• Title, Summary, Keyword: Heterorhabditis

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Pathogenicity of Korean Entomopathogenic Nematodes to Exomala orientalis(Coleoptera : Scarabaeidae) (등얼룩풍뎅이(Exomala orientalis)에 대한 한국산 곤충병원성 선충의 병원성)

  • Lee Dong-Woon;Kim Hyeons-Hwan;Lee Sang-Myeong;Choo Ho-Yul;Choi Woo-Goun;Kweon Tae-Woong
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.39-46
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    • 2005
  • The 21 strains of Korean entomopathogenic nematodes, {Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Hamyang strain(HbH), Heterorhabditis sp. 202, 205, 217, Heterorhabdiris sp. KCTC 0991BP strain, Steinernema carpocapsae Pocheon(ScP), S. longicaudum Gonaju, S. longicaudum Nonsan, Steinernema sp. 7,24, 52, 55, 60, 64, 206, 207, 209, 210, 219, and 227 strain} were evaluated for the control of a turfgrass insect pest, Exomala orientalis. Heterorhabditis spp. showed higher pathogenicity than Steinernema spp. against 3rd instar larvae of E. orientalis with $55\%$ mortality by Heterorhabditis sp. 202 strain and $50\%$ by HbH and Heterorhabditis sp.205 strain at the rate of 200 infective juveniles per larva 14 days later after treatment. The number of infective juveniles of Korean entomopathogenic nematodes in 3rd instar larvae of E. orientalis was higher in Heterorhabditis spp. than in Steinernema spp.. In general, numbers of produced infective juveniles of three species were much higher, i.e., Heterorhabditis sp.202 strain produced 273,064 infective juveniles, S. carpocapsae Pocheon strain 273,043, and Heterorhabditis sp. 217 strain 248,887, respectively.

Growth Optimization of Photorhabdus luminescens Isolated from Entomopathogenic Nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (병원성 선충 Heterorhabditis bacteriophora에서 분리된 공생 박테리아 Photorhabdus luminescens의 생장조건)

  • Yoo, Sun Kyun;Randy Gaugler;Christopher W. Brey
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.104-109
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    • 2001
  • The yield of infective juveniles of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Tf strain) in vitro monoxenic liquid culture was improved significantly as the amount of symbiont biomass, Photorhabdus sp. strain Tf, increased. To investigate the influence of abiotic factors on the growth and biomass production of Photorhabdus sp. strain Tf, triplicate flask cu1tmes were performed. The optinal temperature and medium pH for the growth of Photorhahdus sp. strain Tf were 30$^{\circ}$C and between pH 5.5-7.3, respectively. Aeration also improved greatly growth and yield of biomass of Photorhabdus sp. strain Tf. Photorhabdus sp. strain Tf in batch fermentation showed growth-associated pattem in terms of pigment production, and the pH of culture medium rose steadily until growth stopped dUling the fermentation. Both pigment production and culture pH rise would be useful parameters indicating a reliable growth of Photorhabdus sp. strain Tf.

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Pathogenicity of Korean Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Steinermematidae and Heterorhabditidae) against Local Agricultural and Forest Insect Pests (한국산 곤충병원성 선충 (Steinernematidae와 Heterorhabditidae)의 지역농림해충에 대한 병원성)

  • 추호렬;이상명;정부근;박영도;김형환
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.314-320
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    • 1995
  • Pathogenicity of Korean entomopathogenic nematodes against local insect pests was different depending on strains or target-insect pests. Mortalities of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella larvae were 51.8%, 77.8%, 96.3% or 100% in Hanrim Steinernema sp. and 50.0%, 74.1%, 96.3% or 98.1% in Hamyang Heterorhabditis sp. on filter paper when larvae were exposed to 3, 6, 12, or 24 nematodes per larva. Mortalities of them on kale leaves at the same concentration were 44.4%, 63.0%, 76.1%, or 94.5% in Hanrim Steinernema sp. and 79.7%, 81.6%, 94.4%, or 100% in Hamyang Heterorhabditis sp., respectively. In field test, control value of Hanrim Steinernema sp. was 72.0% and that of Hamyang Heterorhabditis sp. was 84.1% in 14 days when 300,000 nematodes were sprayed to each plot ($13.27\m^2$). Although mortalities of rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis larvae showed no difference at high concentration, Hamyang Heterorhabditis sp. (47.3~100%) was more effective than Hanrim Steinernema sp. (34.3~83.3%) at low concentration, 50~200 nematodes/ml. When chestnut curculio, Curculio sikkimensis larvae were treated with Sancheong Steinernema sp. and Hamyang Heterorhabditis sp., respectively. When pellucid zygaenid, Pryeria sinica larvae were exposed to nematodes, Pocheon Steinernema sp. was effective ranging from 96.7% to 100% but mortalities of them were 63.3~76.7% in Dongrae Steinernema sp..

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Pathogenicity of Korean Entomopathogenic Nematodes on Larva of Popillia quadriguttata, Ectinohoplia rufipes and Phyllopertha diversa (Coleoptera: Rutelidae) and Persistence in Golf Courses (한국산 곤충병원성 선층의 녹색콩풍뎅이(Popillia quadriguttata), 주황긴다리풍뎅이(Ectinohoplia rufipes), 연다색풍뎅이(Phyllopertha diversa) 유충에 대한 병원성과 골프장에서 지속성)

  • Choi, Woo-Geun;Ha, Pan-Jung;Lee, Sang-Myeong;Choo, Ho-Yul;Lee, Dong-Woon
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.107-116
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    • 2006
  • Korean entomopathogenic nematode strain were evaluated against white grubs, Popillia quadriguttata, Ectinohoplia rufipes and Phyllopertha diversa in laboratory. In addition we examined the efficacy of entomopatogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis sp. KCTC 0991BP strain against white grubs in Seaside Golf Club in Gimpo, Gyeonggii and persistence of entomopatogenic nematode in fairway of Anyang Benest Golf Club in Gunpo, Gyeonggii. In laboratory Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Hamyang strain showed 95% mortality against Popillia quadriguttata. H. bacteriophora Hamyang strain and Heterorhabditis sp. KCTC 0991BP induced 80% mortality against 3rd instar of Ectinohoplia rufipes. However, the letter showed only 60% mortality against Phyllopertha diversa. White grub density was reduced to 39% by the application of Heterorhabditis sp. KCTC 0991BP at the rate of $2.24{\times}10^9$ infective juveniles $ha^{-1}$ compared with control in Seaside Golf Club. Heterorhabditis sp. KCTC 0991BP persisted for two months at $5{\sim}10$ cm soil depth but not persisted at $0{\sim}5$ cm soil depth for the same periods when applied at the rate of $2.47{\times}10^9$ infective juveniles $ha^{-1}$.

MEDIA DEVELOPMENT FOR MASS PRODUCTION OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMTOIDE HETERORHABDITIS BACTERIOPHORA AS AN INSECTICIDE

  • Yoo, Sun-Kyun;Cho, Sung-Young;Kim, Seung-Jai;Randy Gaugler
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.107-110
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    • 2001
  • The biological control potential of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) can be enhanced by improved culture efficiency. Optimization of media is a key factor for improving in vitro mass production of entomopathogenic nematodes. EPN yield was dependant of complex medium concentration, of which mixture is carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, salts, and growth factors, on the growth of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and its symbiotic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescensLipids.

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Effect of Soil Moisture and Irrigation on Pathogenicity of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (토양수분과 관수량이 곤충병원성선충의 병원성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee Dong-Woon;Choi Woo-Geun;Lee Sang-Myeong;Kim Hyeong-Hwan;Choo Ho-Yul
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.77-85
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    • 2006
  • Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) have been used as biological control agents for control of various agro-forest insect pests, and are especially effective against soil-dwelling insect pests. Effect of soil moisture on pathogenicity of commercial EPNs for white grub control was evaluated in laboratory, pots, and golf courses. Pathogenicity of EPNs in sand column was variable depending on depth, soil moisture, and EPN species or strain. All tested EPNs (Heterorhabditis sp. GSNUH1, Heterorhabditis sp. GSNUH2, Steinernema carpocapsae GSN1, and S. longicaudum Nonsan strain) showed similar pathogenicity against the bait insect, great wax moth (Galleria mellonella) larva at 2 cm deep at a given soil moisture. However, pathogenicity of the Heterorhabditis sp. GSNUH1 strain was decreased with increasing soil moisture. Pathogenicity of S. carpocapsae GSN1 strain was the lowest in 3% soil moisture (v/w) at 7 cm depth. However, there was no difference in pathogenicity between Heterorhabditis sp. GSNUH2 and S. longicaudum Nonsan strain. Although pathogenicity of Heterorhabditis sp. KCTC 0991BP strain showed no difference against the 2nd instar of Exomala orientalis, that of the S. carpocapsae GSN1 strain was decreased in the laboratory depending on soil moisture. Highly pathogenic strain EPN, Heterorhabditis sp. KCTC 0991BP strain, showed higher pathogenicity at 100 mm irrigation than non-irrigation or 10 mm irrigation. However, poor pathogenic strain EPN, S. carpocapsae GSN1 strain, was not different in pathogenicity from the 2nd instar of Exomala orientalis in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris) depending on irrigation amount in the pot. Pathogenicity of EPNs in field experiment at the tee of Ulsan golf club showed a similar trend to that in the pot experiment.

Biological Control Efficacy of an Entomopathogenic Nematode, Heterorhabditis megidis, Against Housefly, Musca domestica, and Flower Beetle, Gametis jucunda (메기디스 곤충병원선충(Heterorhabditis megidis)을 이용한 집파리와 풀색꽃무지의 생물적 방제 효과)

  • Kang Sangjin;Han Sang-Chan;Choi Kyunghee;Lee Soonwon;Kim Yonggyun
    • The Korean Journal of Soil Zoology
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    • v.8 no.1_2
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    • pp.17-22
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    • 2003
  • An endemic entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis megidis, was evaluated by its control efficacies against housefly, Musca domestica, and flower beetle, Gametis jucunda. In Petri-dish assay, the pathogenicity of H. megidis showed 456.4 infective juveniles/larva (IJs/larva) in median lethality (LC$_{50}$) against the second instar larvae of M. domestica and 238.9 IJs/larva against the second instar larvae of G. jucunda. This was contrasted with those of the other well-known entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae, which showed 115.9 IJs/larva against M. domestica and 388.6 IJs/larva against G. jucunda. In field experiment, H. megidis were applied per square meter of pork farm with 1,000,000 IJs of H. megidis or apple orchard with 370,000 IJs, which were infested with M. domestica or G. jucunda, respectively. H. megidis showed 56.9% and 57.3% of control efficacies against M. domestica and G. jucunda, respectively. These results suggest a promising control technique in the field using H. megidis against M. domestica and G. jucunda.a.

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Damage of Perennial Ryegrass, Lolium perenne by Chestnut Brown Chafer, Adoretus tenuimaculatus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and Biological Control with Korean Isolate of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (주둥무늬차색풍뎅이(Adoretus tenuimacuiatus)에 의한 퍼레니얼라이그라스(Lolium perenne)피해와 한국산 곤충병원성 선충을 이용한 생물적 방제)

  • 이동운;추호렬;신옥진;윤재수;김영섭
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.217-223
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    • 2002
  • The chestnut brown chafer, Adoretus tenuimaculatus Waterhouse, is serious insect pests in golf courses. Adults feed on the leaves of latifoliate trees but larvae feed on roots of turfgrases such as bentgrass, Agrostis spp. Damage of A. tenuimaculatus larvae was observed at the Jinju golf club which showed damage symptom on perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne in tees and fairways in July, 2000. Damaged turf by A. tenuimaculatus larvae became yellowish and wilted. Symptom of laval damage of A. tenuimaculatus was similar to summer depression in warm season turfgrasses but not recovered by irrigation when Korean isolates of entomopathogenic nematodes were evaluated for the control of A. tenuimaculatus larvae in laboratory and field as a possible biological control agent. The nematodes used were Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Jeju strain, Hererorhabditis sp. Gyeongsan strain, Steinernema carpocapsae Pocheon strain, S.glaseri Dongrea strain, and S.longicaudum Nonsan strain. In the laboratory test H.bacreriophora Jeju strain and Heterorhabditis sp. Gyeongsan strain were highly effective for 3rd instars with 95% mortality. In the field test reduction rates of A.tenuimaculatus larvae were higher by ranging from 28 to 57% by H. bacteriophora Jeju strain, Heterorhabditis sp. Gyeongsan strain, and S.carpocapsae Pocheon strain compared to 7% by natural cause.

Biological Control of Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with Entomopathogenic Nematodes(Steinernematid and Heterorhabditid) in Greenhouse (시설재배지에서 곤충병원성 선충, Steinernematid와 Heterorhabditid를 이용한 파밤나방(Spodoptera exigua)의 생물적 방제)

  • Kim, Hyeong-Hwan;Cho, Sung-Rae;Lee, Dong-Woon;Lee, Sang-Myeong;Choo, Ho-Yul
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.335-343
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    • 2006
  • Five strains of Korean entomopathogenic nematodes(EPN), steinernematids and heterorhabditids(Steinernama carpocapsae GSN1, Steinernema sp. GSNUS-10, Steinernama sp. GSNUS-14, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Hamyang, Heterorhabditis sp. GSNUH-1) were evaluated and tried in petri dish, pot, and vegetable greenhouses for environmentally friendly control of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua. $LC_{50}$ values of five EPN strains against beet armyworm was different depending on nematode strain and beet armyworm instar. $LC_{50}$ value of Steinernema carpocapse GSN1(GSN1) was 3.8-5.1 infective juveniles(Ijs) in 2nd to 4th instars of beet armyworm. Pathogenicity of five EPN strains against beet armyworm different in nematode strain, concentration, application times, and vegetable species in pot and greenhouse. Steinernema spp. was more effective than Heterorhabditis spp. against beet armyworm. Two or three times of applications of EPN were found to be effective regardless of nematode strain and concentration in pot and greenhouse. ENP showed different reactions on vegetable species. Efficacy of EPN was higher on Chinese cabbage than that on cabbage and kale. GSN1 was one of the most effective nematodes and 100,000 infective juveniles per $m^2$(720,000 Ijs/$7.2m^2=1{\times}10^9$Ijs/ha) resulted in higher mortality in greenhouse.

Biological Control of Mycophila speyeri Barnes (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) using Korean Steinernema and Heterorhabditis Isolates in Pleurotus ostreatus Cultivation House (느타리버섯 재배사에서 한국산 Steinernema와 Heterorhabditis를 이용한 버섯혹파리(Mycophila speyeri)의 생물적 방제)

  • Kim Hyeong Hwan;Choo Ho Yul;Lee Dong Won;Lee Heung Su;Jeon Heung Yong;Ha Pan Jung
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.233-239
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    • 2004
  • The potential of five entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae Pocheon strain, S. logicaudum Nonsan strain, S. glaseri Dongrae strain, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Hamnyang strain, and Heterorabditis sp. Gyeongsan strain were evaluated as biological control agents against a mushroom fly, Mycophila speyeri in the mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation house. Control effect of M. speyeri was significantly different according to nematode species. Heterorhabditis was more effective than Steinernema. H. bacteriophora Hamnyang strain showed the highest control effect representing $49.0\%$ (7 days), $89.5\%$ (14 days) and $89.1\%$ (21 days post-treatment) at the rate of $1\times10^6$ and $46.5\%$ (7 days), $76.6\%$ (14 days) and $85.4\%$ (21 days post-treatment) at the rate of $1.0\times10^5$ Ijs/$1.5 m^2$ in Changnyoung, Gyeongnam, respectively. In Jinju, Gyeongnam, control effects of the sa me species were $54.0\%$ (7 days), $74.5\%$ (14 days), and $79.8\%$ (21 days post-treatment) at the rate of $1\times10^6$ and $49.0\%$ (7 days), $76.6\%$ (14 days), and $61.1\%$ (21 days post-treatment) at the rate of $1.0\times10^5$ Ijs/$1.5 m^2$, respectively.