• Title, Summary, Keyword: Holstein Cows

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Resumption of Ovarian Cyclicity after Superovulation Treatment to Donor Cow in Holstein Donor Cows (젖소 공란우 과배란 처리 후 난소주기 재개에 관한 연구)

  • Son, Jun-Kyu;Baek, Kwang-Soo;Yoon, Ho-Beak;Lim, Hyun-Joo;Kwon, Eung-Gi;Cho, Sang-Rae;Jung, Yeon-Sub;Kim, Sun-Kyu;Choe, Changyong
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.35-40
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    • 2013
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of abnormal ovarian cycles after superovulation treatment of Holstein Donor Cows. CIDRs were inserted into the vaginas of twenty two head of Holstein cows, regardless of estrous cycle. Superovulation was induced using folliclar stimulating hormone (FSH). For artificial insemination, donor cows were injected with $PGF_2{\alpha}$ and estrus was checked about 48 hours after the injection. Then they were treated with 4 straws of semen 3 times, with 12-hour intervals. Embryos were collected by a non-surgical method 7 days after the first artificial insemination. The cows were considered to have resumed ovarian cyclicity on the day of ovulation if followed by regular ovarian cycles. Seventy two point seven percentage of the cows(16/22) had normal resumption of ovarian cyclicity(resumption within 40 days after superovulation), and 27.3%(6/22) had delayed resumption(resumption did not occur until>40 days after superovulation). Delayed resumption Type II(first ovulation did not occur until ${\geq}40$ days after superovulation, i.e. delayed first ovulation 13.6%) were the most common types of delayed resumptions. The mean numbers of total ova from < 10 and $10{\leq}$ of corpora lutea(CL) was $7.8{\pm}1.8$ and $12.7{\pm}2.7$, respectively. The number of transferable embryos differed between < 10 and $10{\leq}$ CL was $5.4{\pm}1.3$ and $8.1{\pm}3.4$, respectively. Four point five percentage of the cows(1/22) did not resumption their ovarian cyclicity until 60 days after superovulation treatment. Diverse researches on the superovulation treatment method that is suitable for high-producing Holstein donor cows would contribute to preventing ovarian cyclicity disorder, as well as to the early multiplication of cows with superior genes by increasing the utilization value of donor cows.

Gestation length in Holstein cow depends on the number and sex of fetuses

  • Jeon, Ryoung-Hoon;Rho, Gyu-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.59 no.4
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    • pp.181-185
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    • 2019
  • The traditional calculation of gestation length (GL) in Holstein cows relies solely on the insemination day and has a high error rate for actual calving dates. The present study was conducted to develop a more accurate method of estimating GL. Among 3,578 Holstein cows, the number of fetuses had a significant (p < 0.05) effect, with GLs of 282.4 ± 2.5 days for singletons and 276.0 ± 1.6 days for twins. Within the singleton group, the GLs were 284.6 ± 1.9 days for males and 280.3 ± 1.5 days for females, a significant difference (p < 0.05). However, within the twin group, there was no difference in GLs among twin males, twin females, or twins of both sexes. Gestation was significantly shorter for singleton males born from June to August but significantly longer for twin males born in the May to June period (p < 0.05). Neither parity nor housing type was associated with any significant difference in GL. In order to predict the calving dates of Holstein cows accurately and improve their management, calculations should consider the number and sex of fetuses as well as the insemination season.

Effect of Parity on Mineral Concentration in Milk and Plasma of Holstein Cows During Early Lactation

  • Kume, S.;Yamamoto, E.;Kudo, T.;Toharmat, T.;Nonaka, I.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.133-138
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    • 1998
  • Plasma and milk samples of 24 periparturient Holstein cows were collected from 1 week prepartum to 10 week postpartum to measure the effects of parity on mineral status in periparturient cows. Cows were fed mainly mixed ration with the concentrate supplement during the experimental period to meet nutrient requirement of dairy cattle for TDN, protein, and minerals, Plasma Ca of cows decrease as parity increased, but plasma Mg, K, Fe and Zn were lowest in the first lactation cows. Plasma inorganic P, Na, and alkaline phosphatase were not affected by the parity. Plasma Ca, Fe and Zn of cows decreased at parturition, but plasma Mg increase. Plasma Ca of the first, second and third and more lactation cows at parturition were 9.65, 8.96, and 8.92 mg/dl, respectively. Colostral Ca, P, Mg, Na, and Zn were highest in the first lactation cows, although colostrum yield was lower. Milk yield from 1 to 10 weeks postpartum was lowest in the first lactation cows, but mineral concentrations in milk were not affected by the parity.

Studies on the udder characteristics of Korean Holstein cows (국내 젖소의 유방 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jeong-chi;Lee, Chung-gil;Lee, Chai-yong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.143-150
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to analyze the relationship between the occurrence of mastitis and the conformation of udders, teats, and teat tips of Holstein cows raised in Korea. Udders, teats, and teat tips were categorized by their conformation and the teat length, teat diameter and the distance from the tip of teat to the ground of 259 cows were measured. The most common shapes of udder, teats and teat tip were milking machine udder (27.4%), U-shaped teats (53.9%) and disk teat tip (53.8%), respectively. Mean teat length and diameters were 4.78 cm and 3.11 cm, respectively. The length and the diameter of front teats were significantly longer and wider than those of rear teats. However, the distance of the tip of teats to the ground was similar between front teats $(50.5{\pm}7.51cm)$ and rear teats $(50.7{\pm}8.83cm)$. The average daily milk yield was 26.4 kg/day, and the highest milk yield was observed from cows with large udder shape and above 4th lactation.

Influence of milking frequency on genetic parameters associated with the milk production in the first and second lactations of Iranian Holstein dairy cows using random regression test day models

  • Damane, Moslem Moghbeli;Fozi, Masood Asadi;Mehrgardi, Ahmad Ayatollahi
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.58 no.2
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    • pp.5.1-5.9
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    • 2016
  • Background: The milk yield can be affected by the frequency of milking per day, in dairy cows. Previous studies have shown that the milk yield is increased by 6.25 % per lactation when the milking frequency is increased from 2 to 3 times per day while the somatic cell count is decreased. To investigate the effect of milking frequency (3X vs. 4X) on milk yield and it's genetic parameters in the first and second lactations of the Iranian Holstein dairy cows, a total of 142,604 test day (TD) records of milk yield were measured on 20,762 cows. Results: Heritability estimates of milk yield were 0.25 and 0.19 for 3X milking frequency and 0.34 and 0.26 for 4X milking frequency throughout the first and second lactations, respectively. Repeatability estimates of milk yield were 0.70 and 0.71 for 3X milking frequency and 0.76 and 0.77 for 4X milking frequency, respectively. In comparison with 3X milking frequency, the milk yield of the first and second lactations was increased by 11.6 and 12.2 %, respectively when 4X was used (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Results of this research demonstrated that increasing milking frequency led to an increase in heritability and repeatability of milk yield. The current investigation provided clear evidences for the benefits of using 4X milking frequency instead of 3X in Iranian Holstein dairy cows.

Supplementation of Holstein Cows with Low Doses of Bovine Somatotropin (bST) Prepartum and Postpartum Affects Physiological Adaptations and Milk Production

  • Liboni, M.;Gulay, M.S.;Hayen, M.J.;Belloso, T.I.;Head, H.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.404-413
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    • 2008
  • Major objectives were to evaluate effects of three schemes of bST-supplementation of Holstein cows (142.8 mg/14 d, POSILAC) during the prepartum and/or postpartum periods through 63 d (${\pm}3d$) of lactation. Measures evaluated the potential of treatments to improve body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS), provoke changes in plasma concentrations of somatotropin (ST) and IGF-I, and improve milk yield, milk composition (percentages of protein and fat, and somatic cell counts), and several calving variables. Multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to a $2{\times}2$ factorial arrangement of treatments (TRT) to give four groups (I = no bST, n = 26; II = bST postpartum, n = 25; III = bST prepartum, n = 27; IV = bST prepartum and postpartum, n = 25). During the prepartum period, cows in groups I and II were not supplemented but those in groups III and IV were supplemented every 2-wk beginning 21 d before expected calving date through calving. During the first 63 DIM only cows in groups II and IV were supplemented with bST. From 64 DIM through the end of lactation cows in all groups were supplemented with the full lactation dose of bST (500 mg/14 d). The BW and BCS were recorded weekly throughout the prepartum and postpartum periods and every 2-wk beyond 70 DIM. Blood samples were collected 3-times a week for analyses of ST and IGF-I. Milk yields were recorded daily though 150 DIM. Prepartum supplementation of bST did not affect BW or BCS, but mean concentrations of ST were increased 12.2% and were 15.5% greater at calving. Overall, mean concentration of IGF-I was not affected by treatment but concentrations were greater at 1 and 2 wk before calving in bST-supplemented cows. During the first 63 DIM the BW and BCS were not affected by treatment. Significant effects of bST-supplementation were detected on concentrations of ST, IGF-I and on milk yield compared to non-supplemented cows in group I. Postpartum concentrations of ST were greater in bST-supplemented cows (TRT II and IV; +41.9 and 54.6%). However, concentrations of IGF-I were greater only in cows in group IV (+25.9%) during the postpartum period. Overall, the three bST-supplemented groups had greater actual milk yield than the control group (I) during the first 63 and 150 DIM. The actual milk yields during 63 and 150 DIM were 6.5 and 4.6 kg/d greater for cows in group IV than cows in group I and the 305-d ME milk yield also was 15.6% greater. No adverse effects of TRT were observed on calf birth weight, colostrum immunoglobulins, ease of calving or other measures evaluated.

Feeding of Whole Sugar Cane to Dairy Cattle during the Dry Season

  • Suksombat, W.;Mernkrathoke, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.345-349
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    • 2005
  • A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding chopped whole sugar cane compared to corn silage on performances of dairy cows during the dry season. Twenty four Holstein Friesian crossbred (>87.5% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows in mid lactation; averaging 16.5${\pm}$2.0 kg of milk, 121${\pm}$22 days in milk, 54.5${\pm}$4.5 months old and 440${\pm}$31 kg live weight, were stratified for milk yield, days in milk, age, stage of lactation and body weight, and then randomly allocated to two treatment groups (12 cows in each group). The first group was fed corn silage together with commercial concentrate while the second group was fed chopped whole sugar cane together with commercial concentrate. All cows consumed similar DM, however, cows on corn silage consumed more CP while cows on chopped whole sugar cane consumed more $NE_{LP}$. No significant differences in performances between the two groups were observed except for final live weight and body weight change. Cows on chopped whole sugar cane showed higher final live weight and gained more weight than cows on corn silage. The present study clearly indicates that chopped whole sugar cane can be fed to lactating dairy cows, while giving similar milk yield to corn silage.

Studies on health management and nutritional evaluation by milk components analysis in Holstein cows IV. The relationship between milk composition from the first test within 35 days in milk and displaced abomasum in a large dairy herd of high yielding Holstein cows (젖소에서 유성분 분석을 통한 영양상태 평가 및 건강관리에 관한 연구 IV. 고능력우 위주의 대규모 목장에서 분만 후 첫 번째 유검정 성적과 제4위전위 질병과의 관련성)

  • Moon, Jin-san;Son, Chang-ho;Joo, Yi-seok;Kang, Hyun-mi;Jang, Gum-chan;Kim, Jong-man
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.407-412
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    • 2001
  • Milk data may be increasingly used as indicators of the protein-energy balance and actual farm feeding practices. It was related to milk production, nutritional and reproductive disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between level of fat, protein or milk urea nitrogen (MUN) from the first test within 35 days in milk and displaced abomasum (DA) in a large dairy herd with high yielding Holstein cows. Milk data from forty-five DA cases were compared to those from 90 healthy cows. Higher odds of DA diagnosis was found with higher 5.0% milk fat, lower 3.0% milk protein. Therefore, cows with a fat to protein ratio of>1.5 had higher risks for DA. Also, incidence rates of DA was higher in the cows which the level of MUN was lower than 12.0 mg/dl or higher than 25.0 mg/dl relative to healthy cows. These results indicate that cows diagnosed with DA were energy deficient prior to DA diagnosis. We conclude that level of fat, protein or MUN serve as a monitoring tool of protein and energy nutritional balance in early lactation cows and also as a significant predictor of risk for DA.

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Relationship between the Polymorphisms of 5' Regulation Region of Prolactin Gene and Milk Traits in Chinese Holstein Dairy Cows

  • Li, J.T.;Wang, A.H.;Chen, P.;Li, H.B.;Zhang, C.S.;Du, L.X.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.459-462
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    • 2006
  • Prolactin (PRL) plays an important role in promoting mammalian mammary gland development, and milk production during lactation. Therefore the PRL gene was chosen as a candidate gene for milk traits in Holstein dairy cows. PCR-SSCP and PCR-RFLP were used to analyze genetic variations in the 5' regulation region of the PRL gene. In this part of the gene, two new polymorphic sites were detected in the Chinese Holstein dairy cows. One was a XbaI-RFLP locus, and the other was an SSCP locus. Statistical analysis showed that the XbaI-RFLP locus and the SSCP locus had a significant positive effect on milk traits.

Proteomic Approach Analysis of Mammary Membrane Proteins Expression Profiles in Holstein Cows

  • Yang, Yong-xin;Cao, Sui-zhong;Zhang, Yong;Zhao, Xing-xu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.885-892
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    • 2009
  • To investigate host defense mechanisms for protecting the mammary gland from mastitis infection, the membrane fraction of mammary tissues from Holstein cows was purified by differential velocity centrifugation, and then the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) separated proteins were identified by ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with a Surveyor high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. A total of 183 proteins were identified. Bioinformatics software was applied to analyse physicochemical characteristics of the identified proteins and to predict biochemical function. These data may provide valuable information to investigate the mechanisms of mammary gland milk secretion and infectious disease, and enable a clear identification of proteins and potential protein targets for therapies.