• Title, Summary, Keyword: High forage diet

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Effect of Feeding High Forage Diets with Supplemental Fat on Blood Metabolites, Rumen Fermentation and Dry Matter Digestibility in Dairy Cows

  • Abdullah, M.;Young, J.W.;Tyler, H.D.;Mohiuddin, G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.451-456
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    • 2000
  • Fifty mid-lactation Holstein cows were used in a six-week feeding trial to study effects of high-forage, and high-fat diets on blood constituents, rumen fermentation and dry matter digestibility. Cows were divided into 10 replicates, each consisting of five cows. Each cow was assigned to a control (diet 1) or one of the four experimental diets (high-forage (75%), high-fat (7.5%) (diet 2); high-forage. medium-fat (5.0%) (diet 3); medium forage (65%), high-fat (diet 4); medium-forage, medium-fat (diet 5)), or a control diet containing about 50% forage and 2% fat. All diets were isonitrogenous (17.7% crude protein). The forage mixture consisted of 20% alfalfa hay, 40% alfalfa haylage, and 40% corn silage. Supplemental fat included 80% rumen-protected fat and 20% yellow grease. A non-significant difference was observed in concentrations of blood glucose for cows on different experimental and control diets. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were higher in cows consuming experimental diets than those consuming the control diet. However, differences in NEFA concentrations in the plasma of cows consuming diets with different forage and fat levels were not significant. Rumen pH, concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in rumen contents, and dry matter digestibility of control and experimental diets, and diets with different levels of forage and supplemental fat did not differ significantly.

Effects of Feeding High Forage Diets and Supplemental Fat on Feed Intake and Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows

  • Abdullah, M.;Young, J.W.;Tyler, H.D.;Mohiuddin, G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.457-463
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    • 2000
  • Fifty mid-lactation Holstein cows were used in a six-week feeding trial to study effects of high-forage, high-fat diets on dry matter intake and production performance. Cows were divided into 10 replicates, each consisting of five cows. Each cow was assigned to a control (diet 1) or one of the four experimental diets (high-forage (75%), high-fat (7.5%) (diet 2); high-forage, medium-fat (5%) (diet 3); medium forage (65%), high-fat (diet 4); medium-forage, medium-fat (diet 5)), or a control diet containing about 50% forage and 2% fat. All diets were isonitrogenous (17.7% crude protein). The forage mixture consisted of 20% alfalfa hay, 40% alfalfa haylage, and 40% com silage. Supplemental fat included 80% rumen-protected fat and 20% yellow grease. Dry matter intake was decreased (p<0.01) in cows fed experimental diets (18.4, 20.9, 19.9, and 22.6 kg for cows fed diets 1-4, respectively vs. 27.5 kg for cows fed the control diet). Daily milk production was lower (p<0.05) for cows consuming experimental diets (30.5, 31.3, 31.0, and 32.5 kg for cows fed greater for cows consuming experimental diets (1.74, 1.55, 1.60, and 1.53 kg milk/kg dry matter intake for cows fed diets 1-4, respectively, vs. 1.26 kg milk/kg dry matter intake for cows fed the control diet).

The carryover effects of high forage diet in bred heifers on feed intake, feed efficiency and milk production of primiparous lactating Holstein cows

  • Chemere, Befekadu;Lee, Bae Hun;Nejad, Jalil Ghassemi;Kim, Byong Wan;Sung, Kyung Il
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.208-215
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    • 2017
  • This study was designed to investigate the carryover effects of high-forage to concentrate (F: C) diet in bred heifers on feed intake, feed efficiency (FE) and milk production of primiparous lactating Holstein cows. The experiment was conducted for 589 days (d) from onset of pregnancy through to the end of first lactation. Twenty-four bred heifers (Body weight: $BW=345.8{\pm}45.4kg$ and $15{\pm}1.2mon$ of age) randomly assigned to two groups of 3 pens containing 4 heifers each and fed high forage (HF) diet with F: C ratio of 91.7: 8.3% and low forage (LF) diet with F: C ratio of 77.8: 22.2% throughout the pregnancy period. After calving, lactating cows were fed total mixed ration (TMR) based diet. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed in dry matter intake (DMI) of bred heifers and primiparous lactating cows in both HF and LF groups. The FE of mid-to-late lactation period was higher (p< 0.05) in HF than LF group. However, the HF group showed higher (p < 0.05) milk yield, 4 % fat corrected milk (FCM) and energy corrected milk (ECM) than LF group during the 305 d lactation. The LF group showed higher (p < 0.05) milk fat, crude protein (CP), milk urea nitrogen (MUN), solid not fat (SNF) and somatic cell count (SCC) than HF group. It is concluded that restriction of F: C ratio to 91.7: 8.3% to bred heifers has the potential carryover effects to maintain higher milk yield and FE with no adverse effect on feed intake and milk composition of primiparous lactating Holstein cows.

The Effect of Forage Level and Oil Supplement on Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Anaerovibrio lipolytica in Continuous Culture Fermenters

  • Gudla, P.;Ishlak, A.;Abughazaleh, A.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.234-239
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of forage level and oil supplement on selected strains of rumen bacteria believed to be involved in biohydrogenation (BH). A continuous culture system consisting of four fermenters was used in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design with a factorial arrangement of treatments, with four 10 d consecutive periods. Treatment diets were: i) high forage diet (70:30 forage to concentrate (dry matter basis); HFC), ii) high forage plus oil supplement (HFO), iii) low forage diet (30:70 forage to concentrate; LFC), and iv) low forage plus oil supplement (LFO). The oil supplement was a blend of fish oil and soybean oil added at 1 and 2 g/100 g dry matter, respectively. Treatment diets were fed for 10 days and samples were collected from each fermenter on the last day of each period 3 h post morning feeding. The concentrations of vaccenic acid (t11C18:1; VA) and c9t11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were greater with the high forage diet while the concentrations of t10 C18:1 and t10c12 CLA were greater with the low forage diet and addition of oil supplement increased their concentrations at both forage levels. The DNA abundance of Anaerovibrio lipolytica, and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens vaccenic acid subgroup (Butyrivibrio VA) were lower with the low forage diets but not affected by oil supplement. The DNA abundance of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens stearic acid producer subgroup (Butyrivibrio SA) was not affected by forage level or oil supplement. In conclusion, oil supplement had no effects on the tested rumen bacteria and forage level affected Anaerovibrio lipolytica and Butyrivibrio VA.

Effect of Disodium Fumarate on In vitro Rumen Fermentation of Different Substrates and Rumen Bacterial Communities as Revealed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Analysis of 16S Ribosomal DNA

  • Mao, S.Y.;Zhang, G.;Zhu, W.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.543-549
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    • 2007
  • Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of disodium fumarate on the in vitro rumen fermentation profiles of different substrates and microbial communities. In experiment 1, nine diets (high-forage diet (forage:concentrate, e.g. F:C = 7:3, DM basis), medium-forage diet (F:C = 5:5, DM basis), low-forage diet(F:C = 1:9, DM basis), cracked corn, cracked wheat, soluble starch, tall elata (Festuca elata), perennial ryegrass and rice straw) were fermented in vitro by rumen microorganisms from local goats. The results showed that during 24 h incubations, for all substrates, disodium fumarate increased (p<0.05) the gas production, and tended to increase (p<0.10) the acetate, propionate and total VFA concentration and decrease the ratio of acetate to propionate, whereas no treatment effect was observed for the lactate concentration. The apparent DM loss for tall elata, perennial ryegrass and rice straw increased (p<0.05) with the addition of disodium fumarate. With the exception of tall elata, perennial ryegrass and rice straw, disodium fumarate addition increased the final pH (p<0.05) for all substrates. In experiment 2, three substrates (a high-forage diet, a medium-forage diet and a high concentrate diet) were fermented by mixed rumen microbes in vitro. A polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technique was applied to compare microbial DNA fingerprints between substrates at the end of 24 h incubation. The results showed that when Festuca elata was used as substrate, the control and disodium fumarate treatments had similar DGGE profiles, with their similarities higher than 96%. As the ratio of concentrate increased, however, the similarities in DGGE profiles decreased between the control and disodium fumarate treatment. Overall, these results suggest that disodium fumarate is effective in increasing the pH and gas production for the diets differing in forage: concentrate ratio, grain cereals and soluble starch, and in increasing dry matter loss for the forages (tall elata, perennial ryegrass and rice straw) in vitro, whereas its effect on changes of ruminal microbial community may largely depend on the general nature of the substrate.

Effects of Forage Feeding Levels on the Udder Volume, Serum Hormone Level and Lactation Characteristics in Dairy Cows: From Growing to Lactating Phase (Holstein 젖소에서 조사료 급여 수준이 유방크기, 호르몬 및 산유특성에 미치는 영향: 육성기부터 비유기까지)

  • Lee, Byung-Woo;Sugathan, Subi;Singh, Naresh Kumar;Yoon, Sei-Hyung;Yoon, Byung-Il
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.319-326
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    • 2013
  • In the present study, we investigated the effects of high forage diets on the volume of udder, hormone level in blood, and lactation characteristics in the Holstein dairy cow. We divided into two groups; high forage diet [HF, concentrate: forage=4:6 n=41] and low forage diet [LF, 6:4 n=21]. Five cows were selected from each group based on their age for measuring the udder volume and the serum levels of estradiol and progesterone. Lactation characteristics were compared between HF and LF. The udder volume was 2.5 fold larger in HF at early gestation (p<0.01), but no difference was noted afterward. For the hormone levels, no significant difference was found between the groups. In HF, milk yield was significantly increased and maintained high longer, while somatic cell count was approximately 50% lower. Meanwhile, the milk fat content was significantly lower in HF during early lactating phase (p<0.001), but there was no difference thereafter. For milk protein and solid content, and MUN, no differences were found between the groups during lactation. Our results indicated that feeding high forage diets to dairy cows can increase milk yield and quality without notable changes in the udder volume and hormone level.

Effects of Alfalfa and Brown Mid-rib Corn Silage and Level of Forage Neutral Detergent Fiber on Animal Performance of Lactating Cows in Michigan

  • Min, Doo-Hong;Bucholtz, Herb;Naasz, Paul
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.373-377
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    • 2007
  • Alfalfa silage and corn silage are the major dairy feeds in most dairy operations in Michigan, USA. In recent years, the need to improve digestible fiber and dry matter intake of forages to meet the nutrient requirements of high yielding dairy cows and the willingness to plant corn specifically for silage has led plant breeders to focus on the brown mid-rib (BMR) trait. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different ratio of alfalfa to BMR corn silage and ration level of forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on animal performance of lactating cows in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. This study was conducted at the Upper Peninsula Experiment Station of Michigan State University in Chatham, Michigan, USA. Two different ratios of forage type (high alfalfa silage/low BMR corn silage, AS, and high BMR corn silage/low alfalfa silage, BMRCS) and two different dietary NDF contents (27% NDF, 27 = low forage/high grain feeding, and 33% NDF, 33 = high forage/low grain feeding) were used. The experimental design was a $4{\times}4$ Latin Square with 20 milking cows (12 multiparous and 8 primiparous). This trial had four 21-day periods with 14 d adaptation and 7 d data collection. Milk yield and body condition score (BCS) on the AS-27, BMRCS-27 and BMRCS-33 treatments were significantly (p<0.05) higher than on the AS-33 treatment. Dry matter intake of the AS-27 and BMRCS-27 treatments was significantly (p<0.05) higher than for the AS-33 and BMRCS-33 treatments. Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) on the AS-33 treatment was significantly (p<0.05) higher than on the other diet treatments. A key finding of this study was that the BMRCS-33 (higher amounts of brown mid-rib corn silage than alfalfa silage, high forage and low grain feeding diet at 33% NDF) led to the equal highest milk production whilst having the equal lowest dry matter intake. This study demonstrated that the diet with higher ratio of highly digestible NDF forage such as brown mid-rib corn silage to alfalfa silage could lower grain feeding in the ration.

Effects of Feeding High- and Low- Forage Diets Containing Different Forage Sources on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Blood Parameters in Non-Pregnant Dry Holstein Cows

  • Peng, Jing Lun;Kim, Byong Wan;Lee, Bae Hun;Nejad, Jalil Ghassemi;Sung, Kyung Il
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2017
  • This research was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding high and low forage diets with different forage sources on rumen fermentation characteristics and blood parameters of Holstein cows during the dry period. Eight Holstein cows were completely randomized assigned to two groups and repeated measurement was utilized in the analysis. Cows in two treatments were fed with diets with high (F:C = 70:30, 70F; forage source: mixed-sowing whole crop barley and Italian ryegrass silage, BIRG) and low (F:C = 55:45, 55F; forage source: tall fescue hay, TF) forage level. Rumen fluid pH was higher in 70F group. Levels of acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid showed a similar pattern: from the lowest value at 07:30 h to the highest at 10:30 h and then decreased in both groups. The ratio of acetic acid to propionic acid was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in 55F group at 09:30 and 10:30 h. Rumen fluid $NH_3-N$ concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in 70F group at 09:30 and 10:30 h. Blood urea nitrogen was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in 70F group. It was concluded that BIRG based diet with a high forage level had no adverse effects on rumen fermentation, some blood chemical parameters, and immune system in dry Holstein cows and could be used as a forage source instead of imported TF.

Effects of Natural Grass Forage to Concentrate Ratios and Feeding Principles on Milk Production and Performance of Crossbred Lactating Cows

  • Sanh, M.V.;Wiktorsson, H.;Ly, L.V.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.650-657
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    • 2002
  • Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of forage:concentrate ratios and feeding principles on milk yield, milk composition, body weight change, postpartum oestrus and feed cost. A total of 36 crossbred F1 cows (Holstein Friesian${\times}$Local Yellow) in the 8th week of lactation were used. In each experiment, animals were divided into three groups using a randomized block design according to the milk yield of the previous eight weeks. Cows were fed 30, 50 and 70% concentrate in the diet based on DM. In experiment 1 (Fc), cows were given the same amount of DM with constant ratios of forage and concentrate within treatments. In experiment 2 (Fa), cows were given the same constant amounts of concentrate as in experiment 1 and ad libitum forage. The forage consisted of a natural grass mixture based on 5 species of grasses with high nutritive values. There was no difference in total DM intake between treatments within experiments. However, cows fed forage ad libitum had higher DM intakes compared to cows fed constant forage (1.6, 4.5 and 9.5% for cows fed 70, 50 and 30% forage, respectively). Daily milk yield of cows fed forage ad libitum was higher than that of cows fed constant forage:concentrate ratio. Within experiment, milk yield was highest for cows fed 30% DM forage, followed by cows fed 50% and then cows fed 70% forage (11.17, 10.98 and 10.71 for the 30Fc, 50Fc and 70Fc cows; 11.73, 11.16 and 10.81 kg for the 30Fa, 50Fa and 70Fa cows, respectively). Decreased forage ratio in the diets resulted in decreased milk fat content and tended to increase milk protein. Increased concentrate ratio in the diet and feeding forage ad libitum increased body weight gain. The effect of forage:concentrate ratio on postpartum oestrus was not significant. The feed cost per kg milk produced was lowest for the cows fed 70% forage. It is concluded that increased ratio of concentrate resulted in increased body weight gain, milk yield, milk protein, and decreased milk fat. Feeding forage ad libitum increased feed intake, milk yield and body weight gain. The ratio of 50% forage is more suitable for milk production and animal condition, but in terms of feed cost and under the conditions of small dairy farmers, the 70% ad libitum forage feeding is recommended.

Effects of Black Sugar® and Mineral® Supplementation on Growth performance and Meat Quality of Hamwoo Steers in Fattening Period

  • Kim, Kwan Sik;Lee, Sang Moo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.202-208
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    • 2014
  • This study was carried out investigate the effects of dietary addition of mineral and sugar on the dry matter intake, daily gain, yield grade and quality grade of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) steers. Three diets fed to steers included a control diet (concentrate mix and rice straw : C) and two treatments diet (control diet + black sugar 100 g + mineral 100 g : T1, and control diet + black sugar 150 g + mineral 50 g : T2). The results are summarized as follows; total feeding intake, body weight gain and daily gain did not show significant differences among the three treatments. Cold carcass weight was significantly (p<0.05) higher in T2 than in the other two treatments (C and T1). There was no significant difference in yield traits of back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area and yield grade among the three treatments (C, T1 and T2). Marbling score showed significantly (p<0.05) higher in order of T2 (5.67) > T1 (4.67) > C (3.67). Meat color, fat color, texture and maturity were no significant difference. Quality grade was higher in T2 than in the other two treatments (C and T1), but there was no significant difference. The results show that marbling score and quality grade of Hanwoo can be increased by high dry matter intake with feeding addition of mineral and sugar.