• Title, Summary, Keyword: Hohenheim Gas Test

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Nutritional Evaluation of Some Tropical Crop Residues: In Vitro Organic Matter, Neutral Detergent Fibre, True Dry Matter Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Using the Hohenheim Gas Test

  • Aregheore, E.M.;Ikhatua, U.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.747-751
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    • 1999
  • The Hohenheim in vitro gas test was used to assess the nutritional value of some crop residues of known in vivo digestibility. The crop residues are groundnut shells (GNS) corn cobs (CC); cassava peels (CaP); unripe and ripe plantain peels (UPP, RPP) and citrus pulp/peels (CPP). Compared to other crop residues, crude protein (CP) content of CC was low. Except for CaP and CPP that had low neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF), other residues contained a high amount of cell wall constituents. Net gas production was significantly different among the crop residues (p<0.05). Gas production was highest in CPP followed by CaP. CC, UPP and RPP have the same volume of net gas production, while the least net gas production was in GNS. True dry matter (TDM) digestibility was significantly different (p<0.05) among the residues. GNS was the least in TDM digestibility. CaP, UPP and RPP had similar TDM digestibility values, while the highest TDM digestibility was obtained in CPP. OM digestibility was different among the residues (p<0.05). CaP and CPP had the same ME value while CC, UPP and RPP had close ME values and GNS the least in ME (p<0.05). The potential extent (b) and rate (c) of gas production were statistical different among the residues (p<0.05). The Hohenheim gas test gave high in vitro organic matter (OM) digestibility for CC, CaP, UPP and RPP and CPP. Fermentable carbohydrates and probably available nitrogen in the crop residues influenced net gas production. The results showed that crop residues besides, providing bulk are also a source of energy and fermentable products which could be used in ruminant livestock production in the tropics.

Phenolic plant extracts are additive in their effects against in vitro ruminal methane and ammonia formation

  • Sinz, Susanne;Marquardt, Svenja;Soliva, Carla R.;Braun, Ueli;Liesegang, Annette;Kreuzer, Michael
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.7
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    • pp.966-976
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    • 2019
  • Objective: The methane mitigating potential of various plant-based polyphenol sources is known, but effects of combinations have rarely been tested. The aim of the present study was to determine whether binary and 3-way combinations of such phenol sources affect ruminal fermentation less, similar or more intensively than separate applications. Methods: The extracts used were from Acacia mearnsii bark (acacia), Vitis vinifera (grape) seed, Camellia sinensis leaves (green tea), Uncaria gambir leaves (gambier), Vaccinium macrocarpon berries (cranberry), Fagopyrum esculentum seed (buckwheat), and Ginkgo biloba leaves (ginkgo). All extracts were tested using the Hohenheim gas test. This was done alone at 5% of dry matter (DM). Acacia was also combined with all other single extracts at 5% of DM each, and with two other phenol sources (all possible combinations) at 2.5%+2.5% of DM. Results: Methane formation was reduced by 7% to 9% by acacia, grape seed and green tea and, in addition, by most extract combinations with acacia. Grape seed and green tea alone and in combination with acacia also reduced methane proportion of total gas to the same degree. The extracts of buckwheat and gingko were poor in phenols and promoted ruminal fermentation. All treatments except green tea alone lowered ammonia concentration by up to 23%, and the binary combinations were more effective as acacia alone. With three extracts, linear effects were found with total gas and methane formation, while with ammonia and other traits linear effects were rare. Conclusion: The study identified methane and ammonia mitigating potential of various phenolic plant extracts and showed a number of additive and some non-linear effects of combinations of extracts. Further studies, especially in live animals, should concentrate on combinations of extracts from grape seed, green tea leaves Land acacia bark and determine the ideal dosages of such combinations for the purpose of methane mitigation.