• Title, Summary, Keyword: High tide

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Numerical Hydrodynamic Modeling Incorporating the Flow through Permeable Sea-Wall (투수성 호안의 해수유통을 고려한 유동 수치모델링)

  • Bang, Ki-Young;Park, Sung Jin;Kim, Sun Ou;Cho, Chang Woo;Kim, Tae In;Song, Yong Sik;Woo, Seung-Buhm
    • Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.63-75
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    • 2013
  • The Inner Port Phase 2 area of the Pyeongtaek-Dangjin Port is enclosed by a total of three permeable sea-walls, and the disposal site to the east of the Inner Port Phase 2 is also enclosed by two permeable sea-walls. The maximum tidal range measured in the Inner Port Phase 2 and in the disposal site in May 2010 is 4.70 and 2.32 m, respectively. It reaches up to 54 and 27%, respectively of 8.74 m measured simultaneously in the exterior. Regression formulas between the difference of hydraulic head and the rate of interior water volume change, are induced. A three-dimensional numerical hydrodynamic model for the Asan Bay is constructed incorporating a module to compute water discharge through the permeable sea-walls at each computation time step by employing the formulas. Hydrodynamics for the period from 13th to 27th May, 2010 is simulated by driving forces of real-time reconstructed tide with major five constituents($M_2$, $S_2$, $K_1$, $O_1$ and $N_2$) and freshwater discharges from Asan, Sapkyo, Namyang and Seokmoon Sea dikes. The skill scores of modeled mean high waters, mean sea levels and mean low waters are excellent to be 96 to 100% in the interior of permeable sea-walls. Compared with the results of simulation to obstruct the flow through the permeable sea-walls, the maximum current speed increases by 0.05 to 0.10 m/s along the main channel and by 0.1 to 0.2 m/s locally in the exterior of the Outer Sea-wall of Inner Port. The maximum bottom shear stress is also intensified by 0.1 to 0.4 $N/m^2$ in the main channel and by more than 0.4 $N/m^2$ locally around the arched Outer Sea-wall. The module developed to compute the flow through impermeable seawalls can be practically applied to simulate and predict the advection and dispersion of materials, the erosion or deposion of sediments, and the local scouring around coastal structures where large-scale permeable sea-walls are maintained.

Distribution of Zooplankton by ADCP's Echo Intensity in the Coastal Water used Yellow Loess (다층 도플러 유속계(ADCP)를 이용한 황토 살포 해역의 플랑크톤 평가)

  • Park, Ju-Sam;Choo, Hyo-Sang;Moon, Sung-Ryong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.141-151
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    • 2010
  • Harmful algal blooms (HABs), commonly known as red tides, are aquatic phenomena caused by the rapid growth and accumulation of certain microalgae, which can lead to marked discoloration of surface waters, and severe impacts on public health, commerce, and the environment. In South Korea, the red tides have been a serious and recurrent problem, especially along the south coast. Plenty of yellow loess was used to control an outbreak of the red tides for 15 years from 1996 until now. Yellow loess was almost sprayed in the vicinity of a large fish farming industry. In this research, the distribution characteristics and density distribution of zooplankton were investigated in autumn (Oct. 2008) and spring (Apr. 2009) using volume backscattering strength (SV) calculated by the zooplankton collected with north pacific standard (NORPAC) net and the echo intensity measured with ADCP at stations on the study area in the spraying ocean of yellow loess (SOYL), and the non-spraying ocean of yellow ocean (NOYL) by the red tide generating every year. The species number and the individuals per unit volume of the zooplankton collected in NOYL was high and it which was collected in SOYL was low. As a result of comparing the volume backscattering strength ($SV_c$) calculated by species and length of the zooplankton collected with NORPAC net with the volume backscattering strength ($SV_m$) calculated by the echo intensity measured with ADCP at stations on the study area, although $SV_c$ and $SV_m$ of NOYL were generally in agreement, $SV_m$ of SOYL was higher than $SV_c$ 4.3dB, i.e. ADCP is greatly influenced by suspended solid in SOYL. The horizontal distribution map of $SV_m$ at the study area in autumn (Oct. 2008) and spring (Apr. 2009) was drawn. $SV_m$ of SOYL is higher than NOYL and autumn is higher than spring. $SV_m$ can suppress the overestimate or underestimate of $SV_c$.

Hydrochemical characteristics in groundwater affected by reclamation (해안가 매립으로 인한 지하수의 수리화학적 특성)

  • 서정율
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.1-20
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    • 2004
  • This study focuses on the hydrochemical characteristics in goundwater affected by reclamation at 2000 Sydney Olympic Games site, Sydney, Australia. The Olympic Games site can be divided into three areas, i.e. reclaimed areas; landfill areas and non-infilled areas. In the current work, 'reclaimed areas' were previously estuarine, and were filled with waste materials and are now above present high tide level, whereas 'landfill areas' are areas where deposition of waste materials occurred above sea level. No deposition of waste took place in 'non-infilled areas'. This study was also evaluated by three different types such as deep boreholes, shallow boreholes and standpipes. The hydrochemishy of groundwaters in reclaimed and non-in-filled areas is characterized by Mg- and Ca-enrichment, whereas groundwaters in landfill areas are elevated in K and NO₃. Na, K and Mg are the dominant cations in groundwater from reclaimed areas and Na and K are the dominant cations in groundwater in landfill areas. Na and Mg are the dominant cations in groundwater in deep boreholes, whereas Na and K are the dominant cations in groundwater in shallow boreholes and standpipes. There is no distinct trend in heavy metals with electrical conductivity in the groundwater between the re-claimed, landfill and non-infilled areas. Fe and Mn in landfill areas with respect to reclaimed areas and non-infilled areas show a distinct increase in concentration with declining pH. Mean electrical conductivity values in the deep and shallow boreholes are higher than that of standpipes, but the minimum and maximum value of electrical conductivity in groundwater in standpipes shows remarkably different value, probably due to perched pond. There is no correlation between Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr concentrations in groundwater with pH, from deep boreholes, shallow boreholes and standpipes, except for Fe and Mn, which demonstrate increasing concentrations with declining pH. The results revealed a close association between elevated concentrations in groundwater and the presence of fill materials at the site. Trace metals teachability from re-claimed soils adjacent to estuary plays a significant role in determining their potential environmental risk to surrounding environment.

The Impact of Nakdong Estuarine Barrage on Distribution of Biogenic Silica (BSi) in Surface Sediment (하구둑이 낙동강 하구 표층 퇴적물 생규소(BSi) 분포에 미치는 영향)

  • KIM, YUNJI;AN, SOONMO
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.172-186
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    • 2017
  • Current study is a part of the efforts to assess the estuarine barrage effects on the coastal ecosystem induced by the Si flux changes. Surface sediments from Seomjin and Nakdong estuary and sediment cores from Nakdong estuary was analysed to investigate the effect of estuarine barrage on the distribution of grain size, organic matter (loss on ignition: LOI) and biogenic silica (BSi). The samples of Seomjin estuary were collected in March, 2015 and those of Nakdong estuary were collected in November, 2014. Generally, the longitudinal distribution of grain size, LOI and BSi in Seomjin estuary, natural estuary, was gradually changed. However mud (silt and clay), LOI and BSi increased from station mid-estuary where tide reaches year-round. The distribution of grain size, LOI and BSi in Nakdong estuary, however, were entirely different between inside and outside of estuarine barrage. The mud percentage and LOI were low and consistent in inside of the barrage except R05, inside of right gate, yet those of outside of the barrage were higher and varied by adjacent sluices. Mud, LOI and BSi of ND1 and ND2 decreased immediately after the construction of Nakdong estuarine barrage due to disturbance of sediment and decrease of sediment supply. To exclude the physical effects by the barrage, BSi excess ($BSi_{exc}$) was calculated using regression equation of BSi-LOI and BSi-mud of Seomjin estuary. $BSi_{exc}$ of Seomjin estuary decreased gradually from upper estuary to lower estuary. $BSi_{exc}$ of Nakdong estuary were positive in inside of the barrage and negative in outside of the barrage. BSi retention and shift of species composition of diatom by the barrage would affect $BSi_{exc}$ distribution. Before the construction of Nakdong estuarine barrage, $BSi_{exc}$ of ND2 was negative and consistent owing to high mud sedimentation. After the construction, $BSi_{exc}$ of ND2, however, fluctuated due to continuous disturbance of sediment due to construction of Eulsuk bridge and East gate.

Investigation of Intertidal Zone using TerraSAR-X (TerraSAR-X를 이용한 조간대 관측)

  • Park, Jeong-Won;Lee, Yoon-Kyung;Won, Joong-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.383-389
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    • 2009
  • The main objective of the research is a feasibility study on the intertidal zone using a X-band radar satellite, TerraSAR-X. The TerraSAR-X data have been acquired in the west coast of Korea where large tidal flats, Ganghwa and Yeongjong tidal flats, are developed. Investigations include: 1) waterline and backscattering characteristics of the high resolution X-band images in tidal flats; 2) polarimetric signature of halophytes (or salt marsh plants), specifically Suaeda japonica; and 3) phase and coherence of interferometric pairs. Waterlines from TerraSAR-X data satisfy the requirement of horizontal accuracy of 60 m that corresponds to 20 cm in average height difference while current other spaceborne SAR systems could not meet the requirement. HH-polarization was the best for extraction of waterline, and its geometric position is reliable due to the short wavelength and accurate orbit control of the TerraSAR-X. A halophyte or salt marsh plant, Suaeda japonica, is an indicator of local sea level change. From X-band ground radar measurements, a dual polarization of VV/VH-pol. is anticipated to be the best for detection of the plant with about 9 dB difference at 35 degree incidence angle. However, TerraSAR-X HH/TV dual polarization was turned to be more effective for salt marsh monitoring. The HH-HV value was the maximum of about 7.9 dB at 31.6 degree incidence angle, which is fairly consistent with the results of X-band ground radar measurement. The boundary of salt marsh is effectively traceable specifically by TerraSAR-X cross-polarization data. While interferometric phase is not coherent within normal tidal flat, areas of salt marsh where the landization is preceded show coherent interferometric phases regardless of seasons or tide conditions. Although TerraSAR-X interferometry may not be effective to directly measure height or changes in tidal flat surface, TanDEM-X or other future X-band SAR tandem missions within one-day interval would be useful for mapping tidal flat topography.

Environmental and Biological Effects at Narodo, in the Southern Water of Korea, on Bloom of Ichthyotoxic Dinoflagellates Cochlodinium polykrikoides (유해성 Cochlodinium polykrikoides 최초 발생에 관한 나로도 해역의 환경학적 특성 및 식물플랑크톤 군집 구조)

  • Cho Eun Seob
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.225-230
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    • 2005
  • The aim of this study was to examine the fluctuation in phytoplankton assemblages with regarding to environmental conditions and nutrients, which were surveyed quarterly over the fours seasons (February, May, July, and October). In turn, an understanding of biological effects should provide insights into a wide range of initiated Cochlodinium blooms in Narodo. Sampling was carried out throughout 2001 on the coasts of Busan (St. 1), Yeosu (St. 2), Narodo (St. 3), Kohung (St. 4), and Kwangdo (St. 5). The maximum surface water temperature was recorded in July, and it ranged from 20 to $22^{\circ}C$. Salinity showed no great variation, which maintained itself in the range of 29-34 psu. The maximum surface salinity was recorded in February, which was about 34 psu. The chlorophyll $\alpha$ concentration of the surface water ranged from 0.01 to $1.3\;{\mu}g\;1^{-1}$. The concentrations of $NH_{4}-N $ were persistently high from February to October; in particular, the peak was observed at St. 1 in February and May (0.15 and $0.19\;{\mu}mol\;1^{-1}$, respectively), while it was detected at St. 2 in July and October (0.22 and $2.2\;{\mu}mol\;1^{-1}$ respectively). Similar trends to those for $NH_4-N $ were observed in the concentrations of $NO_{2}-N$ and $NO_{3}-N$. In contrast to nitrogen, a distinct peak of $NO_{4}-P$ at St. 3, 4, and 5 was observed throughout year $(0.01-0.1\;{\mu}mol\;1^{-1}$ except for October. At St. 1 encounter a peak of cell number of 30,000 and $13{\times}10^3$ cells $1^{-1}$, respectively, in July and October. During the period of this study, the majority of the taxa were diatoms. The dinoflagellates were rather abundant after February, in particular at St. 3, 4, and 5 which attained an abundance of $10\~20\%$without marked fluctuation during the period of this study. At St. 3, the highest average cell width, $178.11\;{\mu}m$, was recorded: the highest cell length, $337.72\;{\mu}m$, was measured in July. Consequently, dinoflagellates bloom in July at Narodo influenced by warm water current are not only associated with a desirable development of cell morphometric characteristics, but also with the health growth of C. polykrikoides. During the period of this study, warm water currents caused an increased water temperature in Narodo, but did not change the amount of nutrients.

Selective Algicidal Effects of a Newly Developed GreenTD against Red Tide Harmful Alga (GreenTD 물질을 이용한 유해 적조 발생 종의 선택적 살조능 평가)

  • Lee, Minji;Shin, Juyong;Kim, Jin Ho;Lim, Young Kyun;Cho, Hoon;Baek, Seung Ho
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.359-369
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    • 2018
  • Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a serious problem for public health and fisheries industries, thus there exists a need to investigate the possible ways for effective control of HABs. In the present study, we investigated the algicidal effects of a newly developed GreenTD against the HABs (Chattonella marina, Heterosigma akashiwo, Cochlodinium polykriokides, and Heterocapsa circularisquama) and non-HABs (Chaetoceros simplex, Skeletonema sp. and Tetraselmis sp.), which is focused on the different population density and concentration gradients of algicidal substances. The time series viability of target alga was assessed based on the activity of Chl. a photosynthetic efficiency in terms of $F_v/F_m$, and in vivo fluorescence (FSU). Effective control of Raphidophyta, C. marina and H. akashiwo was achieved at a GreenTD concentration of $0.5{\mu}gL^{-1}$ and $0.2{\mu}gL^{-1}$, respectively, and regrowth of both the species was not observed even after 14 days. The inhibitory ratio of the dinoflagellate, C. polykriokides was more than 80% at $0.2{\mu}gL^{-1}$ of GreenTD. H. circularisquama was constantly affected in the presence of $0.2{\mu}gL^{-1}$ of GreenTD in the high- and low-population density experimental groups. On the other hand, diatoms, C. simplex, and Skeletonema sp. were not significantly affected even in the presence of $0.2{\mu}gL^{-1}$ of GreenTD and exhibited re-growth activity with the passage of incubation time. In particular, green alga Tetraselmis sp. remained unaffected even in the presence of the highest concentration of GreenTD ($1.0{\mu}gL^{-1}$), implying that non-HABs were not greatly influenced by the algicidal substances. As a result, the algicidal activity of GreenTD on the harmful and nonharmful algae was as follows: raphidophyte>dinoflagellates>diatoms>green alga. Consequently, our results indicate that inoculation of GreenTD substances into natural blooms at a threshold concentration ($0.2{\mu}gL^{-1}$) can maximize the algicidal activity against HABs species. If we consider the dilution and diffusion rate in the field application, it is hypothesized that GreenTD will demonstrate economic efficiency, thus leading to effective control against the target HABs in the closed bay.

Application of GOCI to the Estimates of Primary Productivity in the Coastal Waters of the East Sea (동해 연안역 일차생산량 추정을 위한 GOCI 자료 적용)

  • Choi, Jong-kuk;Ahn, Jae-Hyun;Son, Young Baek;Hwang, Deuk-jae;Lee, Sun Ju
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.36 no.2_2
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    • pp.237-247
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    • 2020
  • Here, we generated maps of primary production in the coastal waters of the East Sea using sea surface chlorophyll-a concentrations (CHL), photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), euphotic depth induced by GOCI along with sea surface temperature (SST) from satellites of foreign countries as input parameters, and carried out a sensitivity analysis for each parameters. On 25th of July in 2013 when a wide cold waters appeared and on 13th of August in 2013 when a big harmful algal bloom existed in the study area, it shows high productivities with averages 1,012 and 1,945 mg C m-2 d-1, respectively. On August 25, 2013, when the cold waters and red tide retreated, it showed an average of 778 m-2 d-1, similar to the results of the previous analysis. As a result of the sensitivity analysis, PAR did not significantly affect the results of the primary production, but the euphotic depth and CHL showed aboveaverage sensitivity. In particular, SST had a large influence to the results, thus we could imply that an error in SST could lead to a large error in the primary production. This study showed that GOCI data was available for primary production study, and the accuracy of input parameters might be improved by applying GOCI, which can acquire images 8 times a day, making it more accurate than foreign polar orbit satellites and consequently, it is possible to estimate highly accurately primary production.

Regional Development And Dam Construction in Korea (한국의 지역개발과 댐건설)

  • 안경모
    • Water for future
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.38-42
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    • 1976
  • Because of differences in thoughts and ideology, our country, Korea has been deprived of national unity for some thirty years of time and tide. To achieve peaceful unification, the cultivation of national strength is of paramount importance. This national strength is also essential if Korea is to take rightful place in the international societies and to have the confidence of these societies. However, national strength can never be achieved in a short time. The fundamental elements in economic development that are directly conducive to the cultivation of national strength can be said to lie in -a stable political system, -exertion of powerful leadership, -cultivation of a spirit of diligence, self-help and cooperation, -modernization of human brain power, and -establishment of a scientific and well planned economic policy and strong enforcement of this policy. Our country, Korea, has attained brilliant economic development in the past 15 years under the strong leadership of president Park Chung Hee. However, there are still many problems to be solved. A few of them are: -housing and home problems, -increasing demand for employment, -increasing demand for staple food and -the need to improve international balance of payment. Solution of the above mentioned problems requires step by step scientific development of each sector and region of our contry. As a spearhead project in regional development, the Saemaul Campaign or new village movement can be cited. The campaign is now spreading throughout the country like a grass fire. However, such campaigns need considerable encouragement and support and the means for the desired development must be provided if the regional and sectoral development program is to sucdceed. The construction of large multipurpose dams in major river basin plays significant role in all aspects of national, regional and sectoral development. It ensures that the water resource, for which there is no substitute, is retained and utilized for irrigation of agricultural areas, production of power for industry, provision of water for domestic and industrial uses and control of river water. Water is the very essence of life and we must conserve and utilize what we have for the betterment of our peoples and their heir. The regional and social impact of construction of a large dam is enormous. It is intended to, and does, dras tically improve the "without-project" socio-economic conditions. A good example of this is the Soyanggang multipurpose dam. This project will significantly contribute to our national strength by utilizing the stored water for the benefit of human life and relief of flood and drought damages. Annual average precipitation in Korea is 1160mm, a comparatively abundant amount. The catchment areas of the Han River, Keum River, and Youngsan River are $62,755\textrm{km}^2$, accounting for 64% of the national total. Approximately 62% of the national population inhabits in this area, and 67% of the national gross product comes from the area. The annual population growth rate of the country is currently estimated at 1.7%, and every year the population growth in urban area increases at a rising rate. The population of Seoul, Pusan, and Taegu, the three major cities in Korea, is equal to one third of our national total. According to the census conducted on October 1, 1975, the population in the urban areas has increased by 384,000, whereas that in rural areas has decreased by 59,000,000 in the past five years. The composition of population between urban and rural areas varied from 41%~59% in 1959 to 48%~52% in 1975. To mitigate this treand towards concentration of population in urban areas, employment opportunities must be provided in regional and rural areas. However, heavy and chemical industries, which mitigate production and employment problems at the same time, must have abundant water and energy. Also increase in staple food production cannot be attained without water. At this point in time, when water demand is rapidly growing, it is essential for the country to provide as much a reservoir capacity as possible to capture the monsoon rainfall, which concentarated in the rainy seaon from June to Septesmber, and conserve the water for year round use. The floods, which at one time we called "the devil" have now become a source of immense benefit to Korea. Let me explain the topographic condition in Korea. In northern and eastern areas we have high mountains and rugged country. Our rivers originate in these mountains and flow in a general southerly or westerly direction throught ancient plains. These plains were formed by progressive deposition of sediments from the mountains and provide our country with large areas of fertile land, emminently suited to settlement and irrigated agricultural development. It is, therefore, quite natural that these areas should become the polar point for our regional development program. Hower, we are fortunate in that we have an additional area or areas, which can be used for agricultural production and settlement of our peoples, particularly those peoples who may be displaced by the formation of our reservoirs. I am speaking of the tidelands along the western and southern coasts. The other day the Ministry of Agriculture and Fishery informed the public of a tideland reclamation of which 400,000 hectares will be used for growing rice as part of our national food self-sufficiency programme. Now, again, we arrive at the need for water, as without it we cannot realize this ambitious programme. And again we need those dams to provide it. As I mentioned before, dams not only provide us with essential water for agriculture, domestic and industrial use, but provide us with electrical energy, as it is generally extremely economical to use the water being release for the former purposes to drive turbines and generators. At the present time we have 13 hydro-electric power plants with an installed capacity of 711,000 kilowatts equal to 16% of our national total. There are about 110 potential dams ites in the country, which could yield about 2,300,000 kilowatts of hydro-electric power. There are about 54 sites suitable for pumped storage which could produce a further 38,600,000 kilowatts of power. All available if we carefully develop our water resources. To summarize, water resource development is essential to the regional development program and the welfare of our people, it must proceed hand-in-hand with other aspects of regional development such as land impovement, high way extension, development of our forests, erosion control, and develop ment of heavy and chemical industries. Through the successful implementation of such an integrated regional development program, we can look forward to a period of national strength, and due recognition of our country by the worlds societies.

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Study on Forage Cropping System Adapted to Soil Characteristics in Reclaimed Tidal Land (간척지 토양특성에 알맞은 사료작물 작부체계 연구)

  • Yang, Chang-Hyu;Lee, Jang-Hee;Kim, Sun;Jeong, Jae-Hyeok;Baek, Nam-Hyun;Choi, Weon-Young;Lee, Sang-Bok;Kim, Young-Doo;Kim, Si-Ju;Lee, Gyeong-Bo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.385-392
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to find out the optimum cropping system for the stable production of forage crops in the newly reclaimed land located at Gwanghwal and Gyehwa region of Saemangum reclaimed tide land from October, 2009 to October, 2011. Whole crop barley (WCB), Rye, Italyan-ryegrass (IRG) as winter crops and Corn, Sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid (SSH) as summer crops were cultivated. Soil chemical properties, nutrient uptake, feed value, growth and yield were examinated. The testing soil was showed saline alkali soil where the contents of organic matter, available phosphate and exchangeable calcium were very low, while exchangeable sodium and magnesium were higher. Changes of soil salinity during the growing season of forage crops were less than 0.2%, and the growth of forage crops was not affected by salt injury. Standing rates of winter crops were higher in the order of Rye, WCB, and IRG, while the dry matter yield of winter crops was higher in the order of IRG, Rye and WCB. The highest crude protein (CP) content was recorded in IRG, and total digestive nutrients (TDN) contents were increased in the order of WCB, IRG, and Rye. The TDN content was higher in corn, whereas other feed value was higher in SSH. The content of mineral nutrients on stem, leaf and grain in IRG, Corn were high. After experiment pH was lowed, contents of exchangeable magnesium, sodium and organic matter were decreased while contents of total nitrogen, available phosphate and exchangeable potassium, calcium were increased. Winer crops and summer crops after continually cultivating in cropping system, fresh matter yield increased, compared to WCB-Corn (74,740 kg $ha^{-1}$), IRG-SSH 10%, IRG-Corn 7%, Rye-SSH 6%, Rye-Corn and WCB-SSH 3%. Dry matter yield increased, compared to WCB-Corn (20,280 kg $ha^{-1}$), IRG-SSH 7%, Rye-SSH 6%, IRG-Corn/Rye-Corn/WCB-SSH 3%. The TDN yield increased, compared to WCB-Corn (13,830 kg $ha^{-1}$), IRG-SSH 2%, WCB-SSH and IRG-Corn 1%. Therefore, we suggest that the crop combination of IRG-SSH and WCB-SSH would be preferred for silage stable production.