• Title, Summary, Keyword: High-quality Feed Block

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Effect of Cassava Hay in High-quality Feed Block as Anthelmintics in Steers Grazing on Ruzi Grass

  • Wanapat, Metha;Khampa, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.695-698
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    • 2006
  • Six, one-year old dairy steers were randomly divided into two groups according to a Completely randomized design (CRD) to receive high-quality feed block (HQFB) without cassava hay and drenching (HQFB1+Ivomex) and HQFB with cassava hay (HQFB2) as block licks while grazing on Ruzi grass pasture. During the eight weeks, fecal parasitic egg counts dramatically declined for both treatment groups with 63.2 and 27.6% reduction from initial period for HQFB1+Ivomex and HQFB2, respectively. However, digestion of coefficients of nutrients particularly OM, were significantly higher in HQFB2 than, those in HQFB1+Ivomex, in addition, ADG of animals in HQFB2 tended to be higher than the group on HQFB1. It was, hence concluded that cassava hay could not only provide as a protein source but also serve as an anthelmintic in ruminants.

Strategic Supplementation with a High-Quality Feed Block on Roughage Intake, Milk Yield and Composition, and Economic Return in Lactating Dairy Cows

  • Wanapat, M.;Petlum, A.;Pimpa, O.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.901-903
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    • 1999
  • Twenty-four multiparous crossbred Friesian dairy cows (60-90 days in lactation) were randomly assigned into a $2{\times}2$ factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design. Factors were two levels of concentrate supplementation (1:2, high vs 1:1.2, very high; concentrate:milk yield) and two levels of high-quality feed block (HQFB) supplementation (non vs ad libitum block licking). Ruzi grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis) was fed as a roughage throughout the 70 day feeding trial. High level of concentrate fed group resulted in higher roughage and HQFB intakes, compared with very high concentrate supplemented group. HQFB supplementation tended to increase roughage intake and significantly improved milk yield (2 kg/hd/d in high concentrate supplementation) and quality (% fat) which resulted in higher economical return. HQFB was recommended to be used as a strategic supplement in lactating dairy cows especially when fed on low-quality roughages or crop residues.

Participation Scheme of Smallholder Dairy Farmers in the Northeast Thailand on Improving Feeding Systems

  • Wanapat, M.;Pimpa, O.;Petlum, A.;Wachirapakorn, C.;Yuanklang, C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.830-836
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    • 2000
  • A participation scheme involving smallholder dairy farmers in improving dairy productivity through the use of local feeds, on-farm established feeds and crop residues was carried out in the Northeast, Thailand. At six milk collection centers, 63 farmers with 340 lactating cows participated in this research and demonstration of feed supplements. Farmers and cows were allotted to receive respective feed supplements: high-quality feed block (HQFB), high-quality feed pellet (HQFP), dried cassava leaf/cassava hay, dried leucaena leaf and cottonseed meal: 5% urea treated rice straw was fed as a source of roughage throughout the feeding period of the dry season. Trainings and workshops were organized by the researchers at the University, research station, demonstration sites and on-farms. Regular visits to the fartns by researchers and extension officers were made while discussions and demonstrations were performed in addition. Participating farmers also visited other farmers during the demonstration which offered a real practical perspective and farmer-to-farmer interaction. As a result of this participation and demonstration scheme, the farmers could learn more effectively and accepted the technology more readily, especially the practicality of the feed preparation, feed establishment, feeding method and feed reserve. Strategic supplementation of these feed supplements resulted in improving milk yield, milk quality, overall condition of the cows and higher income return through increased productivity and lower level use of concentrate to milk yield from 1:2 to 1:3 or lower. Based on this research and demonstration /participation scheme, all feed supplements enhanced productivity, however the establishment of cassava hay on fartns deserved more attention and warrants a wider developmental expansion among dairy farmers since it contained high rumen by-pass protein (tannin-protein complex) and could be easily produced and be sustainable on farms.

Various levels of copra meal supplementation with β-Mannanase on growth performance, blood profile, nutrient digestibility, pork quality and economical analysis in growing-finishing pigs

  • Kim, H.J.;Nam, S.O.;Jeong, J.H.;Fang, L.H.;Yoo, H.B.;Yoo, S.H.;Hong, J.S.;Son, S.W.;Ha, S.H.;Kim, Y.Y.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.59 no.7
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    • pp.19.1-19.10
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    • 2017
  • Background: To reduce use of main feed ingredient like corn, soy bean meal (SBM) and wheat, alternative ingredients has been studied like copra meal (CM). Production amount of CM which has been high makes CM to be an alternative feed stuff. However, low digestibility on AA and low energy content by high fiber content can be an obstacle for using CM. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of CM supplementation with ${\beta}$-mannanase on growth performance, blood profile, nutrient digestibility, pork quality and economic analysis in growing-finishing pigs. Methods: A total of 100 growing pigs ([Yorkshire ${\times}$ Landrace] ${\times}$ Duroc) averaging $31.22{\pm}2.04kg$ body weight were allotted to 5 different treatments by weight and sex in a randomized complete block (RCB) design in 5 replicate with 4 pigs per pen. Treatments were 1) Control (corn-SBM based diet + 0.1% of ${\beta}$-mannanase (800 IU)), 2) CM10 (10% copra meal + 0.1% ${\beta}$-mannanase (800 IU)), 3) CM15 (15% copra meal + 0.1% ${\beta}$-mannanase (800 IU)), 4) CM20 (20% copra meal + 0.1% ${\beta}$-mannanase (800 IU)) and 5) CM25 (25% copra meal + 0.1% ${\beta}$-mannanase (800 IU)). Four phase feeding program was used: growing I (week 1-3), growing II (week 4-6), finishing I (week 7-9) and finishing II (week 10-12). Results: In growth performance, there was no significant difference among treatments during whole experimental period. In growingI phase, G:F ratio tended to increase when CM was increased (P = 0.05), but ADG and ADFI tended to decrease in finishingII phase (linear, P = 0.08). Also, increasing CM reduced ADG (linear, P = 0.02) and feed efficiency (linear, P = 0.08) during the whole finishing period. In blood profiles, BUN was linearly increased as CM increased (linear, P = 0.02) at growingII period. In digestibility trial, there was no significant difference in dry matter, crude fat, crude ash and nitrogen digestibility. However, crude protein digestibility was decreased linearly (linear, P = 0.02). In economic analysis, feed cost per weight gain and total feed cost per pig were reduced in overall period when CM was provided by 25% (linear, P = 0.02). Conclusion: CM with 0.1% of ${\beta}$-mannanase (800 IU) could be supplemented instead of corn and SBM up to 25% without detrimental effects on growth performance and pork quality of growing-finishing pigs.

The Nutritive Value of Mulberry Leaves (Morus alba) and Partial Replacement of Cotton Seed in Rations on the Performance of Growing Vietnamese Cattle

  • Vu, Chi Cuong;Verstegen, M.W.A.;Hendriks, W.H.;Pham, K.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.9
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    • pp.1233-1242
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    • 2011
  • The in vivo digestibility of mulberry leaves (Morus alba) and the effects of the partial replacement of cotton seed with fresh mulberry leaf in rations on the performance of growing Vietnamese cattle was investigated. For the in vivo digestibility trial, twenty castrated rams of Phanrang breed (a local prolific breed) with an initial weight of 23-25 kg, were first assigned to four groups according to weight and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments to determine digestibility of nutrients in mulberry leaves (M. alba), natural Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and buffalo grass (Panicum maximum cv. TD 58). All forages were cut and chopped daily before being offered (at 120% maintenance) to the sheep. In the feeding trial, 20 Laisind (Vietnam yellow cows${\times}$Red Sindhy bulls) crossbred bulls averaged 18 month old and 184 kg were used to investigate the effect of partial replacement of cottonseed in the diet by mulberry leaves on live weight gain and feed conversion rate. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with four levels of fresh mulberry leaves which varied from 0 to 15% of total dietary dry mater and five animals per treatment over an 84 day period. The in vivo digestion trial showed the superior quality of mulberry leaves compared with the grasses. Chemical analysis indicated that mulberry leaves had the highest CP and the lowest NDF contents (22.3 and 31.1% DM, respectively) among the four forages tested. Digestibility of DM and OM of the mulberry leaf (66.4 and 71.8%, respectively) was also the highest but that of CP (58.2%) and NDF (58.4%) was the lowest of the four forages evaluated (p<0.05). Consequently, the ME value and therefore net energy (NE) and unit feed for lactation (UFL) values of the mulberry leaves, which was estimated from chemical composition and digestibility values, were the highest among the forages investigated in the present study. Results of the feeding trial showed no treatment effect on average daily gain (ADG) of the cattle. The values were 554, 583, 565 and 568 g/d for animals in the diets of 0, 5, 10, and 15% mulberry leaves inclusion, respectively. Total DM intake of the animal was not affected by the treatment when expressed as kg/animal/d. However, when adjusted for metabolic weight of the animal the DM intake was reduced (p<0.05) as whole cottonseed was replaced by mulberry leaves in the ration. When the level of mulberry leaves in the ration increased from 5 to 15% of dietary DM at the expense of whole cottonseed, CP and ME intakes of the cattle were significantly decreased (p<0.05) and the feed to gain ratio reduced by 8 to 14% as compared with the control diet (p<0.05). Mulberry leaf is a good feed ingredient for ruminants because of its high level of crude protein and high digestibility of nutrients and energy. Mulberry leaves can be efficiently used as a source of protein supplement to replace cottonseed, a more expensive animal feeds ingredient, in the diet for Vietnamese cattle.

Influence of various levels of milk by-products in weaner diets on growth performance, blood urea nitrogen, diarrhea incidence, and pork quality of weaning to finishing pigs

  • Yoo, S.H.;Hong, J.S.;Yoo, H.B.;Han, T.H.;Jeong, J.H.;Kim, Y.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.696-704
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    • 2018
  • Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate various levels of milk by-product in weaning pig diet on growth performance, blood profiles, carcass characteristics and economic performance for weaning to finishing pigs. Methods: A total of 160 weaning pigs ([Yorkshire${\times}$Landrace]${\times}$Duroc), average $7.01{\pm}1.32kg$ body weight (BW), were allotted to four treatments by BW and sex in 10 replications with 4 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were fed each treatment diet with various levels of milk by-product (Phase 1: 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, Phase 2: 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively). During weaning period (0 to 5 week), weaning pigs were fed experimental diets and all pigs were fed the same commercial feed during growing-finishing period (6 to 14 week). Results: In the growth trial, BW, average daily gain (ADG), and average daily feed intake (ADFI) in the nursery period (5 weeks) increased as the milk by-product level in the diet increased (linear, p<0.05). Linear increases of pig BW with increasing the milk product levels were observed until late growing period (linear, p = 0.01). However, there were no significant differences in BW at the finishing periods, ADG, ADFI, and gain:feed ratio during the entire growing-finishing periods. The blood urea nitrogen concentration had no significant difference among dietary treatments. High inclusion level of milk by-product in weaner diet decreased crude protein (quadratic, p = 0.05) and crude ash (Linear, p = 0.05) of Longissimus muscle. In addition, cooking loss and water holding capacity increased with increasing milk product levels in the weaner diets (linear, p<0.01; p = 0.05). High milk by-product treatment had higher feed cost per weight gain compared to non-milk by-products treatment (linear, p = 0.01). Conclusion: Supplementation of 10% to 5% milk by-products in weaning pig diet had results equivalent to the 30% to 15% milk treatment and 0% milk by-product supplementation in the diet had no negative influence on growth performance of finishing pigs.

Manipulating Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Heifers by Dietary Means during Growing and Early Fattening Period

  • Kim, Joung Yong;Oh, Seongjin;Ryu, Chaehwa;Lee, A-leum;Cho, Sangbuem;Choi, Nag-Jin
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.52 no.5
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    • pp.81-89
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to improve growth performance of Hanwoo heifer and to produce high quality of meat with dietary means during growing and early fattening period. Particularly, additional energy diet to relieve estrus stress was main purpose in this study. The results of in vitro rumen fermentation indicated that there was no negative effect by additional energy diet as treatments. In the feeding trial, twenty Hanwoo heifers(average 10 months age) were allocated and distributed into two treatments in randomized block design based on body weight. There were three growth stages such as growing, early fattening and late fattening periods in this feeding program, respectively. In growing stage, there were two treatments consisting of only total mixed ration(TMR) as a control and TMR with additional energy treatment. The experimental diets were fed twice a day, and water and mineral were freely accessed. In additional energy treatment, 500 g of concentrate diet was fed daily to relieve estrus stress due to obese with high energy intake. Not outstandingly differences were found across the treatments during entiretrial period. While, unexpectedly greater feed conversion ratio in treatment compared to the control was found during late fattening period. It seems that the blood cortisol decreased with addition energy supplementation compared with the control during trail period. Carcass characteristics including carcass weight, back fat thickness, marbling score, meat color, fat color, maturity and texture were not significantly different each other. Rib-eye area, however, was greater in the control compared to the treatment(p<0.05). In addition, it appears that yield index was tended to be greater in the control. In conclusion, it is suggested that additional energy supplementation to Hanwoo heifer could get a potential in improving meat quality and relieving estrus stress.

Effect of Feeding Level of High Energy-TMR for Growing Phase on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Economic Analysis in Fattening of Hanwoo Heifers (한우암소 비육시 고 에너지 육성용 TMR 급여수준이 사양성적, 도체특성 및 경제성 분석에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Woong-Ki;Chang, Sun-Sik;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Lee, Shin-Ja;Lee, Sung-Sill;Moon, Yea-Hwang
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.52 no.5
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    • pp.51-61
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding level of high energy-TMR on growth performance, carcass characteristics and economic analysis in fattening Hanwoo heifers. Thirty-five Hanwoo heifers(8-month-old) were allotted to four groups by randomized complete block design and fed TMR feed by ad libitum(Control), 1.8%(T1), 1.6%(T2) and 1.5%(T3) of BW to 24 month of age. During the finishing periods(25-32 months) BW of Hanwoo heifer were 4.9%, 3.6% and 2.5% higher in the T1, T2 and T3 groups than Control group, respectively(p<0.05). DM and TDN intake for finishing period was significantly higher in T1 group compared with others(p<0.05). For the yield traits, carcass weight of T1 group was 11.6% higher than Control group(p<0.05). Feeding of high energy-TMR for growing phase throughout the whole period resulted in increasing the carcass weight and eye muscle area in comparison with the general results of Hanwoo heifers. The maturity and yield grade were higher in Control group(p<0.05). The appearance rate(%) of yield grade more than A was greater at Control group than other groups. However, appearance rate(%) of meat quality grade more than $1^{{+}{+}}$ was greater at T1, T2 group than other groups. The net profits increased by 15% and 13% in T1 and T2 groups, respectively, compared to the Control group. Accordingly, when the high energy-TMR for growing phase is used for fattening of Hanwoo heifers, it is recommendable to restrict by 1.8% of BW to 24 month of age, and thereafter ad libitum for the finishing period. Based on these results, it could be used for the development of feeding program for the production of high quality meat in fattening of Hanwoo heifer.