• Title, Summary, Keyword: Holstein Cows

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Investigation of Some Components in Blood Serum of Healthy Dairy Cattle in a Liver Function Test 1. SGOT, SGPT, SALP, Thymol Turbidity, Total Protein, Albumin, Globulin, A/G Ratio, Total Bilirubin and Total Cholesterol (우유혈청(乳牛血淸)의 각종(各種) 간기능검사치(간기능검사치)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) 1. SGOT, SGPT, SALP, Thymol Turbidity, 혈청총단백량(血淸總蛋白量), 혈청(血淸) Albumin, 혈청(血淸) Globulin, A/G 비율(比率), 총(總) Bilirubin 및 총(總) Cholesterol)

  • Park, Nam Yong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.131-139
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    • 1976
  • The concentrations of some components of the serum in a liver function test were determined in samples of 74 apparently healthy dairy cattle, imported from foreign countries in Jeonnam district, during the periods of June to September of 1975 and July to August of 1976. The ranges, mean concentrations and activities of the SGOT, SGPT, SALP, thymol turbidity, total protein, serum albumin, serum globulin, A/G ratio, total bilirubin and total cholesterol were investigated in this work. This results obtained in the survey were summarized as follows: 1. The SGOT activities obtained from Holstein cows ranged from 57 to 129 Sigma Frankel units/ml, with a mean of $96.5{\pm}19.38$ S.F. units/ml. 2. The SGPT activities obtained from Holstein cows ranged from 5 to 49 Sigma Frankel units/ml, with a mean of $21.27{\pm}9.52$ S.F units/ml. 3. The alkaline phosphatase activities of serum obtained from Holstein cows ranged from 0.3 to 3.8 Sigma Frankel units/ml, with a mean of $1.88{\pm}0.94$ S.F. units/ml. 4. The thymol turbidity of serum obtained from Holstein cows ranged from 0.2 to 4.4 Shank Hoagland units/ml, with a mean of $1.69{\pm}0.30$ S.H units/ml. 5. The total serum protein values of Holstein cows ranged from 5.9 to 8.6g/100ml with a mean of $7.17{\pm}0.65g/100ml$. 6. The serum albumin values of Holstein cows ranged from 2.5 to 4.3g/100ml with a mean of $3.24{\pm}0.28g/100ml$. 7. The serum globulin values of Holstein cows ranged from 2.9 to 5.8g/100ml with a mean of $4.02{\pm}0.72g/100ml$. 8. The A/G ratio of serum obtained from Holstein cows ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 with a mean of $0.78{\pm}0.12$. 9. The total bilirubin of serum obtained from Holstein cows ranged from 7.2 to 0.8mg/100ml, with a mean of $0.32{\pm}0.11mg/100ml$. 10. The total cholesterol of serum obtained from Holstein cows ranged from 50.5 to 240.6mg/100ml with a mean of $135.70{\pm}57.44mg/100ml$. 11. There was little difference in the concentrations of the various serum components between cow groups by birth countries and total cow group, except for SGOT activities, serum alkaline phosphatase activities, thymol turbidity of the Holstein cows from New Zealand.

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Effect of Proportion of Recorded Cows Inseminated by Young A. I. Bulls on Genetic Improvement in Japanese Holstein Population

  • Terawaki, Y.;Shimizu, H.;Fukui, Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.410-415
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    • 1998
  • The effects of the proprotion of cows inseminated by young A. I. bulls on genetic improvement in the Japanese Holstein population were examined using a simulation technique. The proportion of recorded cows inseminated by young A. I. bulls was assumed to be from 10% to 100% of the total number of recorded cows. The expected total genetic improvement was estimated for all cows and recorded and non recorded cows. The effects of the above were remarkable in the schemes that proven sires were used to produce recorded and non recorded cows for a limited time. Also the increase in the rates for -the expected total genetic improvement was larger when the proportion of recorded cows that were inseminated by young A. I. bulls was about 10% to 40%. When the expected total genetic improvement was estimated for the entire population, we found that the highest values were in a range of about 40 to 60% recorded cows that were inseminated by young A. I. bulls. On the other hand, the expected total genetic improvement that was only estimated in recorded cows dramatically decreased for more than 40% of the recorded cows. The results of this study showed that the optimal proportion of recorded cows inseminated with young A. I. bulls should be about 30% in the Japanese Holstein population.

Studies on the Relationship between Number of Repeat and Duration of Estrous Behavior in Hanwoo and Holstein Cattle (한우와 젖소의 발정 행동 반복수와 지속 시간에 관한 연구)

  • Son, Jun-Kyu;Park, Seong-Jai;Baek, Kwang-Soo;Choi, You-Lim;Lee, Myeung-Sik;Kim, Sang-Bum;Kim, Hyeon-Shup;Shin, Seung-Oh;Park, Choon-Keun;Park, Soo-Bong
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.141-145
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    • 2008
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between behavioral signs and duration of estrous in Hanwoo and Holstein cattle for the prediction of optical insemination. Fifty two of 58 and 71 of 89 in Hanwoo and Holstein cows or heifers showed estrous exhibition within 72 h after 2 days following $PGF_{2}\alpha$ administration, respectively. The number of mounting and standing heat were 54.2 and 57.6, 59.4 and 53.5, 42.0 and 30.8 and 16.2 and 10.7 times in Hanwoo cows, Hanwoo heifers, Holstein cows and Holstein heifers, respectively. Duration of mounting were no significantly difference for Hanwoo cows ($21.2\pm11.3$), Hanwoo heifers ($19.9\pm11.4$), Holstein cows ($8.7\pm4.4$) and Holstein heifers ($16.9\pm8.0$). Duration of standing heat were significantly (p<0.05) shorter for Holstein cows ($5.4\pm3.4$) than for Hanwoo cows ($17.1\pm9.6$), Hanwoo heifers ($16.5\pm6.3$) and Holstein heifers ($15.0\pm7.2$). Time until mounting after injection of $PGF_{2}\alpha$ were significantly (p<0.05) longer for Holstein cows ($56.3\pm11.45$) than for Hanwoo cows ($42.71\pm10.44$), Hanwoo heifers ($36.6\pm8.21$) and Holstein heifers ($40.70\pm6.15$). Time until standing heat after injection of $PGF_{2}\alpha$ were significantly (p<0.05) longer for Holstein cows ($61.6\pm8.92$) than for Hanwoo cows ($46.2\pm11.49$), Hanwoo heifers ($42.7\pm6.06$) and Holstein heifers ($44.1\pm6.72$). In the results of this study, duration of standing heat was the shortest in Holstein cows ($5.4\pm3.4$). The estimation of estrous with Holstein cows has more difficulty because to significantly shorter duration of standing heat than for Hanwoo cows, Hanwoo heifers and Holstein heifers. The standing heat can be a good predictor for time of ovulation but it is concluded that mounting behavior could be the best predictor for time of ovulation.

The impact of hair coat color on longevity of Holstein cows in the tropics

  • Lee, C.N.;Baek, K.S.;Parkhurst, A.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.58 no.12
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    • pp.41.1-41.7
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    • 2016
  • Background: Over two decades of observations in the field in South East Asia and Hawai'i suggest that majority of the commercial dairy herds are of black hair coat. Hence a simple study to determine the accuracy of the observation was conducted with two large dairy herds in Hawaii in the mid-1990s. Methods: A retrospective study on longevity of Holstein cattle in the tropics was conducted using DairyComp-305 lactation information coupled with phenotypic evaluation of hair coat color in two large dairy farms. Cows were classified into 3 groups: a) black (B, >90%); b) black/white (BW, 50:50) and c) white (W, >90%). Cows with other hair coat distribution were excluded from the study. In farm A, 211 out of 970 cows were identified having 4 or more lactations. In farm B, 690 out of 1,350 cows were identified with 2 or more lactations for the study. Results: The regression analyses and the Wilcoxon-Log-rank test for survival probability showed that Holstein cattle with 90% black hair coat had greater longevity compared to Holstein cattle with 90% white hair coat. Conclusions: This study suggests that longevity of Holstein cattle in tropical regions was influenced by hair coat color and characteristics.

Genetic Variation of Growth Hormone Gene and Its Relationship with Milk Production Traits in China Holstein Cows

  • Zhou, Guo-li;Zhu, Qi;Jin, Hai-guo;Guo, Shan-li
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.315-318
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    • 2006
  • Associations were analysed between polymorphisms localized in intron 3 of the growth hormone gene (GH-MspI) and milk production traits of 543 China Holstein cows. A PCR-RFLP method was used for identification of genotypes. The following frequencies of genotypes and alleles were found: 0.77, 0.21 and 0.02 for +/+, +/- and -/-, respectively, and 0.87 and 0.13 for $GH^+$ and $GH^-$, respectively. Significant differences between herds were observed in the frequencies of both genotypes and alleles. The results of least squares analysis showed that in all three lactation phases the GH +/+ cows yielded most milk (p<0.01 for lactation I and p<0.05 for lactations II and III), whereas +/- cows showed higher milk fat content than +/+ individuals (p<0.05 for lactation I and II, and p<0.01 for lactation III). The +/+ cows yielded more fat than +/- individuals (p<0.01 only in lactation I). The +/+ cows yielded more milk protein than +/- individuals (p<0.01 for lactation I, II, and III). The +/+ cows produced milk of higher protein content than that of +/- individuals (p<0.05 only in lactation II). Based on these results, we conclude that the +/+ of GH locus should be the favored genotype in China Holstein cow breeds for use in marker-assisted selection programmes.

Investigational Studies on Reproductive Failures of Slaughtered Cows (도살빈우의 번식장애사례 조사연구)

  • 이용빈;임경순
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.19-30
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    • 1982
  • 1. The cows slaughtered at age of 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 9 years old were 1.5, 1.5, 15.0, 62.5 and 4.4% respectively. 2. The cows slaughtered at 351-450kg and more than 500kg were 60 and 28% respectively. 3. Best, very good, good and bad cows in nutritional condition were 1.6, 25.8, 62.9, and 9.7% respectively. Among the six cows which were bad nutrition, the two were with severe endometritis, the three were normal in genital function and one was on 70 days of pregnancy. 4. Holstein cows(55.2%) showed higher reproductive failure than the Korean cows(33.3%). 5. The slaughted ratio of the Korean cattle and Holstein cows was 36 and 64% respectively. 6. Pregnant cows were about 16% among the slaughtered one. 7. Reproductive failures were composed of 46% in uterus, 32% in ovaries, 8% in udder, 6% in oviduct, 4% in cervix of uterine, 2% in vagina and 2% inmummified fetus. 8. Forty six percentages of uterine diseases were as follows; horn, 13%, body of uterus, 32% and ovary diseases were 32%, that is, 12% of ovary atrophy, 8% of ovarycyst and 6% of lutealcyst. 9. The cows of reproductive failures were commonly infected with 1.6 kinds of diseases. 10. According to classification, six type of ovaries were as follows; normal, 58%, ovary-cyst, 11%, luteum cyst, 4%, coexistence of follicles and corpus luteum, 16%, weak function of ovaries, 10% and ovarian atrophy, 1%. 11. Major axis, minor axis and thickness of right ovary were larger than those of left one both in Korean cattle and Holstein cows. Holstein cow had generally larger size of ovary than these of the Korean cattle.. 12. The left and right oviducts showed no difference in length, but Holstein had longer oviduct than Korean cow. 13. There was no difference in the length of uterine horn between right and left in the Korean cows, but the right was longer than the left in Holstein cows. 14. Holstein had longer horn and body of uterine than the Korean cows. 15. The weight of right ovary was heavier than that of left in both breeds, but there was no differences in weight of left ovary between two breeds and right ovary of Holstein breed was heavier than that of the Korean cow. 16. The weight of right oviduct and uterine born was heavier than that of the left, and Holstein had heavier oviducts and uterine horns than the Korean cows. 17. Holstein had heavier uterine body and cervix of uterine than the Korean cows. 18. The length of reproductive systems of Korean cow is as follows; Major and minor diameter and thickness ofovary are 3.6${\pm}$0.7, 2.3${\pm}$0.4 and 1.6${\pm}$1.4 cm in left and 3.7${\pm}$0.6, 2.5${\pm}$0.5 and 1.8${\pm}$0.5 cm in right. Oviduct is 28.4${\pm}$3.1 cm in left and 27.8${\pm}$3.3 cm in right. Uterine horn is 27.4${\pm}$4.5 cm in left and 27.7${\pm}$4.9 cm in right. Uterine body and cervix are 3.4${\pm}$1.1 and 6.5${\pm}$1.7 cm. 19. The length of female reproductive systems ofHolstein cow is as follows; Major and minor diameter and thickness of ovary are 3.9${\pm}$1.3, 2.3${\pm}$0.5, and 1.5${\pm}$0.6 cm in left and 4.0${\pm}$0.8, 2.8${\pm}$0.6 and 1.8${\pm}$0.6 cm in right. Oviduct is 29.4${\pm}$4.2 cm in left and 29.3${\pm}$4.1 cm in right. Uterine horn is 30.2${\pm}$7.4 cm in left and 32.6${\pm}$8.4 cm in right. Uterine body and cervix are 4.5${\pm}$2.5 and 7.8${\pm}$2.9 cm. 20. The weight of reproductive systems of Korean cow is as follows; Ovary is 8.4${\pm}$4.1 g in left and 9.3${\pm}$3.6g in right. Oviduct is 1.5${\pm}$0.5 g in left and 1.6${\pm}$0.5 g in right. Uterine horn is 109${\pm}$27 g left and 118${\pm}$32 g in right. Uterine body and cervix are 30.4${\pm}$14.1 and 76.7${\pm}$38.4g. 21. The weight of reproductive systems of Holstein cow is as follows; Ovary is 8.2${\pm}$3.1 g in left and 12.5${\pm}$5.6 g in right. Oviduct is 1.7${\pm}$0.6 g in left and 1.9${\pm}$0.9 g in right. Uterine horn is 199${\pm}$14.2 g in left and 221${\pm}$111.2g in right. Uterine body and cervix are 58.2${\pm}$46.5 and 126.7${\pm}$103.3 g.

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Effect of Feeding Strategies on Milk Production of Holstein Dairy Cows Managed by Small-Farmers Alpine Grassland in Korea

  • Kim, Tae-Il;Mayakrishnan, Vijayakumar;Lim, Dong-Hyun;Park, Seong-Min;Park, Ji-Hoo;Kim, Sang-Bum;Jung, Jeong-Sung;Ki, Kwang-Seok
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.165-169
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    • 2018
  • The main objective of this experiment was to investigate effects of two different feeding systems on body weight, milk yield, milk composition, and mineral and fatty acids content of Holstein dairy cows' milk. Sixteen of 25 months-old Holstein dairy cows were assigned to two groups (n=8) to study effects of the feeding system for 150 days. Two feeding systems were compared for five months; Group 1 was housed indoors and mainly fed a concentrate diet, Group 2 was maintained outdoors for five-seven hours/day on various kinds grass in a pasture. The experiment was conducted June-October 2017. Results revealed the indoor-fed cows had higher body weight, that was significant compared with the outdoor-based feeding system of Holstein dairy cows (p<0.05). Indoor-raised milking cows had higher milk yield (32.45 kg) as compared with pasture-raised milk yield (26.44 kg). Cows fed indoors significantly increased milk yield, total protein content, lactose, citric acid level, and lowered level of total solid and free fatty acids relative to the pasture-fed milking cows (p>0.05). There were higher levels of mineral content and fatty acid content in the milk of indoor-fed dairy cows than the pasture-raised dairy cows (p>0.05). Our study results demonstrated the potential benefits of the indoor feeding system for increased body weight, milk yield, mineral and fatty acids content summer through autumn when low pasture growth rates and quality may otherwise limit production.

Studies on Incidence of Infertile Holstein Cows and Evalution of Their Blood Values in Jeonnam Area (전남지역(全南地域) 유우(乳牛)에 있어서 번식장해우(繁殖障害牛)의 발생상황(發生狀況) 및 그 혈액치(血液値)의 평가(評價)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Kang, Byong Kyu;Na, Jin Soo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.65-69
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    • 1976
  • A total of 736 Holstein cows were examined for incidence of infertility and 57 infertile cows of them were examined for blood values. The results obtained were as follows: 1. Fifty eight heads (7.9%) of 736 Holstein cows examined were proved to be infertile and the causative disease of 58 infertile cows were diagnosed as silent heat (31.0%), repeat breeder (20.8%), dysfunction of ovary (15.5%), lutein cyst (13.8%), endometritis (8.6%), follicular cyst (5.2%), cervicitis (1.7%), pyometra (1.7%), and free-martin (1.7%). 2. Among the data of blood values of 57 infertile cows, values of total serum protein and serum calcium were remarkably lower (p 0.01) than those of normal cows. Meanwhile the unbalanced Ca/P ratio (1.1) was observed.

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Morphological Observations of Ovaries in Relation to Infertility in Slaughtered Cows in Kyungnam Province 2. Incidences and Morphological Findings of Ovarian Cysts (경남지방의 도태우에 불임과 관련된 난소의 형태학적 관찰 2. 난소낭종의 발생과 낭종형태에 대하여)

  • 곽수동;표병민;양재훈;김철호;서득록;고필옥;강정부
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.153-158
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    • 2002
  • Ovaries from total 192 slaughtered cows(154 Korean native cows and 38 Holstein cows) were collected during the slaughtering process in Kimhae, Changyoung and Yangsan abattoirs in Kyungnam province from January 2001 to January 2002. In order to investigate incidence of the ovarian cysts, anatomical, histological observations were performed and also TUNEL methods and PCNA antibody by immunogistochemical methods for diagnostic accuracy of cysts in a few ovaries were applied. Apoptotic positive cells by TUNEL method appeared not or a few in cystic walls but appeared more number in normal large follicular walls and the proliferative positive cells by PCNA antibody appeared numerous in normal large follicular walls but not or a few in cystic walls. The incident rates of ovarian cysts were 19.5% in Korean native cows and 18.4% in Holstein cows. The incident rates of ovarian cysts in Holstein cows were lower than that of Koran native cows. The incident rates of follicular cysts and luteal cysts in Korean native cows were 11.7% and 7.8% respectively. The incident rates of follicular cysts and luteal cysts in Holstein cows were 10.5% and 7.9%, respectively. Higher incidence proportions of ovarian cysts according to seasons in Korean native cows were ordered as spring (29.8%), autumn (21.4%) winter (14.3%) and summer (6.7%). Rates of cows with single cyst and multiple cysts were 63.3%(19 heads /30 heads) and 36.7%(11 heads/30 heads) in 30 cystic Korean native cows, respectively. Cystic cows with corpus luteums were 50.0%(15 heads) in 30 Korean native cows and 42.9%(3 heads) in 7 dairy cows, respectively. Among 15 cystic Korean native cows with corpus luteums, rates of cows with single corpus luteum were 66.7%(10 heads) and rates of multiple corpus luteum were 33.3%(5 heads ), respectively. The average diameter of cysts and corpus luteums in cystic ovaries were 21.0$\times$17.1 mm and 18.1$\times$13.8 mm in 30 Korean native cows and 20.6$\times$17.7 mm and 19.3 $\times$ 14.9 mm in 7 Holstein cows, respectively. So the average sizes of cysts in cystic ovaries were larger than those of corpus luteums.

Improving Productive and Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cows through Dry Period Management

  • Safa, S.;Soleimani, A.;Heravi Moussavi, A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.630-637
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    • 2013
  • To determine the effects of dry period (DP) length on milk yield, milk composition, some blood metabolites, complete blood count (CBC), body weight and score and follicular status, twenty five primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to a completely randomized design with DP-60 (n = 13) and DP-20 (n = 12) dry period lengths. Cows in the DP-60 produced more milk, protein, SNF, serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta hydroxyl butyrate acid (BHBA) compared with cows in DP-20 ($p{\leq}0.05$). Serum glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urea, and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) were all similar among the treatments. Body Condition Score (BCS), body weight (BW), complete blood count (CBC) and health problems were similar between the treatments. Diameter of the first dominant follicle and diameter of the dominant follicle on d 14 were different among the treatments. Thus, results of this study showed that reducing the dry period length to DP-20 had a negative effect on milk production, milk composition and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows.