• Title, Summary, Keyword: Heterotrophic plate count

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Reduction of bacterial regrowth in treated water by minimizing water stagnation in the filtrate line of a gravity-driven membrane system

  • Yi, JongChan;Lee, Jonghun;Jung, Hyejin;Park, Pyung-Kyu;Noh, Soo Hong
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.17-23
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    • 2019
  • This study monitored changes in the level of heterotrophic bacteria in the filtrate and investigated the effect of stagnant water on it, using a batch-operated, gravity-driven membrane system for household water treatment. The filtration test was carried out in the presence and absence of stagnant water in the filtrate line. The results showed that stagnant water accelerated the heterotrophic bacteria levels, measured by heterotrophic plate count, even though the heterotrophic plate count of the filtrate finally increased up to $10^5CFU/mL$ regardless of the presence of stagnant water. When the change in heterotrophic plate count of a batch was monitored over filtration time, heterotrophic plate count of the filtrate rapidly decreased within 5 min for each batch filtration. Biofilm formation on the filtrate line was observed in the presence of stagnant water. The biofilm fully covered the filtrate line and contained numerous microorganisms. During storage after filtration, heterotrophic plate count increased exponentially. To improve the filtrate quality of a filtration-based household water treatment system, therefore, the stagnant water in the filtrate line should be minimized, the filtrate produced at the first 5 min is recommended not to be used as potable water, and the storage of filtrate should be avoided.

Analysis of Effects of Factors Influencing Biofilm Formation in Drinking Water Distribution Pipe Using Factorial Experimental Design (요인실험계획을 이용한 수도관 생물막 형성 영향 인자의 효과 분석)

  • Park, Se-Keun;Choi, Sung-Chan;Kim, Yeong-Kwan
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.181-192
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    • 2005
  • This study evaluated the effect of factors influencing the initial biofilm formation in drinking water distribution pipe by running experiments using a $2^{4-1}$ fractional factorial experimental design with a replicate. Important variables used for assessing biofilm formation included BDOC(biodegradable dissolved organic carbon), viable heterotrophic bacteria present in drinking water, water temperature, and shear stress at two levels each. Based on the statistical analysis of biofilm levels measured as attached HPC(heterotrophic plate count) and community-level assay, the main factors that have significant effects on biofilm formation were found to be viable heterotrophic bacteria and BDOC. Water temperature only exhibited significant effect on the levels of attached HPC, while shear stress was not a significant factor under given conditions. Moreover, the statistical analysis revealed that interactions between the important variables were not statistically significant at a 0.05 significance level.

Change of Microbiological Quality according to Various Storage Conditions in the Drinking Process of Bottled Mineral Water (먹는 샘물의 개봉 후 음용과정에서의 보관 조건에 따른 미생물학적 수질 변화)

  • Bae, Kyung-Seon;Kim, Jihye;Jang, JunHyeong;Kim, Jeong Myeong;Lee, Wonseok;Chung, Hyen-Mi;Park, Sangjung
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.499-508
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    • 2017
  • Objective: This study was conducted to investigate changes in microbiological quality according to various storage conditions in the drinking process of bottled mineral water. Methods: Heterotrophic plate counts ($21^{\circ}C$ and $36^{\circ}C$) and pathogenic indicators (total coliforms, fecal Streptococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella, and Shigella) were analyzed in commercial bottled mineral water stored under different conditions ($4^{\circ}C$, $20-25^{\circ}C$, $36^{\circ}C$) after injecting saliva. The heterotrophic plate counts were analyzed twice per day for the first week and once per day for the three weeks after. Pathogenic indicators were analyzed at the beginning and end (initial and final). Results: The results of the microbiological quality of the bottled mineral water in contact with saliva showed that heterotrophic plate counts ($21^{\circ}C$) had a tendency to be sustained or decrease slightly after 10 days. Heterotrophic plate counts ($36^{\circ}C$) had a high population in the initial samples and gradually decreased at $4^{\circ}C$ storage, but it remained constantly high in storage at $20-25^{\circ}C$ and $36^{\circ}C$. In the general drinking condition, the population was slightly higher than the control, but the overall trend was similar. Conclusions: As a result of the microbiological quality of mineral bottled water in contact with saliva during the process of drinking, heterotrophic plate counts ($21^{\circ}C$ and $36^{\circ}C$) showed a high population compared to the control, which was only opened and not in contact with saliva. In some samples, pathogenic indicators were also detected. Therefore, it is desirable to consume bottled mineral water as soon as possible after opening.

Bacterial Distribution and Variation in Water Supply Systems (상수도계통에서의 세균 분포 및 변화)

  • 박성주;조재창;김상종
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.245-254
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    • 1993
  • Distribution and variation of bacterial densities of heterotrophic plate count (HPC) and Enterobacteriaceae in the water supply systems comprising raw, treated, and three tap water samples of a water treatment plant in Seoul were studied 23 times from 1991 to 1992. HPC bacteria of raw. treated, and tap waters on $R_{2}A$ agar media were at a density of $1.22{\times}10^{3} to 3.05{\times}10^{5}$, $1.50{\times}10^{1} to 4.29{\times}10^{3}$ and 2 to $5.41{\times}10^{3}$ cfu/ml, respectively. Densities of Enterobacteriaceae in raw, treated, and tap waters on mENDO-LES agar media ranged from 0.] to 8200 cfu/ml, 0 to 17.5 cfu/JOO mI. and 0 to 47.5 cfu/IOO ml, respectively. Injured Enterobacteriaceae of treated and tap waters on m-T7 agar media were at a density of o to 27 and 0 to 35 cfu/100 mI. These results showed that the density of bacteria in the treated water outflowing from the water plant significantly increased as the water flowed along the distribution sytems, which is so-called bacterial regrowth. The predominant bacteria] types in the water supply system were Pw'udomonas and Acinerobacter. In raw water, the ratio of Pseudomonas was higher than that of Acinetobaeter, but in treated and tap waters. both ratios were reversed. The most predominant species of Enterobacteriaceae was Enterobacter agglomerans. Some species such as Citrobacter freundii. Escherichia coli. Klebsiella pneumoniae. and Shigella dysenteriae which are opportunistic pathogens or pathogens were not found in the treated water but additionally detected in tap waters.

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Influence of Pipe Materials and VBNC Cells on Culturable Bacteria in a Chlorinated Drinking Water Model System

  • Lee, Dong-Geun;Park, Seong-Joo;Kim, Sang-Jong
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.1558-1562
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    • 2007
  • To elucidate the influence of pipe materials on the VBNC (viable but nonculturable) state and bacterial numbers in drinking water, biofilm and effluent from stainless steel, galvanized iron, and polyvinyl chloride pipe wafers were analyzed. Although no HPC (heterotrophic plate count) was detected in the chlorinated influent of the model system, a DVC (direct viable count) still existed in the range between 3- and 4-log cells/ml. Significantly high numbers of HPC and DVC were found both in biofilm and in the effluent of the model system. The pipe material, exposure time, and the season were all relevant to the concentrations of VBNC and HPC bacteria detected. These findings indicate the importance of determining the number of VBNC cells and the type of pipe materials to estimate the HPC concentration in water distribution systems and thus the need of determining a DVC in evaluating disinfection efficiency.

Relationships between levels of heterotrophic plate count bacteria and endotoxin in point-of-use water treatment systems

  • Moon, Kyong-Whan;Kim, Young-Whan;Shon, Jong-Ryeul
    • Proceedings of the Korean Environmental Health Society Conference
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    • pp.132-135
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    • 2003
  • Endotoxin concentrations were measured from 69 point-of-use(POU) water treatment system(WTS) by using Limulus amebocyte lysate(LAL) assay, and the results were compared to heterotrophic bacterial data. Endotoxin concentrations in all POU WTS water samples and tap waters varied within the range 0.8-79.1EU mL$\^$-1/ and 0.1-3.4EU mL$\^$-1/, respectively, The correlations between endotoxin concentration and HPC bacteria from the water samples showed not significant(r=0.18).

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Assessment of microbial quality in household water tanks in Dubai, United Arab Emirates

  • Khan, Munawwar Ali;AlMadani, Asma Mohammad Abdulrahman Ahmad
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.55-60
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    • 2017
  • Provision of safe, accessible, and good water quality in the community is an important step towards reducing various waterborne illnesses. However, improving the quality of water should include spreading awareness to the public regarding the importance of cleaning their household water tanks. The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial quality of water of household water tanks in Dubai. The water samples from household water tanks were collected from forty houses, and a questionnaire was given to the residents to determine the history of the water tanks. The membrane filtration technique was used to quantify heterotrophic and total coliform bacteria on plate count agar and the violet red bile agar respectively. The overall results of this study have shown that 18 out of total 40 household water tanks contained different types of bacteria concentration level beyond local and widely accepted international standards. The overall results of this study indicated that there is a lack of awareness among residents regarding the importance of maintaining proper sanitation and hygiene of the household water tanks.

Investigating Water Quality Data of Finished Water in Domestic Water Treatment Plants (1994-1998) (국내 정수장 정수 수질자료의 특성분석 (1994년-1998년까지 5년간 자료를 중심으로))

  • Yoon, Jeyong;Cho, Soonhaeng;Kim, Haeshim
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.431-443
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    • 2000
  • Water quality data from water treatment plants in Korea during 1994-1998 were investigated to find out the characteristics of their non compliance. The number of plants surveyed were approximately 600 and the number of samples were over 30,000. Ten parameters of water quality selected in this study and their non compliance % (inside parenthesis) were as follows: Heterotrophic plate count (0.14%), Total coliforms (0.08%), $NH_3$-N (0.29%), $NO_3$-N (0.14%), THMs (0.02%), Turbidity (0.11%), Residual chlorine (5.5%), $KMnO_4$ consumption (0.04%), Hardness (0.03%), pH (0.07%). These levels of non compliance were compared to those obtained from WIDB (Water Industry Database, 1996) of American Water Works Association. This study strongly supported that small water plants (<10,000 tons/day) were more vulnerable in meeting the regulation criteria of many water quality parameters such as Heterotrophic plate count. Total coliforms, $NO_3$-N, THMs, Turbidity, Residual chlorine, $KMnO_1$ consumption, Hardness and pH. The $NH_3$-N concentration was especially high in winter and its violation was frequently found in the specific areas such as the downstream of major rivers. The average THMs concentration was surprisingly low, indicating $13{\mu}g/L$ which is 43% of US. Accordingly, these characteristics must be reflected in establishing the effective management of water quality policy of drinking water in Korea.

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Combined Chlorite-Monochloramine Application for Controlling Nitrifying and Heterotrophic Bacteria in Drinking Water Distribution System (상수관망에서 Chlorite-Monochloramine 소독제를 이용한 질산화 세균 및 종속영양세균의 제어)

  • Park, Se-Keun;Kim, Yeong-Kwan;Choi, Sung-Chan
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.321-327
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    • 2013
  • In the present work, the reactors that harbor bacterial biofilms including ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and heterotrophic bacteria were treated with a continuous dose of chlorite ($0.66{\pm}0.01mg/L$) either with or without monochloramine at $1.77{\pm}0.03mg/L$. Both chlorite alone and combined chlorite-monochloramine applications effectively reduced biofilm and bulk AOB levels to near or below the detection limit ($0.6MPN/cm^2$ and 0.2 MPN/ml). The combined chlorite-monochloramine application exhibited greater AOB inactivation than chlorite alone. Unlike AOB, heterotrophic plate count (HPC) was unaffected by chlorite alone. In contrast to chlorite-only application, a combination of chlorite and monochloramine resulted in a significant reduction in HPC levels with log reductions of 3.1 and 3.0 for biofilm and bulk water, respectively. The results demonstrate that the combined chlorite-monochloramine application can provide an effective treatment for the inhibition of AOB and heterotrophic bacteria in a drinking water distribution system.

Influence of C/N ratio on biofim growth in tap water (수돗물의 C/N 비율이 생물막 생장에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Ji-Min;Kim, Yeong-Kwan
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.527-533
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    • 2018
  • Microorganisms detected in the biofilm not only cause secondary pollution of drinking water such as taste, odor and pathogenic disease but also increase the amount of disinfectant due to microbial regrowth during the transportation of tap water. In this work, the influence of C/N ratio in tap water on the characteristics of biofilm growth was examined. The C/N ratio of the tap water sample was controlled at 100:5, 100:10, 100:20, 100:30, and 100:40 by adding appropriate amounts of dextrose and $(NH_4)_2SO_4$. Of the five C/N ratios, heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) was highest at the ratio of 100:10. Following the initial formation in all the five experimental conditions, natural detachment of the biofilm was observed. Extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) analyses showed that the change of the EEA during the experimental period was similar to that of the HPC, demonstrating a positive correlation between HPC and EEA. For TOC concentration in the tap water sample, approximately 75% of the TOC was consumed in 7 days of the experiment and 96% in 28 days. The TOC appeared to be relatively rapidly consumed at the initial phase of the biofilm growth. Consumption pattern of the ammonia nitrogen was different from the TOC consumption pattern showing the different role of ammonia nitrogen on the growth of biofilm.