• Title, Summary, Keyword: Holstein Cows

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Prevalence, Risk Factors and Consequent Effect of Dystocia in Holstein Dairy Cows in Iran

  • Atashi, Hadi;Abdolmohammadi, Alireza;Dadpasand, Mohammad;Asaadi, Anise
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.447-451
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this research was to determine the prevalence, risk factors and consequent effect of dystocia on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows in Iran. The data set consisted of 55,577 calving records on 30,879 Holstein cows in 30 dairy herds for the period March 2000 to April 2009. Factors affecting dystocia were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression models through the maximum likelihood method in the GENMOD procedure. The effect of dystocia on lactation performance and factors affecting calf birth weight were analyzed using mixed linear model in the MIXED procedure. The average incidence of dystocia was 10.8% and the mean (SD) calf birth weight was 42.13 (5.42) kg. Primiparous cows had calves with lower body weight and were more likely to require assistance at parturition (p<0.05). Female calves had lower body weight, and had a lower odds ratio for dystocia than male calves (p<0.05). Twins had lower birth weight, and had a higher odds ratio for dystocia than singletons (p<0.05). Cows which gave birth to a calf with higher weight at birth experienced more calving difficulty (OR (95% CI) = 1.1(1.08-1.11). Total 305-d milk, fat and protein yield was 135 (23), 3.16 (0.80) and 6.52 (1.01) kg less, in cows that experienced dystocia at calving compared with those that did not (p<0.05).

Dietary Supplementation of Fat Increased Milk Fat Percentage without Affecting Ruminal Characteristics in Holstein Cows in a Warm Tropical Environment

  • Wang, A.S.;Jan, D.F.;Chen, K.J.;Yang, D.W.;Fan, Y.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.213-220
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effect of the diets supplemented with lard or prilled fat ($Carolac^{(R)}$) on lactation performance, plasma constituents and ruminal characteristics of Holstein cows under a warm climate. In trial 1, 18 Holstein cows, 14 primiparas at 43 DIM and 4 multiparas at 55 DIM, were randomly assigned into six $3{\times3}$ Latin squares, in which three dietary treatments were isoproteinous but varying in energy contents and three 21 d periods. The treatments were basal diet (Control), basal diet supplemented with 2.5% lard (LD), and basal diet supplemented with 2.5% commercial Prilled fat (PF). In trial 2, three rumen canulated pregnant nonlactating Holstein cows with 550 kg average body weight were allotted into a $3{\times}3$ Latin square design with diets same as in trial 1 were fed to the cows at the level of 1.5% body weight on dry matter (DM) basis. The results indicated that the DM intake did not differ among the treatments. Milk yield and 4% FCM yield were greater (p<0.05) in PF than in Control. LD and PF resulted in greater milk fat percentage. Protein, lactose and solid contents in milk were not different among the three dietary treatments. The concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in plasma was significantly greater in LD and PF than that in Control. However, the concentrations of triglycerides, urea nitrogen, and cholesterol in plasma were not significantly different among the three treatments. Although the ruminal molar percentage of isobutyrate in LD and PF was greater, no significant difference was observed in ruminal pH, NH3-N concentration and VFA production among the three treatments. Diet supplemented with fat can improve milk yield and milk fat percentage without resulting in disadvantages of ruminal characteristics in cows at early lactation and under warm climate.

Prepartum body condition score affects milk yield, lipid metabolism, and oxidation status of Holstein cows

  • Zhao, Wei;Chen, Xue;Xiao, Jun;Chen, Xiao Hui;Zhang, Xue Feng;Wang, Tao;Zhen, Yu Guo;Qin, Gui Xin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.12
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    • pp.1889-1896
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    • 2019
  • Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of prepartum body condition score (BCS) on the milk yield, lipid metabolism, and oxidative status of Holstein cows. Methods: A total of 112 multiparous Holstein cows were divided into 4 groups according to the BCS at 21 days before calving: medium BCS (3.0 to 3.25, MBCS), high BCS (3.5 to 3.75, HBCS), higher BCS (4.0 to 4.25, HerBCS), and highest BCS (4.5 to 5.0, HestBCS). Blood samples were collected on 21, 14, and 7 days before calving (precalving), on the calving day (calving), and on 7, 14, and 21 days after calving (postcalving). The indices of lipid metabolism and oxidative status were analyzed using bovine-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Colostrum were taken after calving and analyzed by a refractometer and milk analyzer. The individual milk yield was recorded every 3 days. Results: The density and levels of immune globulin and lactoprotein of colostrum from Holstein cows in the HestBCS group were the highest (p<0.05). These animals not only had the highest (p<0.05) levels of serum non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate, but also had the highest (p<0.05) levels of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, vitamin A, and vitamin E. In addition, greater (p<0.05) BCS loss was observed in the HestBCS cows. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the milk yield, lipid metabolism, and oxidative status of Holstein cows are related to prepartum BCS and BCS loss during the transition period. HestBCS cows are more sensitive to oxidative stress and suffer greater loss of BCS after calving, whereas the MBCS animals had better milk yield performance.

Prediction of Future Milk Yield with Random Regression Model Using Test-day Records in Holstein Cows

  • Park, Byoungho;Lee, Deukhwan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.7
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    • pp.915-921
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    • 2006
  • Various random regression models with different order of Legendre polynomials for permanent environmental and genetic effects were constructed to predict future milk yield of Holstein cows in Korea. A total of 257,908 test-day (TD) milk yield records from a total of 28,135 cows belonging to 1,090 herds were considered for estimating (co)variance of the random covariate coefficients using an expectation-maximization REML algorithm in an animal mixed model. The variances did not change much between the models, having different order of Legendre polynomial, but a decreasing trend was observed with increase in the order of Legendre polynomial in the model. The R-squared value of the model increased and the residual variance reduced with the increase in order of Legendre polynomial in the model. Therefore, a model with $5^{th}$ order of Legendre polynomial was considered for predicting future milk yield. For predicting the future milk yield of cows, 132,771 TD records from 28,135 cows were randomly selected from the above data by way of preceding partial TD record, and then future milk yields were estimated using incomplete records from each cow randomly retained. Results suggested that we could predict the next four months milk yield with an error deviation of 4 kg. The correlation of more than 70% between predicted and observed values was estimated for the next four months milk yield. Even using only 3 TD records of some cows, the average milk yield of Korean Holstein cows would be predicted with high accuracy if compared with observed milk yield. Persistency of each cow was estimated which might be useful for selecting the cows with higher persistency. The results of the present study suggested the use of a $5^{th}$ order Legendre polynomial to predict the future milk yield of each cow.

Phenotypic Factor Analysis for Linear Type Traits in Beijing Holstein Cows

  • Chu, M.X.;Shi, S.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.1527-1530
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    • 2002
  • Factor analysis was applied to the phenotypic correlation matrix of 15 linear type traits (scored linearly 1 to 50 points) for 2035 Holstein cows of 38 sires computed from data collected between 1988 and 1992 in Beijing Shuangqiao Farm and Beijing Xijiao Farm. The 15 linear type traits were stature, body strength, body depth, dairy form, rump angle, rump length, rump width, rear leg side view, foot angle, fore udder attachment, rear udder height, rear udder width, udder cleft, udder depth and teat placement rear view. The first four components accounted for 49.1% of the total variance in type scores. Factor 1 reflected strong cows, with deep bodies, with long and wide rumps, and tall in stature. Factor 2 reflected cows with well attached fore udders, wide rear udders and whose udders were supported by strong suspensory ligaments with close teat placement. Factor 3 reflected cows with good dairyness, sickled in the hocks, high rear udders and udder floors above the hocks. Factor 4 reflected cows with sloping rumps from hooks to pins and with steep foot angle. Principal component and factor analyses are useful to clarify the relationships among type traits.

PRODUCTION RESPONSES OF CROSSBRED HOLSTEIN MILKING COWS FED UREA-TREATED RICE STRAW AT THREE DIFFERENT FIBER LEVELS

  • Promma, S.;Jeenklum, P.;Indratula, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.509-514
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    • 1993
  • The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different fiber levels on milk production of crossbred Holstein milking cows fed urea-treated rice straw (UTS) as a roughage. Eight cows were allotted into 2 squares of 4 cows each with 4 treatments by a balanced design. The treatments were 17%, 22%, and 24% crude fiber (CF) diets and Thai feeding system (free choice of roughage and 1 kg of concentrates/2 kg of milk) as a control. Body weight change was not significantly different among the treatments during the experiment. Milk production (4% FCM) and milk protein content wee not different among the treatments, but milk fat content was low in the 17% CF group and high in the control group. Cows fed the 17% CF diet consumed less UTS and more concentrates than the others, and consequently total DM intake was not different among the treatments. The feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in the control. Feed cost per kg milk was lowest in the control and highest in the 17% CF diet. The fiber content of the diet would be more than 17%, preferably 22-24% for normally producing Thai crossbred Holstein cows when the UTS was fed as a main roughage source.

Effects of Feeding High- and Low- Forage Diets Containing Different Forage Sources on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Blood Parameters in Non-Pregnant Dry Holstein Cows

  • Peng, Jing Lun;Kim, Byong Wan;Lee, Bae Hun;Nejad, Jalil Ghassemi;Sung, Kyung Il
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2017
  • This research was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding high and low forage diets with different forage sources on rumen fermentation characteristics and blood parameters of Holstein cows during the dry period. Eight Holstein cows were completely randomized assigned to two groups and repeated measurement was utilized in the analysis. Cows in two treatments were fed with diets with high (F:C = 70:30, 70F; forage source: mixed-sowing whole crop barley and Italian ryegrass silage, BIRG) and low (F:C = 55:45, 55F; forage source: tall fescue hay, TF) forage level. Rumen fluid pH was higher in 70F group. Levels of acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid showed a similar pattern: from the lowest value at 07:30 h to the highest at 10:30 h and then decreased in both groups. The ratio of acetic acid to propionic acid was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in 55F group at 09:30 and 10:30 h. Rumen fluid $NH_3-N$ concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in 70F group at 09:30 and 10:30 h. Blood urea nitrogen was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in 70F group. It was concluded that BIRG based diet with a high forage level had no adverse effects on rumen fermentation, some blood chemical parameters, and immune system in dry Holstein cows and could be used as a forage source instead of imported TF.

Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Microorganisms Isolated from Quarter Milk Samples of Holstein Cows (Holstein 유우의 유즙에서 분리한 유방염 원인균의 항균제 감수성)

  • 이정치;이채용;김상기;이정길;서국현
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.166-171
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    • 2003
  • Milk samples were collected from a total of 418 quarters of 214 Holstein cows. Of these, samples which were positive on California Mastitis Test (CMT) and above 200,000 cells/ml by somatic cell counts were subjected to bacteriological examination and antimicrobial susceptibility test. Major pathogens responsible for mastitis included coagulase-negative staphylococci (34.3%), coagulase-positive staphylococci (21.5%), gran-negative rod (coliforms and noncoliforms: 12.6%) and Streptococcus spp. (8.4%). These strains were tested with 13 antimicrobial agents by the Kirby and Bauer standardized disc diffusion method. The isolated pathogens were mostly susceptible to amoxicillin and cephalothin, but were resistant to erythromycin.

Estimation of Genetic Variations for Linear Type Traits and Composite Traits on Holstein Cows (Holstein 젖소의 선형심사형질과 등급형질에 대한 유전변이 추정)

  • 이득환
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.161-168
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    • 2006
  • Genetic parameters for linear type and composite traits were estimated by using Bayesian inference via Gibbs sampling with a multiple threshold animal model in Holstein cows. Fifteen linear type traits and 5 composite traits were included to estimate genetic variance and covariance components in the model. In this study, 30,204 records were obtained in the cows from 305 sires. Heritability estimates for linear type traits had the estimates as high as 0.28~0.64. Heritability estimates for composite traits were also high, when the traits were assumed to be categorical traits. Final score was more correlated with the composite traits than with the linear type traits.

Covariance Among Lactation Number, Growth Performance, Calving Interval, and Milk Yield in Holstein Dairy Cows in Korea

  • Kim, Tae-Il;Mayakrishnan, Vijayakumar;Baek, Kwang-Soo;Jeong, Ha-Yeon;Park, Boem-Young;Lim, Dong-Hyun
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.137-144
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    • 2017
  • A diverse of recommendation has been made for the structure and management of dairy cows, despite demanding research, the relationship between lactation number and various factors is yet to be established. The present study was aimed to investigate the covariance among lactation number, growth performance, calving interval, and milk production was considered to increase an efficiency of selection schemes and to manage more efficiently Holstein dairy cows that have been raised on small-scale family farms in Republic of Korea. For that purpose, the data were observed from 850 Holstein dairy cows, which a total of 3929 milking, since April 2016 - January 2017. We measured the body weight, height, age, calving interval, and milk production of the each dairy cow. Also, information about the date of lactation, calving interval, and milk production was recorded using an automatic milking system(AMS) with identification numbers. Milk production was calculated per udder quarter in the AMS. Our study results showed the increased average body weight(p>0.05) in 1, 2, 3, and $4^{th}$ lactating dairy cows and afterwards, we noticed the tendency on the average body weight(p<0.05) per lactation progressed. There was no significant difference noticed on height measurement of dairy cows. From the processing data of 850 Holstein dairy cows, the lactation number 1 and 7 had a greater calving interval with significantly lowered milk production, and the lactation number 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 had significantly lowered the calving interval(p<0.05) with a greater milk production. From our study results, we evidenced that there is a significant relationship between the lactation number, growth performance, calving interval, and milk yield, and the maximum production of milk occurring in the $3^{rd}$ and $4^{th}$ lactation dairy cows. The achieved results from this study can be used by the small-scale farmers to encourage the structure and management of growth performance, calving interval, and milk yield in Holstein dairy cows in Korea.