• Title, Summary, Keyword: Holstein Cows

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Genetic Parameters for Milk Production and Somatic Cell Score of First Lactation in Holstein Cattle with Random Regression Test-Day Models (임의회귀 검정일 모형을 이용한 홀스타인 젖소의 1산차 산유형질 및 체세포지수에 대한 유전모수)

  • Lee, D.H.;Jo, J.H.;Han, K.G.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.739-748
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    • 2003
  • The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for test-day milk production and somatic cell score using field data collected by dairy herd improvement program in Korea. Random regression animal models were applied to estimate genetic variances for milk production and somatic cell score. Heritabilities for milk yields, fat percentage, protein percentage, solid-not-fat percentage, and somatic cell score from test day records of 5,796 first lactation Holstein cows were estimated by REML algorithm in single trait random regression test-day animal models. For these analyses, Legendre polynomial covariate function was applied to model the fixed effect of age-season, the additive genetic effect and the permanent environment effect as random. Homogeneous residual variance was assumed to be equal throughout lactation. Heritabilities as a function of time were calculated from the estimated curve parameters from univariate analyses. Heritability estimates for milk yields were in range of 0.13 to 0.29 throughout first lactation. Heritability estimates for fat percentage, protein percentage and solid-not-fat percentage were within 0.09 to 0.11, 0.12 to 0.19 and 0.17 to 0.23, respectively. For somatic cell score, heritabilities were within 0.02 to 0.04. Heritabilities for milk productions and somatic cell score were fluctuated by days in milk with comparing 305d milk production.

Analysis of Daily Milking Flow in Holstein Dairy Cow Using the LactoCorder (전자식유량계를 활용한 홀스타인 젖소의 비유형질 분석)

  • Cho, Kwang-Hyun;Choi, Jun-Pyo;You, Byung-Wha;Lee, Deuk-Hwan;Kong, Hong-Sik;Park, Kyung-Do;Lee, Hak-Kyo
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.265-272
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    • 2009
  • A total of 486 milk records were collected from 16 diary farms in Imsil-gun, Jeollabuk-do. Results obtained were as follows: The average 3MG (amount of milk within the first three minute) was 7.44 kg and 55% of total milk yield was produced within 3 min. The average of SPL (% of foam in milk) was 33.93% and the average of MNG (strip yield) was 0.14 kg, which was less than 1% of total milk yield. The averages of HMF (highest milk flow), HMG (maximum milk flow rate in one minute) and DMHG (average milk flow in the main milking phase) were 3.03 kg/min, 2.94 kg/min and 2.05 kg/min, respectively and the average milking speed in Imsil-gun was slower than other regions. The average of tS500(time to reach 0.5 kg/min at beginning) was 0.23min (about 14 seconds) and that of tMGG (duration of the total milking) was 7.75min. The average tMBG (duration of the dry milking phase) was 0.58 min (35 seconds) and that of tMNG (duration of the stripping phase) was 0.42min (14 seconds). The averages of ELHMF (electrical conductivity at highest milk flow) and ELAP (beginning peak level of the electrical conductivity) were 6.81 mS/cm and 7.58 mS/cm, respectively. The average of ELMAX (maximum electrical conductivity) was 7.48 mS/cm and that of ELAD (beginning peak difference of the electrical conductivity) was 0.61 mS/cm. While the total milk yields for DMHG, tMHG (duration of the main milking phase), tPL (duration of the plateau phase), tAB (duration of the descending phase) and tMGG were positively correlated (0.35~0.54), those for tMBG and SPL were negatively correlated (-0.11 and -0.27). As the DMHG increased, tMHG, tPL, tAB, tMGG and SPL decreased. While the cows with higher electrical conductivity at the beginning of milking had less somatic cell counts, cows with higher electrical conductivity after the peak of milk yield had more somatic cell counts. The results of this experiment indicated that through milking based on milking and lactating standards and the regular checking of milking status, the qualities of milk and milk yields could be improved.

Effects of Supplementation of Synbiotic Co-cultures Manufactured with Anaerobic Microbes on In Vitro Fermentation Characteristics and In Situ Degradability of Fermented TMR (혐기성 미생물로 제조한 synbiotics 혼합배양물의 첨가가 발효 TMR의 발효특성과 소실률에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Shin-Ja;Shin, Nyeon-Hak;Hyun, Jong-Hwan;Kang, Tae-Won;An, Jung-Jun;Jung, Ho-Sik;Moon, Yea-Hwang;Lee, Sung-Sill
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.11
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    • pp.1538-1546
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to estimate the in vitro fermentation characteristics and in situ degradabilities of total mixed rations fermented by the synbiotic co-cultures composed of various anaerobic microorganisms in the rumen of cow. Seventy two TMR bags (4 treatments $\times$ 6 fermentation days $\times$ 3 replications) were manufactured for in vitro and in situ experiments. The experiment was composed of four treatments including the control, the mould and bacteria synbiotics (T1), the mould and yeast synbiotics (T2) and the bacteria and yeast synbiotics (T3). Each treatment had six fermentation days (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 day) with three replications. Two rumen cannulated Holstein cows (550 ㎏ of mean body wt) were used for in situ trial, and a total of 96 nylon bags were retrieved from the rumen according to eight fermentation times (1, 3, 6, 9, 18, 24, 48 and 72 hr). The mean fermentation temperatures of TMRs by supplementation of anaerobic micoorganism co-cultures ranged from $22.97^{\circ}C$ to $26.07^{\circ}C$, and tended to increase steadily during the entire period. pH values of the F-TMRs ranged from 4.39 to 4.98 and tended to decrease with the extension of the fermentation period, and decreased by supplementation of synbiotics (p<0.05). The ammonia concentrations of F-TMRs were not affected by addition of synbiotic co-cultures during the early fermentation period (within 7 days), but was lowest (p<0.05) in T3 during the late fermentation periods (after 14 days). Lactic acid concentration of F-TMR was lowest in T3 at 1 day of fermentation, but was not different from treatments in the other fermentation days. Microbial growth rates of F-TMR reached a peak at 7 days of fermentation, and afterward tended to decrease. In in situ experiment, the DM disappearance rates were higher in T1 than the control during early fermentation times (within 3 hours), but was vice versa at 48 hours of fermentation (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in effective DM degradability among treatments. NDF and ADF disappearance rates in situ were similar to those of DM. From the above results, the supplementation of synbiotics, particularly the mould and bacteria synbiotics, resulted in improving the pH and concentration of lactic acid of F-TMR as parameters of fermentation compare to the control, and also had higher in situ disappearance rates of DM, NDF and ADF than the control at early fermentation time. However, effective DM degradability was not affected by supplementation of synbiotics.

The Effects of Processing Methods of Corn on In vitro DM Digestability and In sacco Degradability in Rumen (옥수수 가공방법이 In vitro 건물소화율 및 In sacco 건물 분해율에 미치는 영향)

  • Son, K.N.;Kim, Y.K. Kim;Lee, S.K.;Kim, H.S.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.433-442
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    • 2003
  • The objective of these studies were to examine the effects of processing methods of corn grains on in vitro dry matter digestability and in sacco degradability in the rumen by three ruminally cannulated dry Holstein cows. The corns for these experiments were untreated; whole corn L(density; 660 g/$\ell$), whole corn H(density; 740 g/$\ell$), and treated by four different types: Ground corn, 3.8 mm, 2.8 mm, and 1.5 mm flaked corns. The results obtained were summarized as follows: The DM degradabilities, after 48 hr incubation by in sacco method, were the highest(94.4, 88.0 and 87.0%, respectively) in 1.5 mm flaked corn, ground corn, and 2.8 mm flaked corn. The 3.8 mm flaked corn was degraded significantly lower than these. Until 12 hr incubation, whole corn L tended to be degraded little more than whole corn H, was not significantly different. However, after 24 hr incubation, the significant differences between whole corn L and whole corn H were shown(P<0.05). The DM digestabilities by in vitro digestion were the highest for 1.5 mm flaked corn and ground corn(92.3 and 91.2%, respectively)(P<0.05), followed by 2.8 mm and 3.8 mm flaked corn(83.9 and 83.4%, respectively), tended to be similar to those by in sacco method. Whole corn L was digested twice more rapidly than whole corn H. Summarizing the experimental data, compared with unprocessed corns, the flaked corns were significantly increased in the degradabilities of dry matter in the rumen. In addition, as increasing the flaking degree of corn, the degradabilities of dry matter were significantly improved. Referring to these kinds of physical characteristics of grain sources in the ruminal degradabilities, it is believed to be possible to optimize the environment of the fermentation in the rumen.

The Effects of Processing Methods of Corn on In sacco Starch and Protein Degradability in the Rumen (옥수수 가공방법이 In sacco 전분 및 단백질 분해율에 미치는 영향)

  • Son, K.N.;Kim, Y.K.;Lee, S.K.;Kim, H.S.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.421-432
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    • 2003
  • The objective of this study was to examine the effects of processing methods of corn grains on protein and starch degradability in the rumen by three ruminally cannulated dry Holstein cows. The corns for these experiments were untreated; whole corn L(density; 660 g/$\ell$), whole corn H(density; 740 g/$\ell$), and treated by four different types: Ground corn, 3.8 mm, 2.8 mm, and 1.5 mm flaked corn. The results obtained were summarized as follows: For 48 hrs, the protein degradabilities were high in order, ground corn, 1.5 mm, 2.8 mm, and 3.8 mm flaked corn(82.6, 76.5, 64.5, and 33.9%, respectively). Flaked corn grains were degraded lower than ground corn. However, as increasing the processing degree of flaking, the protein degradabilities, from 4 hrs to 48 hrs, were increased. The starch degradabilities on 48 hrs were higher in 1.5 and 2.8 mm flaked corns, ground corn, 3.8 mm flaked corn(99.1, 91.5, 89.5, and 68.9%, respectively) than whole corn L(32.0%) and whole corn H(20.5%)(P<0.05). By increasing the processing degree of flaking, the protein degradabilty between 2.8 mm and 3.8 mm was increased significantly from 68.9% to 91.5%, however, that of 1.5 mm flaked corn, processed thinner, tended to be increased slightly, but was not significantly different. From 12 hrs to 24 hrs, whole corn L was degraded little more than whole corn H in starch, was not significantly different. However, after 48 hr incubation in the rumen, whole corn L was degraded more 50% than whole corn H(P<0.05). The value of degradation parameter “a” of protein was lower in all flaked corns than in ground corn. In contrast, the value of degradation parameter “a” of starch was significantly higher in all flaked corns than in ground corn(P<0.05). It seemed that by flaking the corn grains, starch particles were gelatinized, and then, starch was degraded more rapidly, while protein was degraded more slowly. Referring to these kinds of physical characteristics of grain sources in ruminal degradabilities, it is possible to synchronize the fermentation of nitrogen and carbohydrate sources, in formulating the cattle diets.

Effects of Feeding System and NDF Level on Blood Metabolism of Growing Cows (사양체계 및 NDF 급여 수준이 번식용 육성우의 혈중 대사물질 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Byung Ki;Ahn, Jun Sang;Woo, Jong Min;Kim, Min Ji;Son, Gi Hwal;Cho, Sang Rae;Kim, Byong Wan;Kwon, Eung Gi;Shin, Jong Suh
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.291-297
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding system and NDF levels of TMR on blood metabolites in Holstein heifers. Fifty heifers were assigned to one of five treatments according to feed type and level of NDF: TMR (total mixed ration), CON (concentration + mixed forage), T1 (${\geq}53%$ NDF), T2 (50~53% NDF), and T3 (${\leq}50%$ NDF). Although GLU concentrate was not effected by feed type, increased significantly as the level of NDF decreased. There was no effect on concentrate of blood metabolite related with protein. As the level of NDF decreased, the blood ALB concentration was increased (p<0.05). The concentration of blood CHOL was higher in CON than those of TMR (p<0.05), and increased as the level of NDF decreased. The concentration of blood lipid was higher in CON than those of TMR and increased at lower level of NDF. The concentration of blood ALT were significantly lower in T3 than T1 and T2 (p<0.05). Thus, the results of this study suggest that the feeding system and NDF level may affect the blood metabolite concentration; however, the feed intake and other nutrient levels should also be considered.

Effects of Passtein® Supplements on Protein Degradability, Ruminal Fermentation and Nutrient Digestibility (패스틴®첨가가 단백질 분해율과 반추위 발효 및 영양소 소화율에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Y.J.;Choi, N.J.;Park, S.H.;Song, J.Y.;Um, J.S.;Ko, J.Y.;Ha, J.K.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.549-560
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    • 2002
  • This study, including two in vitro experiments and an in vivo experiment were conducted to evaluate effects of Passtein$^{(R)}$ on crude protein degradability, ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient digestibility. In in vitro experiment protein degradability was examined using borate-phosphate buffer and neutral detergent, and using protease from Stroptomyces griseus at 39$^{\circ}C$ for 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 48 h. In addition, an in vivo experiment was conducted in a switch back design and ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestibility were determined. Four ruminal-fistulated Holstein cows weighing 300kg in mean body weight randomly allotted to 2 treatments (control and Passtein$^{(R)}$ supplementation). Although there was no significant difference on protein fraction between treatments, it appears that Passtein$^{(R)}$ supplementation decreased buffer soluble protein fraction compared to control. Protein degradability was not affected by Passtein$^{(R)}$ from 0 h to 4 h, but decreased at 12 h and 48 h compared to control. Degradation of immediately degradable fraction was higher in Passtein$^{(R)}$ treatment, but degradation of fermentable fraction was lower in Passtein$^{(R)}$ treatment compared to control. The pH and $NH_3$-N concentration tended to increase in Passtein$^{(R)}$ treatment, but VFA production, microbial counts and enzyme activity tended to decrease in Passtein$^{(R)}$ treatment compared to control. In addition, nutrient digestibility in the total tract tended to increase in Passtein$^{(R)}$ treatment compared to control.

A Study on the Growth Inhibition of Salmonella by Secretory Immunoglobulin A in Human and Bovine Milk (인유(人乳)와 우유(牛乳) 중에 함유(含有)되어 있는 Secretory Immunoglobulin A의 Salmonella속(屬) 성장억제(成長抑制)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Bae, Heoung Churl;Kim, Jong Woo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.122-132
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    • 1994
  • Bacteriostatic activity of secretory immumoglobulin A (SIgA) in human and bovine colostrums on enterotoxigenic type Salmonella was tested in the tissue culture medium. SIgA was used in $0.1{\sim}5.0mg/m{\ell}$ concentration with or without the addition of egg lysozyme tested for theirs bacteriostatic activites. 1. Bovine SIgA rich fraction with a large amount of $IgG_1$-dimer could be prepared from bovine colostrum of Holstein cows by anion exchange chromatography using DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200 and Sepharose 6B. 2. Human SIgA appeared to be the most bacteriostatic effect for all varieties of Salmonella in a range of $0.5{\sim}1.0mg/m{\ell}$ Bovine SIgA showed a marked bacteriostatic effect increased by increasing the concentration. Bovine IgG had not show bacteriostatic effect against both enterotoxigenic type Salmonella. Egg lysozyme as well as bovine SIgA also showed a marked bacteriostatic effect increased by increasing the concentration. 3. When the growth inhibition of human SIgA was tested by adding egg lysozyme with time interval, egg lysozyme showed bacteriostatic effect as compared with control. But human SIgA and adding with lysozyme showed slight the bacteriostatic effect. 4. When the growth inhibition of bovine SIgA was tested by adding egg lysozyme with time interval, all treatment against S. enteritidis showed bacteriostatic effect as compared with control In the case of S. typhinwrium, egg lysozyme showed a marked bacteriostatic effect as compared with control.

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Study on the estimation of environmental effects on milk yield in Holstein (Holstein종(種)의 유량(乳量)에 영향(影響)을 미치는 환경효과(環境效果) 추정(推定)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Yun, Doo Hag;Choi, Kwang Soo
    • Current Research on Agriculture and Life Sciences
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    • v.9
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    • pp.37-49
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    • 1991
  • This study was conducted to estimate the effects of year, age of dam at calving, farm and lactation period on milk yield with the data of 4,008 cows' records which were collected at 32 farms by Korea Animal Improvement Association from 1985 to 1989. The results obtained in this study are summarized as follows: 1. The average performance of the dairy cattle in the study were $5,959.23{\pm}2,113.03kg$ in actual milk yield, $49.19{\pm}22.77$ months in age of dam at calving, $27.11{\pm}5.13$ months in age at first calving and $255.11{\pm}79.68$ days in lactation period. 2. The percentages of variance component for different sources were 29.39% for the residuals, 1.91% for years, 4.86% for age at calving, 8.89% for farms and 54.94% for lactation period. 3. The overall mean of least-square estimate on the milk yield was 6,229.31kg. In the effects of year, the least-square means of milk yield were estimated 6,000.76kg in 1985-1987, 6,028.11kg in 1988 and 6,659.07kg in 1989. 4. The least-square means of calving age on the milk yield were estimated 5,456.01kg in less than 24 months, 6,565.48kg in 61-66 months which were the highest least-square means. This effects were gradually increased until the 61-66months and gradually decreased after the 61-66months, with highly significant differences among different months of age at calving(p<0.01). 5. In the effects of farm, the least-square means of milk yield were estimated 4,959.50 kg in the lowest farm and 7,497.07kg in the highest farm. Among the milk yield of each farm the effects showed highly significant difference(p<0.01). 6. The least-square means of milk yield in the effects of lactation period were gradually increased with the lapse of the lactation period. Among the lactation period the effects showed highly significant difference(p<0.01).

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Effect of Reperfusion after 20 min Ligation of the Left Coronary Artery in Open-chest Bovine Heart: An Ultrastructural Study (재관류가 허혈 심근세포의 미세구조에 미치는 영향 : 재관류 손상에 관한 연구)

  • 이종욱;조대윤;손동섭;양기민;라봉진;김호덕
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.31 no.8
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    • pp.739-748
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    • 1998
  • Background: It has been well documented that transient occlusion of the coronary artery causes myocardial ischemia and finally cell death when ischemia is sustained for more than 20 minutes. Extensive studies have revealed that ischemic myocardium cannot recover without reperfusion by adequate restoration of blood flow, however, reperfusion can cause long-lasting cardiac dysfunction and aggravation of structural damage. The author therefore attempted to examine the effect of postischemic reperfusion on myocardial ultrastructure and to determine the rationales for recanalization therapy to salvage ischemic myocardium. Materials and methods: Young Holstein-Friesian cows(130∼140 Kg body weight; n=40) of both sexes, maintained with nutritionally balanced diet and under constant conditions, were used. The left anterior descending coronary artery(LAD) was occluded by ligation with 4-0 silk snare for 20 minutes and recanalized by release of the ligation under continuous intravenous drip anesthesia with sodium pentobarbital(0.15 mg/Kg/min). Drill biopsies of the risk area (antero-lateral wall) were performed at just on reperfusion(5 minutes), 1-, 2-, 3-, 6-, 12-hours after recanalization, and at 1-hour assist(only with mechanical respiration and fluid replacement) after 12-hour recanalization. The materials were subdivided into subepicardial and subendocardial tissues. Tissue samples were examined with a transmission electron microscope (Philips EM 300) at the accelerating voltage of 60 KeV. Results: After a 20-minute ligation of the LAD, myocytes showed slight to moderate degree of ultrastructural changes including subsarcolemmal bleb formation, loss of nuclear matrix, clumping of chromatin and margination, mitochondrial destruction, and contracture of sarcomeres. However, microvascular structures were relatively well preserved. After 1-hour reperfusion, nuclear and mitochondrial matrices reappeared and intravascular plugging by polymorphonuclear leukocytes or platelets was observed. However, nucleoli and intramitochondrial granules reappeared within 3 hours of reperfusion and a large number of myocytes were recovered progressively within 6 hours of reperfusion. Recovery was apparent in the subepicardial myocytes and there were no distinct changes in the ultrastructure except narrowed lumen of the microvessels in the later period of reperfusion. Conclusions: It is likely that the ischemic myocardium could not be salvaged without adequate restoration of coronary flow and that the microvasculature is more resistant to reversible period of ischemia than subendocardium and subepicardium. Therefore, thrombolysis and/or angioplasty may be a rational method of therapy for coronarogenic myocardial ischemia. However, it may take a relatively longer period of time to recover from ischemic insult and reperfusion injury should be considered.

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