• Title, Summary, Keyword: Hippocampus

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Hippocampus and Schizophrenia (해마와 정신분열병)

  • Chung, Young Chul
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.20-44
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    • 2003
  • Schizophrenics suffer not only psychotic symptoms but also cognitive deficits such as an attentional difficulty, memory impairment, poor abstraction, etc. These cognitive abnormalities have been reported to be significantly related to the social and occupational outcome in schizophrenia. Thus, it is important to explore the cause and pathophysiology for the cognitive abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. In this regard, hippocampus is one of the most promising brain areas to search for the clue because it is closely involved in memory related function. In fact, during the past several decades, there have been extensive studies supporting hippocampal abnormalities as a cause of schizophrenia in both clinical and preclinical field. In this review, basic anatomical knowledge about hippocampus and major findings of preclinical and clinical studies which investigated the correlation between schizophrenia and hippocampus were highlighted. The contents are 1) anatomical structure of hippocampus, 2) neuronal pathway and receptor distribution in hippocampus, 3) function of hippocampus, 4) hippocampal animal model for schizophrenia, 5) hippocampus-related studies on antipsychotic drugs, and 6) clinical studies in hippocampus in patients with schizophrenia.

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Implementation of 2D Active Shape Model-based Segmentation on Hippocampus

  • Izmantoko, Yonny S.;Yoon, Ho-Sung;Adiya, Enkhbolor;Mun, Chi-Woong;Huh, Young;Choi, Heung-Kook
    • Journal of Korea Multimedia Society
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2014
  • Hippocampus is an important part of brain which is related with early memory storage and spatial navigation. By observing the anatomy of hippocampus, some brain diseases effecting human memory (e.g. Alzheimer, schizophrenia, etc.) can be diagnosed and predicted earlier. The diagnosis process is highly related with hippocampus segmentation. In this paper, hippocampus segmentation using Active Shape Model, which not only works based on image intensity, but also by using prior knowledge of hippocampus shape and intensity from the training images, is proposed. The results show that ASM is applicable in segmenting hippocampus from whole brain MR image. It also shows that adding more images in the training set results in better accuracy of hippocampus segmentation.

First Record of the Seahorse Fish, Hippocampus trimaculatus (Pisces: Svnsnathidae) from Korea (한국산 해마속 어류 1 미기록종, Hippocampus trimaculatus Leach)

  • 김익수;이완옥
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.74-77
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    • 1995
  • Seahorse fish, Hippocampus trimaculatus Leach, collected in the Chriu Island and Dolsan Island, Korea is recorded for the lent time from Korea. Hippocampus trimacufctus is easily distinguishable from the other species of this genus, in having 20 dorsal fin raws, 17 anal fin rays, 11 trunk rings and 41 tail rings. H. tukokurae reported from Japan is a junior svnonsnn of H. trimacufatus.

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Hippocampus Volume Measurement for the determination of MCI

  • Jeon, Woong-Gi;Izmantoko, Yonny S.;Son, Ji-Hyeon;Choi, Heung-Kook
    • Journal of Korea Multimedia Society
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    • v.15 no.12
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    • pp.1449-1455
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    • 2012
  • This paper has developed a system for early diagnosis of senile dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) by developing software to measure the volume of hippocampus. This software consists of two parts; segmentation and analysis. The segmentation part uses ROI and region growing to segment hippocampus region. On the other hand, the analysis part creates a volume rendering of hippocampus. This software is expected contribute in these research fields for dementia diagnosis and its medication planning.

Implementation of Artificial Hippocampus Algorithm Using Weight Modulator (가중치 모듈레이터를 이용한 인공 해마 알고리즘 구현)

  • Chu, Jung-Ho;Kang, Dae-Seong
    • Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.393-398
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    • 2007
  • In this paper, we propose the development of Artificial Hippocampus Algorithm(AHA) which remodels a principle of brain of hippocampus. Hippocampus takes charge auto-associative memory and controlling functions of long-term or short-term memory strengthening. We organize auto-associative memory based 4 steps system (EC, DG CA3, and CA1) and improve speed of teaming by addition of modulator to long-term memory teaming. In hippocampus system, according to the 3 steps order, information applies statistical deviation on Dentate Gyrus region and is labeled to responsive pattern by adjustment of a good impression. In CA3 region, pattern is reorganized by auto-associative memory. In CA1 region, convergence of connection weight which is used long-term memory is learned fast a by neural network which is applied modulator. To measure performance of Artificial Hippocampus Algorithm, PCA(Principal Component Analysis) and LDA(Linear Discriminants Analysis) are applied to face images which are classified by pose, expression and picture quality. Next, we calculate feature vectors and learn by AHA. Finally, we confirm cognitive rate. The results of experiments, we can compare a proposed method of other methods, and we can confirm that the proposed method is superior to the existing method.

Fructus Corni Officinalis water extract Ameliorates Memory Impairment and Beta amyloid (Aβ) clearance by LRP-1 Expression in the Hippocampus of a Rat model of Alzheimer’s Disease

  • Lee, Ju Won
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.347-354
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    • 2016
  • This study evaluated the effects of Fructus Corni Officinalis water extract (FCE) on congnitive impairment and Aβ clearance induced by beta amyloid Aβ (1-42) injection in the hippocampus of rat. Aβ (1-42) was injected into the hippocampus using a Hamilton syringe and micropump (5 ㎍/5 ㎕, 1 ㎕/min, each hippocampus bilaterally). FCE was administered orally once a day (100, 250, 500 mg/kg) for 4 weeks after the Aβ (1-42) injection. The acquisition of learning and retention of memory were tested using the Morris water maze. Aβ accumulation and Aβ clearance in the hippocampus were observed using immunostaining. Aβ (1-42) level in plasma was confirmed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). FCE significantly shortened the escape latencies during acquisition training trials. FCE significantly increased the number of target heading to the platform site and significantly shortened the time for the 1sttargetheadingduringtheretentiontesttrial.FCEsignificantlyattenuatedtheAβ accumulation in the hippocampus produced by Aβ (1-42) injection. FCE significantly increased LRP-1 expression around vessels in the hippocampus and Aβ (1-42) levels in plasma. The results suggest that FCE improved cognitive impairment by ameliorate Aβ clearance and Aβ accumulation in the hippocampus. FCE may be a beneficial herbal formulation in treating cognitive impairment including Alzheimer's disease.

Siamese Network for Learning Robust Feature of Hippocampi

  • Ahmed, Samsuddin;Jung, Ho Yub
    • Smart Media Journal
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.9-17
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    • 2020
  • Hippocampus is a complex brain structure embedded deep into the temporal lobe. Studies have shown that this structure gets affected by neurological and psychiatric disorders and it is a significant landmark for diagnosing neurodegenerative diseases. Hippocampus features play very significant roles in region-of-interest based analysis for disease diagnosis and prognosis. In this study, we have attempted to learn the embeddings of this important biomarker. As conventional metric learning methods for feature embedding is known to lacking in capturing semantic similarity among the data under study, we have trained deep Siamese convolutional neural network for learning metric of the hippocampus. We have exploited Gwangju Alzheimer's and Related Dementia cohort data set in our study. The input to the network was pairs of three-view patches (TVPs) of size 32 × 32 × 3. The positive samples were taken from the vicinity of a specified landmark for the hippocampus and negative samples were taken from random locations of the brain excluding hippocampi regions. We have achieved 98.72% accuracy in verifying hippocampus TVPs.

Alteration of Immunoreactivity for SNARE Proteins in the Rat Hippocampus after Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

  • Park, Jung-Sun;Huh, Pil-Woo;Jung, Yeon-Joo;Park, Su-Jin;Lee, Kyung-Eun
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.141-146
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    • 2004
  • Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNARE) proteins, composed of two presynaptic membrane proteins [synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) and syntaxin] and a presynaptic vesicular protein [vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)], serve as a core of exocytotic fusion machinery, which can be affected by ischemia. Synaptic protein in core region, striatum and cortex has been shown to alter after focal ischemia, however, little is known in hippocampus. Hippocampus is remote from ischemic core, but it is one of the most vulnerable regions. Using immunohistochemistry, the present study was undertaken to investigate the alteration of expression of SNAP-25, syntaxin, and VAMP in the hippocampus of rats which were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2h and allowed to reperfuse. At 2 weeks of reperfusion, the SNAP-25 and syntaxin immunoreactivity was increased in the stratum oriens of the CA1 and the stratum lucidum of the CA3 in the ipsilateral hippocampus. However, VAMP immunoreactivity didn't show significant change. These results demonstrate that the level of the presynatpic plasma membrane proteins (SNAP-25 and syntaxin) in the rat hippocampus is more sensitively affected by focal ischemia than that of the synaptic vesicle protein (VAMP).

Effect of Yanggyuksanhwa-tang on Pyramidal Neuron and HSP72 Expression in Ischemic Damaged Hippocampus of Aged BCAD Rats (노령 흰쥐의 뇌허혈 손상시 양격산화탕이 뇌해마의 신경세포 및 HSP72 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Park Eun Kyung;Shin Jung Won;Sohn Young Joo;Jung Hyuk Sang;Won Ran;Sohn Nak Won
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.791-797
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    • 2003
  • This study investigated the effect of Yanggyuksanhwa-tang on cerebral ischemia of the rats. Considering age-related impact on cerebral ischemia, aged rats (18 months old) were used for this study. Ischemic damage was induced by the transient occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries (BCAO) under the hypotension. Yanggyuksanhwa-tang was administered twice orally. Then changes of pyramidal neurons and heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) expressions in ischemic damaged hippocampus were of observed. The BCAO in aged rats led significant decrease of pyramidal neurons in CA1 hippocampus. While the treatment of Yanggyuksanhwa-tang significantly attenuated the reduction of pyramidal neurons in CA1 hippocampus following BCAO ischemia. The BCAO in aged rats led significant increase of HSP72 expression in CA1 and mild in CA3 hippocampus. While the treatment of Yanggyuksanhwa-tang significantly attenuated the increase of HSP72 expression in CA1 hippocampus following BCAO ischemia. The extent of HSP72 expression in CA2 and DG of hippocampus was not different between the sham operated group, the BCAO ischemia control group, and the group of Yanggyuksanhwa-tang administration after BCAO ischemia. The treatment of Yanggyuksanhwa-tang significantly attenuated the increase of normalized optical density depending on HSP72 expression in CA1 hippocampus following BCAO ischemia.

Effect of Daekumeumja Herb-acupuncture on c-Fos Expression in Hippocampus of Alcohol Intoxicated Rats (대금음자 약침이 알코올 독성 흰쥐의 해마에서 c-Fos 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Tae-Ho;Lee, Eun-Yong
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.37-45
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    • 2006
  • Objectives : The study was conducted to investigate the effect of Deakumeumja herb-acupuncture on c-Fos expression in each area of the hippocampus of Alcohol intoxicated rats. Methods : Experimental groups were divided into five groups ; normal group, the alcohol-treated (control) group, the alcohol- 1 mg/kg Daekumeumja treated (sample A) group, the alcohol- 5 mg/kg Daekumeumja treated (sample B) group, the alcohol- 10 mg/kg Daekumeumja treated (sample C) group (n = 6 for each group). Rats of normal group were injected intraperitoneally with saline once a day for 5 consecutive days, while animals of the alcohol-treated (control) group were injected once a day with 2 g/kg of alcohol for the same duration of time. Animals of the alcohol and Daekumeumja-treated (sample A, B, C) groups were acupunctured at Chung-wan$(CV_{12})$ with 2 g/kg of alcohol and the appropriate amount of Daekumeumja extract once a day for 5 days. Each groups was evaluated by the changes of c-fos-positive neurons in each area of the hippocampus by using an image analyzer and microscope. Results: 1. In the CAI region of the hippocampus, the number of Fos-positive cells in the sample B, C groups were significantly increased compared with the control group. 2. In the CA2-3 regions of the hippocampus, the number of Fos-positive cells of the sample B, C groups were significantly increased compared with the control group. 3. In the Dentate gyrus region of the hippocampus, the number of Fos-positive cells of the sample C group was significantly increased compared with the control group. Conclusion : c-fos expression in each area of the hippocampus was reduced in alcohol-intoxicated groups. Treatment of Daekumeumja increased this reduction. In conclusion, it can be suggested that Daedumeumja possesses protective effects of the amnesia and learning disability in alcoholism.

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