• Title, Summary, Keyword: High gamma index

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Effects of Sterilizing Methods on the Content of Index .Constituents of Herbal Medicines (품질 보증을 위한 멸균법이 수종 생약의 지표성분 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeong, Choon-Sik;Cho, So-Yean;Lee, Yong-Soo
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.50 no.6
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    • pp.415-420
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study was to develop the best methods to sterilize herbal medicines which is frequently used and known to have high susceptibility to microbial contamination. We used dry heat, gamma irradiation and alcohol gas treatment for sterilization, and evaluated these methods in terms of the followings; i) the efficacy of sterilization, and ii) the chemical alteration of index constituents of herbal medicines. Treatment with dry heat effectively eliminated the contaminated microorganisms, and did not significantly alter the content of berberine chloride, paeoniflorin and amygdalin in Phellodendron Bark, Peony Root and Apricot Kernel, respectively: However it seriously changed the color and morphology which are essential criteria to estimate a measure of quality of herbal medicines. Treatment with gamma irradiation showed a strong sterilizing effect, and no alteration of the content of index constituents, color and morphology: Alcohol gas treatment resulted in similar effects as those in gamma irradiation. Collectively; these results suggest that treatment with gamma irradiation or alcohol gas may be useful methods for sterilizing herbal medicines without a decrease in their microbial quality.

EEG Change Analysis on TBA Application (TBA착용 전후의 뇌파 변화 관찰)

  • Cho, Hyunseok
    • Journal of TMJ Balancing Medicine
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of TMJ Balancing Appliance (TBA) on healthy humans by using power spectral analysis of Electroencephalogram (EEG). Methods: 50 healthy volunteers participated in this study. A thirty-two channel EEG device was used for this study on 50 subjects (28 males, 22 females; mean age=25.3 years old). Results: 19 channel was measured and analysed. The relative power values in ${\alpha}$, ${\beta}$, ${\gamma}$, Senorimotor rhythm (SMR), mid-${\beta}$, high-${\beta}$ band and concentration index ((SMR wave+Mid-${\beta}$ wave)/${\theta}$) increased insignificantly. Relaxation index (${\alpha}$/High-${\beta}$ wave) increased significantly (p<0.05) comparing to the before the TBA application. After the TBA application, the relative power values in ${\alpha}$, ${\beta}$, ${\gamma}$, SMR (Senorimotor rhythm), mid-${\beta}$, high-${\beta}$ band and concentration index ((SMR wave+Mid-${\beta}$ wave)/${\theta}$) increased insignificantly. Relaxation index (${\alpha}$/High-${\beta}$ wave) increased significantly (p<0.01) comparing to the before the TBA application. Conclusions: These results suggest that TBA application causes significant changes on relaxation index. Application of TBA shall regulate the function of the cerebral cortex increase parasympathetic nervous activity.

GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM BLAZARS

  • TAKAHARA FUMIO
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.29 no.spc1
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    • pp.99-102
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    • 1996
  • I discuss implications of gamma-ray emission from blazars based on electron acceleration by shock waves in a relativistic jet. The number spectrum of electrons turns out to be a broken power law; while at low energies the power law index has a universal value of 2, at high energies it steepens to an index of 3 because of strong radiative cooling. This spectrum can basically reproduce the observed spectral break between X-rays and gamma-rays. I show that energetics of relativistic jets can be well explained by this model. I estimate physical quantities of the relativistic jets by comparing the prediction with observations. The results show that the jets are particle dominated and are comprised of electron-positron pairs. A connection between gamma-ray emission and radiation drag is also discussed.

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Computer-Aided Alloy Design of Insert Metal for Transient Liquid Phase Bonding of High Aluminum Ni-base Superalloys

  • Nishimotd, Kazutoshi;Saida, Kazuyoshi
    • Proceedings of the KWS Conference
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    • pp.803-808
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    • 2002
  • A computer-aided alloy-designing technique to develop the insert metal for transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding was applied to high aluminum Ni-base superalloys. The main procedure of a mathematical programming method was to obtain the optimal chemical composition through rationally compromising the plural objective performances of insert metal by a grid-search which involved data estimation from the limited experimental data using interpolation method. The objective function Z which was introduced as an index of bonding performance of insert metal involved the melting point, hardness (strength), formability of brittle phases and void ratio (bonding defects) in bond layer as the evaluating factors. The contour maps of objective function Z were also obtained applying the interpolation method. The compositions of Ni-3.0%Cr-4.0%B-0.5%Ce (for ${\gamma}$/${\gamma}$/${\beta}$ type alloy) and Ni3.5%Cr-3.5%B-3%Ti (for ${\gamma}$/${\gamma}$ type alloy) which optimized the objective function were determined as insert metal. SEM observations revealed that the microstructure in bond layers using the newly developed insert metals indicated quite sound morphologies without forming microconstituents and voids. The creep rupture properties of both joints were much improved compared to a commercial insert metal of MBF-80 (Ni-15.5%Cr-3.7%B), and were fairly comparable to those of base metals.

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ON CONSTRUCTING A HIGHER-ORDER EXTENSION OF DOUBLE NEWTON'S METHOD USING A SIMPLE BIVARIATE POLYNOMIAL WEIGHT FUNCTION

  • LEE, SEON YEONG;KIM, YOUNG IK
    • Journal of the Chungcheong Mathematical Society
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.491-497
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    • 2015
  • In this paper, we have suggested an extended double Newton's method with sixth-order convergence by considering a control parameter ${\gamma}$ and a weight function H(s, u). We have determined forms of ${\gamma}$ and H(s, u) in order to induce the greatest order of convergence and established the main theorem utilizing related properties. The developed theory is ensured by numerical experiments with high-precision computation for a number of test functions.

Analysis of radioactivity levels and hazard assessment of black sand samples from Rashid area, Egypt

  • Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed A.E.;El-Mongy, Sayed A.
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.49 no.8
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    • pp.1752-1757
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    • 2017
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the radioactivity levels and radiological impacts of representative black sand samples collected from different locations in the Rashid area, Egypt. These samples were prepared and then analyzed using the high-resolution gamma ray spectroscopy technique with a high-purity germanium detector. The activity concentration ($A_c$), minimum detectable activity, absorbed gamma dose rate, external hazard index ($H_{ex}$), annual effective dose rate equivalent, radium equivalent, as well as external and internal hazard index ($H_{ex}$ and $H_{in}$, respectively) were estimated based on the measured radionuclide concentration of the $^{238}U$($^{226}Ra$) and $^{232}Th$ decay chains and $^{40}K$. The activity concentrations of the $^{238}U$, $^{232}Th$ decay series and $^{40}K$ of these samples varied from $45.11{\pm}3.1Bq/kg$ to $252.38{\pm}34.3Bq/kg$, from $64.65{\pm}6.1Bq/kg$ to $579.84{\pm}53.1Bq/kg$, and from $403.36{\pm}20.8Bq/kg$ to $527.47{\pm}23.1Bq/kg$, respectively. The activity concentration of $^{232}Th$ in Sample 1 has the highest value compared to the other samples; this value is also higher than the worldwide mean range as reported by UNSCEAR 2000. The total absorbed gamma dose rate and the annual effective dose for these samples were found to vary from 81.19 nGy/h to 497.81 nGy/h and from $99.86{\mu}Sv/y$ to $612.31{\mu}Sv/y$, which are higher than the world average values of 59 nGy/h and $70{\mu}Sv/y$, respectively. The $H_{ex}$ values were also calculated to be 3.02, 0.47, 0.63, 0.87, 0.87, 0.51 and 0.91. It was found that the calculated value of $H_{ex}$ for Sample 1 is significantly higher than the international acceptable limit of <1. The results are tabulated, depicted, and discussed within national and international frameworks, levels, and approaches.

Application of Quantitative Indices for Urban Environment Analysis in the Consideration of Remote Sensed Imagery: Accessibility and Connectivity

  • Lee, Ki-Won;Oh, Se-Kyung
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
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    • pp.228-230
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    • 2003
  • In this study, uses of remote sensed imagery in urban environment analysis are represented with the actual processed results with newly implemented programs running under ESRI ArcView-GIS to extract secondary information about mainly urban transportation environment. Implemented programs are about Accessibility index and Connectivity index. Accessibility index and Connectivity index are composed of four types of different algorithms and three types of algorithms such as alpha, gamma, and shimmel index. As show applied examples, tried to find out how remotely sensed imageries can be effectively utilized at actual processing in the direct or indirect ways in these algorithms.

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Polysaccharide Extracted from Rheum Tanguticum Prevents Irradiation-induced Immune Damage in Mice

  • Liu, Lin-Na;Guo, Zhi-Wei;Zhang, Yan;Qin, Hua;Han, Yan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.1401-1405
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    • 2012
  • Aim: To investigate the protective effect of purified fraction 1 polysaccharide extracted from Rheum tanguticum RTP1 on irradiation-induced immune damage in mice. Methods: Kunming mice were randomly divided into five groups: normal group (NC), irradiation control group (IC), RTP1 low dose (200 mg/kg), middle dose (400 mg/kg) and high dose (800 mg/kg) groups. RTP1 was adminstered by the gastric route for 14 d, mice in the NC and IC groups being given by 0.9% sodium chloride solution in the same way. The mice in all groups except NC group were irradiated with 2.0 Gy $^{60}Co{\gamma}$-ray on the fourteenth day. Immune indives of non-specific immune function, cellular immunity and humoral immunity were assessed at the 24th hour after radiation. Results: Compared with the IC group, the spleen index, thymus index, rate of carbon clearance, phagocytic function of macrophages, lymphocyte proliferation, hemolysin value of blood serum and NK activity were increased markedly (P < 0.05 or P < 0.05). Conclusion: RTP1 has an obvious protective effects on damage in ${\gamma}$-ray radiated mice.

Evaluation of the accuracy of the HexaPOD evo RT system using Non-coplanar beams in lung cancer (폐암환자의 비동일평면 선속 빔 치료 시 HexaPOD evo RT system 의 정확성 평가)

  • Jang, Sewuk;cho, Kangchul;Lee, Sangkyoo;Kim, Jooho;Cho, Jeonghee
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.115-122
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    • 2015
  • Purpose : The aim of this study, evaluate the accuracy of HeaxPOD evo RT system using the non-coplanar beam. Materials and Methods : 13 treatment plans are used which applied non-coplanar beams and 10 treatment plans which coplanar beams are used. the correction value what adjust to 6D couch is determined by each patient's setup errors only rotation direction. The study executed followings. first, Applying the correction value, measure the point dose and calculate the ${\gamma}$-index(${\gamma}=3%$ / 3 mm, ${\gamma}=2%$ / 2 mm). second, acquire data as previous methods without correction by HexaPOD. Results : For comparing the two results, we find out the more precise applying HexaPOD by point dose 0.2% in coplanar and non-coplanar. in the case of ${\gamma}$-index<1(${\gamma}=3%$ / 3 mm), more precise 2.2% in coplanar and 7% in Non-coplanar. Particularly, ${\gamma}$-index<1(2% / 2 mm) show the difference 9.2% in coplanar and 15.1% non-coplanar between apply HexaPOD and dose not apply HexaPOD. Conclusion : Using the HexaPOD is more precise than without HexaPOD. It suggests that HexaPOD evo RT system is very useful for precise and high dose delivery.

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Effect of Gamma-Irradiation Sterilization on the Creep and Wear of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (감마선 멸균처리가 초고분자량 폴리에틸렌의 크리프와 마모에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Kwon-Yong;Lee, Soo-Cheol;Lee, Keun-Ho
    • Proceedings of the KOSOMBE Conference
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    • v.1998 no.11
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    • pp.90-91
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    • 1998
  • The influence of gamma-irradiation sterilization on the creep and wear performance of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) was investigated by conducting the dynamic compressive creep tests and pin-on-disc sliding wear tests. The changes of microstructure property, relative crystallinity, oxidation index, percent crosslinking, were also measured and the relationship between these and creep and wear results was discussed.

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