• Title, Summary, Keyword: Holstein Calves

Search Result 102, Processing Time 0.036 seconds

Meat Quality of Loin and Top Round Muscles from the Hanwoo and Holstein Veal Calves

  • Yim, Dong-Gyun;Chung, Eui-Gang;Chung, Ku-Young
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
    • /
    • v.35 no.6
    • /
    • pp.731-737
    • /
    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to compare the meat qualities of loin (m. longissimus dorsi) and top round (m. semimembranosus) from Hanwoo and Holstein veal. Ten Hanwoo and Holstein calves were randomly selected from a local cattle farm and raised. They were slaughtered when they were 8 mon old and weighed. Weight and percentage in primal cuts and slaughter performance of Hanwoo and Holstein veal calves are obtained. Immediately after weighting, slices of loin and top round muscles were sampled. After vacuum packaging, the samples were subjected to proximate composition, physicochemical and microbiological analyses. Dressing weight and percentage were heavier and greater (p<0.05) in the Holstein than in the Hanwoo. Water contents of the top round muscle was higher in the Holstein than in the Hanwoo (p<0.05). Water-holding capacity, protein content and CIE L* (lightness) of both muscles were higher in the Holstein than in the Hanwoo veal, whereas fat content, pH, cooking loss, a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) were higher in the Hanwoo than in the Holstein veal (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid and volatile basic nitrogen values of both the muscles were lower in the Hanwoo than in the Holstein veal during the first 10 d of storage (p<0.05).

Salmonellosis in Holstein Calves Raising for Meat Production (비육용 홀스타인종 송아지에 발생한 Salmonella 감염증)

  • Lee Cha Soo;Tak Ryunbin
    • Journal of the korean veterinary medical association
    • /
    • v.15 no.9_10
    • /
    • pp.505-510
    • /
    • 1979
  • At a farm raising 21 Holstein calves for meat production, 6 calves had died for 21 days with symptoms of diarrhea, inappetence, depression, dehydration and temporary rise in body temperature. Among died calves, 3 were tested pathologically and bacteriolog

  • PDF

Effects of Dietary Herbaceous Peat and Vitamin C on Immunity and Growth Performance in Holstein Calves (허브부식토 및 비타민 C 급여가 홀스타인 송아지의 면역력 및 증체에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hong-Yun;Park, Joong-Kook;Ahn, Jong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
    • /
    • v.20 no.4
    • /
    • pp.577-587
    • /
    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to determine the effects of supplementing herbaceous peat preparation and vitamin C in order to find out its effects on immunity and growth performance in Holstein calves. Twenty Holstein calves ($39.3{\pm}4.21kg$ average initial body weight) were allocated into four treatments by completely randomized design. Dietary treatments included: 1) control (Basal diet), 2) treatment 1 (control +5% herbaceous peat), 3) treatment 2 (control+10g vitamin C) and 4) treatment 3 (control+10g herbaceous peat+10g vitamin C). The duration of the experiment was 38 days in this experiment, and blood metabolism, dry matter intake, body weight and diarrhea frequency were investigated. For blood metabolism, white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils (NE), lymphocytes (LY), and red blood cells (RBC) did not show any significant differences among treatments. Average daily gain and feed conversion were highest in T1 group feeding with the herbaceous peat preparation compared to the control groups and diarrhea frequency showed lowest in T3 group. Overall results of the present experiment indicated that dietary supplementation with herbaceous peat influenced positively on growth performances in Holstein calves.

Effect of Molasses Addition Level to the Mixture of Calf Starter and Corn Fodder on Pellet Quality, Rumen Development and Performance of Holstein-Friesian Calves in Indonesia

  • Mukodiningsih, Sri;Budhi, S.P.S.;Agus, A.;Haryadi, Haryadi;Ohh, Sang-Jip
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.52 no.3
    • /
    • pp.229-236
    • /
    • 2010
  • Effect of molasses addition to complete calf starter (CCS) and the following pellet processing was evaluated with 12 Holstein-Friesian (HF) calves (7-14 d old with $42\;{\pm}\;5.5\;kg$ average BW), with 6 calves (replicate) per treatment. The CCS was formulated with 65% concentrate calf starter and 35% local corn fodder. On the CCS, molasses was added either 5% (M5) or 10% (M10), then the mixture was pelleted and fed to the calves for 7 weeks. Molasses addition, regardless of addition level, improved (p<0.05) both the durability and hardness of the pellet which contains 35% of high fibrous local corn fodder. Upon feeding to calves, the feed intake and daily gain were numerically higher with 5% molasses addition compared to 10% molasses addition. Blood VFA level was remarkably higher (p<0.01) in calves fed M10 than calves fed M5. There was no difference (p>0.05) in blood glucose level between M5 and M10. Length and number of papillae were not different (p>0.05) by the addition levels of molasses. However, there was one exception in number of papillae at caudo-dorsal sac which were higher (p<0.05) number in M5 than M10 calves. Considering the quality of CCS pellet, calf performance and rumen development, there was no additional benefit of 10% molasses addition compared to 5%. From the results of this study, 5% molasses addition could be recommended for local farmer when they utilize local corn fodder to make CCS for HF calves in Indonesia.

Effect of Immunoglobulin Y on Growth Performance and Blood Immunological Parameters in Holstein Calves (난황항체(IgY) 급여가 Holstein 송아지의 성장능력 및 면역관련 혈액 지표에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, Hee-Sung;Jung, Keun-Ki;Jang, In-Surk
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.51 no.4
    • /
    • pp.321-328
    • /
    • 2009
  • A total of fourteen, 1-wk-old male Holstein calves were allotted into two groups consisted of control (CON) and IGY which was orally administrated with immunoglobulin yolk (IgY) for 1wk. Calves in both groups were provided with milk replacer according to feeding program and had ad libitum access to timothy hay for the entire experimental period (7wks). At 0, 7 and 49 day of experiment, blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of calves to investigate blood biochemical profiles and the differential count (%) of white blood cell (WBC). We also monitored growth performance and colony forming unit (CFU) of fecal microbial population in calves. The adminstration of IgY in calves did not affect body weight and weight gain during 49 days feeding trial compared with control group. The CFU of E. coli and Lactobacilli in the feces of calves were not significantly affected by IgY treatment, whereas the score of the calf scours during day 43 to 49 in IgY group showed a significant (P<0.05) solid type. There were no differences in plasma biochemical components including total protein, albumin, immunoglobulin and the other indicators. As for WBC differential count (%), there was no statistical difference in the percentages of neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil and basophil at 0, 7 and 49 days after the oral supplementation of IgY. In conclusion, the oral supplementation of IgY as an immunostimulant did not affect growth performance, fecal microbial population, blood biochemical profile and WBC differential count in Holstein calves.

Effects of Probiotic and Prebiotic on Average Daily Gain, Fecal Shedding of Escherichia Coli, and Immune System Status in Newborn Female Calves

  • Roodposhti, Pezhman Mohamadi;Dabiri, Najafgholi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.25 no.9
    • /
    • pp.1255-1261
    • /
    • 2012
  • Thirty two Holstein female calves (initial body weight = $40{\pm}3.0$ kg) were used to investigate the effects of probiotic and prebiotic on average daily gain (ADG), fecal E. coli count, white blood cell count, plasma IgG1 level and cell-mediated immune response to injection of phytohemagglutinin in suckling female calves. Calves were assigned randomly to one of the four treatments, including whole milk without additives (control), whole milk containing probiotic, whole milk containing prebiotic and whole milk containing probiotic and prebiotic (synbiotic). Average daily gain was greater in calves fed probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic at weeks 6, 7 and 8 (p<0.05). E. coli count was significantly lower in calves fed probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic on d 56 (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between treatments in blood samples and cell-mediated response. This study showed that addition of probiotic, prebiotic and combination of these additives to milk enhanced ADG and reduced fecal E. coli count in preruminant calves.

Growth, Blood Metabolites, and Health of Holstein Calves Fed Milk Replacer Containing Different Amounts of Energy and Protein

  • Lee, H.J.;Khan, M.A.;Lee, W.S.;Kim, H.S.;Ki, K.S.;Jang, S.J.;Hur, T.Y.;Khan, M.S.;Choi, Y.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.21 no.2
    • /
    • pp.198-203
    • /
    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to compare the effects of feeding high protein and low energy milk replacer (HPR; CP 25%, ME 3.6 Mcal/kg DM) with low protein and high energy milk replacer (HPR; CP 21%, ME 4.2 Mcal/kg DM) on feed consumption, body weight (BW) gain, health and selected blood metabolites in Holstein calves during the pre-weaning period. At each feeding, each milk replacer (MR) was prepared by mixing 0.125 kg of dry MR in 1L of warm ($60^{\circ}C$) water. The calves were fed either HPR (n = 10) or HER (n = 10) using mobile plastic bottles fitted with soft rubber nipples. All calves received 1.8L diluted MR at each feeding 3 times daily during the first 4 weeks of age; feeding frequency was reduced to 2 times daily for the next 2 weeks of age and then to once daily during the last week of the experiment. Jugular blood was sampled in calves at day 7, 14, 21, 35 and 49 of age to enumerate selected metabolites. Daily MR, starter and hay intake during the pre-weaning period were similar in calves fed HPR and HER. Consumption of starter, MGH and total DM steadily increased with the age of calves. Final BW, daily BW gain and feed efficiency of calves were not affected by treatments. Serum glucose, cholesterol, creatinine were decreased (p<0.05) and blood urea N was increased (p<0.05) in calves fed HER or HPR as they grew older. Serum glucose, total protein and albumin concentrations in calves were not affected by treatments. Serum GPT and GOT concentrations were higher (p<0.05) in calves on HPR than on HER. Scouring score, days scoured, respiratory score, rectal temperature and general appearance were similar in calves fed HPR and HER. Poor general appearance (dullness and droopy ears) of calves fed either HPR or HER reflected nutritional insufficiency and stress. In conclusion, energy and protein concentrations in MR did not affect feed intake and BW gain in Holstein calves during the pre-weaning period. Poor general appearance and lower BW gain of calves compared to those reported in the literature for milk fed calves prompt a demand for further research to improve the daily nutrient supply to MR-fed calves.

Prevalence, Risk Factors and Consequent Effect of Dystocia in Holstein Dairy Cows in Iran

  • Atashi, Hadi;Abdolmohammadi, Alireza;Dadpasand, Mohammad;Asaadi, Anise
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.25 no.4
    • /
    • pp.447-451
    • /
    • 2012
  • The objective of this research was to determine the prevalence, risk factors and consequent effect of dystocia on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows in Iran. The data set consisted of 55,577 calving records on 30,879 Holstein cows in 30 dairy herds for the period March 2000 to April 2009. Factors affecting dystocia were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression models through the maximum likelihood method in the GENMOD procedure. The effect of dystocia on lactation performance and factors affecting calf birth weight were analyzed using mixed linear model in the MIXED procedure. The average incidence of dystocia was 10.8% and the mean (SD) calf birth weight was 42.13 (5.42) kg. Primiparous cows had calves with lower body weight and were more likely to require assistance at parturition (p<0.05). Female calves had lower body weight, and had a lower odds ratio for dystocia than male calves (p<0.05). Twins had lower birth weight, and had a higher odds ratio for dystocia than singletons (p<0.05). Cows which gave birth to a calf with higher weight at birth experienced more calving difficulty (OR (95% CI) = 1.1(1.08-1.11). Total 305-d milk, fat and protein yield was 135 (23), 3.16 (0.80) and 6.52 (1.01) kg less, in cows that experienced dystocia at calving compared with those that did not (p<0.05).

Effects of Supplementation of Fermented Colostrum on Growth and Occurrence of Diarrhea in Holstein Calves (발효초유 급여가 Holstein 송아지의 성장과 설사발생에 미치는 효과)

  • Ahn, Jong-Ho;Park, Jung-Kil
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.52 no.4
    • /
    • pp.281-286
    • /
    • 2010
  • In this study, feeding fermented colostrum to Holstein calves was investigated to find out the effects on their growth and inhibition of diarrhea. The results of this study showed that the mixture of L. rhamnosus and E. faecium would be proper bacteria for fermentation of colostrum because of favorable odor, inhibition of coliform bacteria and high number of lactic acid bacterial count. Among the groups of calves fed 0, 5, 10 and 20% of fermented colostrums, average body weight gain for 28 days on feeding fermented colostrum were 16.6, 16.6, 17.4 and 18 kg, respectively showing that calves fed 20% fermented colostrum achieved the highest body weight gain. Occurrence of diarrhea due to feeding various levels of fermented colostrum was also recorded. Three calves out of 5 suffered diarrhea in 0%, 5%, and 20% group, on the other hand, all 5 calves suffered diarrhea in 10% group. Diarrhea persisted for durations were 2.7, 2.4, 4.0, and 2.4 days in 0, 5, 10, and 20% group, respectively. Fermented colostrum did not prevent the occurrence of diarrhea. In overall, addition of fermented colostrum above 10% level showed favorable effects in gaining body weight under the conditions of adding more portions of the fermented colostrum either for 14 days or longer feeding period of the fermented colostrum. On the other hand, fermented colostrum showed no beneficial effect in prevention of diarrhea in this study.

Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency

  • Kehrli, Marcus E. Jr.;Park, Yong-ho;Yoo, Han-sang
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
    • /
    • v.39 no.2
    • /
    • pp.247-256
    • /
    • 1999
  • A disease of young Holstein calves characterized by recurrent pneumonia, ulcerative and granulomatous stomatitis, enteritis with bacterial overgrowth, periodontitis, delayed wound healing, persistent neutrophilia and death at an early age had been originally described in 1983 and again in 1987. Most of these calves had stunted growth and a persistent, progressive neutrophilia (often exceeding 100,000/ml). By investigation of pedigrees, all of the affected calves have now been traced to a common sire and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnostic DNA testing to be homozygous carriers of a defective allele for bovine CD18. Neutrophils from these calves have several functional deficits and, most importantly, fail to adhere in a ${\beta}_2$-integrin dependent manner. The ${\beta}_2$-integrins represent a family of glycoproteins which participate in various leukocyte adhesion reactions during host defense. The presence or absence of ${\beta}_2$-integrin molecules can be demonstrated on the surface of neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes from normal or affected calves using specific monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry, or by colloidal gold immunolabeling and scanning electron microscopy in backscatter mode. Deficiency of the ${\beta}_2$-integrins on all leukocyte types in Holstein calves is analogous to leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) seen in humans. Neutrophils in bovine (BLAD) and human LAD patients are unable to adhere to the endothelial lining of the cardiovascular system thus interrupting egression of neutrophils into infected tissues. Other leukocytes, while still deficient in expression of the ${\beta}_2$-integrins, are still able to efficiently egress from the blood stream due to interactions of other adhesion molecules that are not as highly expressed on neutrophils. Both BLAD cattle and LAD children (who do not receive bone marrow transplants) often die at an early age as a result of the failure of neutrophils to extravasate into infected tissues. In 1991, Shuster, et $al^{27}$, identified two point mutations within the alleles encoding bovine CD18 in a Holstein calf afflicted with leukocyte adhesion deficiency. One mutation causes an aspartic acid to glycine substitution at amino acid 128 (D128G) in an extracellular region of this adhesion glycoprotein that is highly conserved (> 95% identity) between humans, cattle and mice. The other mutation is silent. Numerous calves with clinical symptoms of leukocyte adhesion deficiency have since been tested and all have been found homozygous for the D128G allele. In addition, calves homozygous far the D128G allele have been identified during widespread DNA testing in the United States. All cattle with the mutant allele are related to one bull, who through artificial insemination (A.I.), sired many calves in the 1950's and 1960's. The carrier frequency of the D128G CD18 allele among U.S. Holstein cattle had reached approximately 15% among active A.I. bulls and 8% among cows. By 1993, the organization of the dairy industry and the diagnostic test developed to genotype cattle, enabled virtually complete eradication of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency among current and future A.I. bulls.

  • PDF