follicles of pregnant Korean native cows and dairy cows (Holstein). In immunohistochemical methods, assessments of proliferative cells using PCNA antibody and apoptotic cells using TUNEL methods were performed. The follicles were observed on all 24 pregnant cows (17 Korean native cows and 7 Holstein cows). Follicles of greater than 10 mm in daimeter were developed in 37.5% (9/24 heads) of these pregnant cows. largest follicles from in these cows were $16.0{\times}15.0mm$ in diameter in a Korean native cow(l20 days of gestation), $13.4{\times}10.1mm$ in a Korean native cow(50 days of gestation), $12.9{\times}11.5mm$ in a Holstein cow (120 days of gestation). 40.5% among all follicles having diameter of greater than 1.0 mm in pregnant cows were assessed as atretic follicles and in addition, healthy follicles also showed less in number and smaller in size and thinner in wall layer compared with those of cyclic phase ovaries. In immunohistochemical findings, also proliferative positive cells and apoptotic positive cells on the granulosa cell layers in the healthy follicles of pregnant cows appeared less than on those of cyclic follicles. So these follicles were assessed as weakly active follicles. In large follicles, above positive cells were not nearly appeared but granulosa cell debris were more appeared among the granulosa cells. So these large follicles were assessed as inactvie or atretic follicles. The above findings suggest that small follicles of pregnant phase were weakly active or atretic and large follicles were inactive or atretic.