• Title, Summary, Keyword: Helicoverpa assulta

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Scanning Electron Microscopy of the Tisues of Helicoverpa assulta Larvae intoxicated with Bacillus thuringiensis Protein Crystals.

  • Cheon Hyang Mi;You
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.162-167
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    • 1994
  • Surface changes of tissues caused by B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki-$\delta$-endotoxin intoxication of Helicoverpa assulta were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Bt-endotoxin crystals induced the erosion and disruption on the surface of all tissues tested. The results revealed that the toxin binds to all exposed plasma membranes without apparent specificity for particular membrane domains.

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Comparative effects of nicotine and diazinon on larval mortality and activity of cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases in Helicoverpa assulta and Spodoptera exigua (담배나방과 파밤나방의 유충사망률과 cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases의 활성에 미치는 니코틴과 다이아지논의 영향)

  • 이정호;부경생
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.225-235
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    • 1993
  • This study was carried out to investigate effects of diazinon, an organophosphate, and nicotine, a plant~originated toxic chemical, on larval mortality and activity of cytochrome P-45D monooxygenases, a major detoxifwation enzyme system, in Helicoverpa assulta and Spodoptera exigua. Diazinon treatment gave a higher mortaliLy to H. assulta larvae than S. exigua larvae. In contrast to the case of diazinon, nicotine caused a higher mortahty to S. exigua than to H. assulla larvae. It was partly due to the fact that nicotine induced the actiVIty of midgut cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MFO) more than diazinon did in If assulta larvae. When If. aSSlllta larvae were reared on their host p\am. NicotwlIa tuoocum leaves, other componentS were mostly metabolized with the exception of dietary nicotine.

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Efficacy of an Integrated Biological Control of an Egg Parasitoid, Trichogramma evanescens Westwood, and Microbial Insecticide Against the Oriental Tobacco Budworm, Helicoverpa assulta (Guenée) Infesting Hot Pepper (고추를 가해하는 담배나방[Helicoverpa assulta (Guenée)]의 효과적 방제를 위한 쌀좀알벌(Trichogramma evanescens Westwood)과 미생물제제의 종합생물방제 효과)

  • Kim, Geun-Seob;Heo, Hye-Jung;Park, Jung-A;Yu, Yong-Suk;Hahm, Eun-Hye;Kang, Sung-Young;Kwon, Ki-Myeon;Lee, Keon-Hyung;Kim, Yong-Gyun
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.435-445
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    • 2008
  • Due to internal feeding behavior, the oriental tobacco budworm, Helicoverpa assulta ($Guen\acute{e}e$), infesting hot pepper has been regarded to be effectively controlled by targeting egg and neonate larval stages just before entering the fruits. This study aimed to develop an efficient biological control method focusing on these susceptible stages of H. assulta. An egg parasitoid wasp, Trichogramma evanescens Westwood, was confirmed to parasitize the eggs of H. assulta. A mixture of Gram-positive soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, and Gram-negative entomopathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila ANU101, could effectively kill neonate larvae of H. assulta. A sex pheromone trap monitored the occurrence of field H. assulta adults. The microbial insecticide mixture was proved to give no detrimental effects on immature development and adult survival of the wasp by both feeding and contact toxicity tests. A combined treatment of egg parasitoid and microbial pesticide was applied to hot pepper fields infested by H. assulta. The mixture treatment of both biological control agents significantly decreased the fruit damage, which was comparable to the chemical insecticide treatment, though either single biological control agent did not show any significant control efficacy. This study also provides morphological and genetic characters of T. evanescens.

Morphology and Biochemcial Characteristics of a Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus Isolated from the Oriental Tobacco Budworm, Helicoverpa assulta (Guenee) (담배나방 핵다각체병바이러스의 형태 및 생화학적 특성)

  • 진병래;박현우;우수동;김우진;김우진;박범석;강석권
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.218-223
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    • 1995
  • A nuclear polyhedrosis virus isolated from the oriental tobacco budworm larvae, Helicoverpa assulta (Guenee) was characterized by electron microscopy, SDS-PAGE, restriction endonuclease analysis and cross infectivity. The shape of a polyhedron was $1.0\mu\textrm{m}$ in average with icosahdral outline, and the virus particle was $65nm\times300nm$ in average with rod-shape. The nuclear polyhedrosis virus was contained a single nucleocapsid within a viral envelope embedded in a polyhedron. The polyhedral protein was composed of a single polypeptide with a M.W. of 31 Kd. The genome size of the virus by restriction endonuclease analysis was about 120 Kb. Among several nuclear polyhedrosis viruses, the nuclear polyhedrosis virus from Helicoverpa assulta (HaNPV) and Autographa california nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) were infected the oriental tobacco budworm larvae.

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Ultrastructure of Eupyrene and Apyrene Spermatogonia, Spermatocytes, and Spermatids of Tobacco Budworm, Helicoverpa assulta Guence (담배나방의 Eupyrene과 Apyrene 정원세포, 정모세포, 정세포의 미세구조)

  • 허양훈;유종명
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.171-181
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    • 1999
  • We examined the ultrastructure of eupyrene and apyrene spermatogenesis in the testis of Helicoverpa assulta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The spermatogenesis was progressed near the fringe adjacent to the follicular layer of the testicular follicle, surrounding the apical cell concentrically. Eupyrene and apyrene were firstly distinguished at the telophase stage of the primary spermatocyte. Chromatin was evenly scattered in eupyrene nuclei, whereas it was lumped near the nuclear envelope in apyrene spermatogenesis. Then, the nucleus of eupyrene was transformed into two daughter nuclei by meiosis, while the nucleus of apyrene was divided into many micronuclei by irregular meiosis. After the meiosis was completed, a number of mitochondria in the cytoplasm of the early spermatids of the eupyrene and the apyrene were fused into one nebenkern. Also, as axial filament was formed due to the elongation of the spermatid, the nebenkern became splitted into mitochondrial derivatives. An acrosome precursor was present only in the eupyrene, attached to nuclear envelope.

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Ontogeny and Characterization of Major Haemolymph Protein(MHP) in Helicoverpa assulta (담배나방 (Helicoverpa assulta)의 발생중 Major Haemolymph Protein(MHP)의 변화 및 특성)

  • 유종명;조시형;이형철
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.307-316
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    • 1996
  • A persistent major haemolyruph protein (MHP) was confirmed, and its ontogeny and physicochemical charadedstics were investigated in Helicoverpa assulta. The MHP existed continually during larval-pupal-adult development, and its ontogeny was similar to that of total haemolymph protein concentration during development. Its content increased with larval growth, and kept to high level during pupal-adult development except for temporary decrease at the early pupal and adult stages. The MHP was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. The purified MHP was determined to be hexamer glycolipoprotein (pI 5.9, M.W. 414kDa) consisted of single type subunit (69kDa). Amino acid analysis suggested that the MHP contained a relatively high content of aromatic amino acids (18.27 mole % of tryptophan, 7.47 mole % of tyrosine and 6.51 mole % of phenylalanine) compared to storage proteins from other insects. Immunodiffusion test and electrophoretic analysis of the organ proteins (gut, fat body, and Malphigian tubule) suggested that the major haemolymph protein was present in the fat body.

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Lipid and Carbohydrate Contents in the Adult Hemolymph during Flight of the Oriental Tobacco Budworm (Helicoverpa assulta (Guenee)) (비행중인 담배나방의 혈림프내 지질과 탄수화물의 함량변화)

  • 정진교;부경생
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.329-337
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    • 1992
  • Studies were carried out to investigate changes of lipid and carbohydrate contents in the hemolymph of the Oriental tobacco budworm(Helicoverpa assulta (Guenee» adults during flight and hormonal effects on mobilization of energy sources in the hemolymph. During a few minutes after flight, both sexes showed a rapid increase in lipid content and the high level was maintained for about 2 hours. But carbohydrate content in the hemolymph during flight showed almost no change but a slight increase seen during the first 10 min of flight in males only. Synthetic adipokinetic(Lom-AKH- n), hypertrehalosemic(Bld-HrTH) hormones and brain/ corpora cardiaca extract of H. assulta adult elevated lipid and carbohydrate contents in hemolymph and the effect was much more pronounced for lipid. These results suggested that lipid is a main fuel for flight activity and lipid mobilization is under the hormonal control. And this study showed that both adipokinetic and hypertrehalosemic factors may exist in H. assulta and these factors may have similar structures to those of Mas-AKH, Hez-HrTH, Lom-AKH- n or Pea-HrTH.

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Effects of Inhibitors (DFMO, DFMA) on Polyamine Synthetic Enzymes (ADC, ODC) during Ovarian Development of the Tobacco Budworm, Helicoverpa assulta (담배나방의 난소발생시 폴리아민 합성효소에 미치는 저해제의 효과)

  • 우장환;김문익;김선희;이형철;정성은
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.26-35
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    • 1999
  • Effects of $\alpha$-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and $\alpha$-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), inhibitors of polyamine syntheic enzymes (ornithine decarboxylase, arginine decarboxylase), on ovary were investigated during pupal-adult development of Helicoverpa assulta. Two inhibitors (DFMO, DFMA) showed definite inhibition effects on ovarian development. The inhibition effect on ovaries weight was more marked in DFMA-injection than that observed in DFMO-injection. Two inhibitors (DFMO, DFMA) gave rise to a peculiar decrease in ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) or arginine decarboxylase (ADC) activity in ovaries, 72 hrs (5-day old pupa) post injection. However, DFMO clearly exhibited supression of ODC activity after 96 hrs (6-day old pupa). In addition, two inhibitors (DFMO, DFMA) diminished putrescine content in the ovary. The spermidine level was slightly decreased by each injection of the inhibitors. However, two inhibitors (DFMO, DFMA) raised the spermine content at certain developmental stages in the ovary. Although the effect of DFMA was less severe, two inhibitors (DFMO, DFMA) caused not only an overall delay in ovarian development, but also abnormalities in cellular differentiation. Noted effects in the pupal ovary were the appearance of irregular nurse cells and partial destruction of follicle epidermal cells. Adult ovary showed rapid degradation of nurse cells, a reduction in the number of follicle epidermal cells and immature oocytes that had a low yolk content.

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Effects of Elevated Sublethal Temperature on Polyamine Metabolism during Ovarian Development of the Tobacco Budworm, Helicoverpa assulta (담배나방의 난소발생시 폴리아민 대사에 미치는 상승아치사온도의 효과)

  • 김문익;김선희;이형철;정성은
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.17-25
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    • 1999
  • To elucidate the effect of elevated sublethal temperature ($33\pm1^{\circ}C$) on polyamine metabolism and oogenesis, we investigated alterations in the major polyamines and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and arginine decarboxylase (ADC), and ovarian development during the pupal-adult development of the tobacco budworm, Helicoverpa assulta. Ovaries ODC activity under the elevated sublethal temperature ($33\pm1^{\circ}C$) were lower than those of the optimal rearing temperature ($25\pm1^{\circ}C$). whereas ovarian ADC activity was consistently higher than the optimal rearing temperature ($25\pm1^{\circ}C$). When the gonads were exposed to the higher temperature, ovarian putrescine showed somewhat suppressed levels throughout development, indicating a relatively high correlationship with the alteration aspects in ODC or ADC activity under elevated sublethal temperature. A somewhat precocious ovary was observed in an early stage of development at $33\pm1^{\circ}C$, but cellular abnormalities occurred in this ovary. The ovary developed under elevated sublethal temperature was observed the inhibitional effect of polyamine metabolism and the abnormal development of ovariole, which seem to be related to the sterility.

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