• Title, Summary, Keyword: Heat Transfer Coefficient

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Freezing Time Prediction of Foods by Multiple Regression Analysis (다중회귀분석에 의한 식품의 동결시간 예측)

  • Jeong, Jin-Woong;Kim, Jong-Hoon;Park, Noh-Hyun;Lee, Seung-Hyun;Kim, Young-Dong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.341-347
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    • 1998
  • To develop simple and accurate analytical method for freezing time prediction of beef and tylose under various freezing conditions, freezing time (Y) was regressed against the reciprocal $(X_3)$ of difference of initial freezing point and freezing medium temperature, reciprocal $(X_4)$ of surface heat transfer coefficient, the initial temperature $(X_1)$ and thickness $(X_2)$ of samples which should cover most situations arising in frozen food industry. As results of the multiple regression analysis, equations were obtained as follows. $Y_{tylose}=3.45X_1+7642.84X_2+4642.67X_3+2946.89X_4-431.33\;(R^2=0.9568)$ and $Y_{beef}=0.68X_1+7568.98X_2+2430.78X_3+3293.26X_4-299.00\;(R^2=0.9897)$. These equations offered better results than Plank, Nagaoka and Pham's models, shown in satisfactory agreement with models of Cleland & Earle and Hung & Thompson when were compared to previous models, and the accuracy of its was very high as average absolute difference of about 10% in the difference between the fitted and experimental results. Also, thermal diffusivities of beef and tylose were measured as $4.43{\times}10^{-4}m^2/hr$ and $4.39{\times}10^{-4}m^2/hr$ at $6{\sim}7^{\circ}C$, $2.42{\times}10^{-3}m^2/hr$ and $3.32{\times}10^{-3}m^2/hr$ at $-10{\sim}-12^{\circ}C$. Initial freezing points of beef and tylose were $-1.2^{\circ}C\;and\;-0.6^{\circ}C$, respectively. Surface heat transfer coefficients were estimated $20.57\;W/m^2^{\circ}C$ with no-packing, $16.11\;W/m^2^{\circ}C$ with wrap packing and $13.07\;W/m^2^{\circ}C$ with Al-foil packing, and the cooling rate of immersion freezing method was about 10 times faster than that of air blast freezing method.

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Development of Freezing Time Prediction Model and Thermo-physical Properties of Frozen Kimchi (김치 동결시의 물리적 특성 및 동결시간 예측 모델 개발)

  • 정진웅;김병삼;김종훈
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.125-130
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    • 2003
  • This study was carried out to investigate the thermo-physical properties and design Freezing time prediction model from data of freezing test of Kimchi. Density of Kimchi were measured as 1001.9 ${\pm}$0.03 kg/㎥ at unfrozen state, 987.0 ${\pm}$0.07 kg/㎥ at frozen state and volume of the Kimchi expanded 4.67% at -l5$^{\circ}C$. Initial freezing point of Kimchi and seasoning were -4.0$^{\circ}C$ and -2.5$^{\circ}C$, respectively. Freezing ratio of Kimchi were estimated more than 50% at -5.0$^{\circ}C$, more than 75% at -l0$^{\circ}C$ and approximately 90% at -25$^{\circ}C$. To obtain equation for freezing time prediction of Kimchi, freezing time(Y) was regressed against the reciprocal( $X_3$) of difference of initial freezing point and freezing medium temperature, reciprocal( $X_4$) of surface heat transfer coefficient, the initial temperature( $X_1$) and thickness( $X_2$) of samples. As results of the multiple regression analysis, equations were obtained as follows. Y$_{kimchi}$=3.856 $X_1$+13982.8 $X_2$+8305.166 $X_3$+ 3559.181 $X_4$-639.189( $R^2$=0.9632). These equations shown better results than previous models, and the accuracy of its was very high as average absolute difference of about 10% in the difference between the fitted and experimental results.

Simulation of Rough Rice Drying by Natural Air(I) (자연공기(自然空氣)에 의한 벼건조(乾燥) 시뮤레이션(I))

  • Chang, D.I.;Chung, D.S.;Pfost, H.B.;Calderwood, D.L.
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.118-128
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    • 1983
  • Simulation model of natural air grain drying was discussed and modified to predict the changes of grain moisture content and dry matter loss of rough rice drying. The modified simulation model was then validated using actual test data. A series of simulated drying tests using official weather data for 15 years from Beaumont, Texas, was taken to make minimum airflow rate and maximum bed depth of rough rice drying by natural air, under different conditions of initial moisture content of rough rice, airflow rate and harvest date.

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Studies on Food Preservation by Controlling Water Activity 1. Measurement of Sorption Isotherm of Dried Filefish Muscle by Equilibration in Dynamic Stream of Conditioned Air (식품보장과 수분활성에 관한 연구 1. 조절기류에 의한 건조말쥐치육의 등온흡습곡선의 측정)

  • HAN Bong-Ho;CHOI Soo-Il
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.189-193
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    • 1981
  • An apparatus for continuous measurements of sorption isotherm of dried food was manufactured to shorten the time required for equilibration. The apparatus was so designed that the temperature, air velocity and relative humidity in the experimental chamber could be controlled. The use of dynamic stream of conditioned air with a velocity of 0.2m/sec, instead of static atmosphere, allowed a faster equilibration of dried filefish muscle at $25^{\circ}C$. The mean time necessary for the equilibration of dried filefish muscle at the water activity of a given state to a higher water activity was about 45 hours. The monolayer moisture content of dried filefish muscle calculated from BET-equation was 0.092 kg water /kg dry matter at $25^{\circ}C$.

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Studies of Solid-Liquid Phase Equilibria for Mixtures of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone+2-pyrrolidone and Growth Rate of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone Crystal Using Melt Crystallization (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone과 2-pyrrolidone 혼합물의 고-액 상평형 및 용융결정화를 이용한 N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone의 결정성장속도 연구)

  • Kim, Sun Hyung;Seo, Myoung Do;Tak, Moon Seon;Kim, Woo Sik;Yang, Dae Ryuk;Kang, Jeong Won
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.51 no.5
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    • pp.587-590
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    • 2013
  • Solid-liquid equilibria for mixtures composed of n-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) and 2-pyrrolidone were measured as a basic study for the melt crystallization process to remove 2-pyrrolidone as impurity included in NVP. A differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a crystallizer were used and the experimental results obtained from two methods were similar. The mixture showed a eutectic system which has a single composition at the minimum melting temperature. Calculation results from simple thermodynamic equations were found in general agreements with present data. To determine the growth rate of NVP crystal which is important for the design of crystallization process, thicknesses of the crystal were measured with the time using a layer melt crystallizer. The growth rates increased as cooling temperatures decreased. Heat transfer coefficient correlated from present data was found to successfully describe the crystal growth behavior.

An Experimental Study on Performance of Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle with Al2O3 nano-particle (Al2O3 나노 입자를 적용한 증기 압축 냉동 사이클의 성능)

  • Kim, Jeongbae;Lee, Kyu-Sun;Lee, Geunan
    • Journal of Energy Engineering
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.124-129
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    • 2015
  • An experimental study was performed estimating COP(Coefficient of Performance) of air-conditioning cycle using inverter scroll compressor with and without $Al_2O_3$ nano particle. All experiments were done for various compressor speeds from 1000~4000 rpm and used the inverter controller called CANDY to change the compressor rpm. The air-conditioning cycle components in the apparatus were used as same with components of YF hybrid car. To estimate the COP, this study measured the temperature and pressure at inlets and outlets of compressor, condenser, and evaporator. And also measured the compressor input power using Powermeter. Through the experiments, the maximum error to estimate COP was shown about ${\pm}6.09%$ at 3500rpm. The COP of refrigeration cycle with $Al_2O_3$ nano-particle was similar with that of the base cycle without nano-particle between 1000~3000 rpm of the compressor speed. But, This study showed that the COP of the cycle with $Al_2O_3$ over 3000 rpm of the compressor speed was higher than that of the base cycle due to the higher heat transfer rate increased in the evaporator from the higher oil flow rate inside the cycle as well known. Those results can be used the basic and fundamental data to design the air-conditioning cycle using inverter scroll compressor with $Al_2O_3$ nano particle.

Genetic Analyses of Heading and Maturing Dates and Their Relationship to Freezing Resistance in Barley (보리 출수기와 성숙기의 유전분석 및 내동성과의 관계)

  • 천종은;강석원
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.47 no.6
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    • pp.395-401
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    • 2002
  • The combination of early heading time, maturing time and short grain-filling period is very important to develop early varieties in winter barley. The 4 parental half diallel crosses (parents, $F_1$s, $F_2$s) were cultivated at the field. The heading date was from April 3 to 26, maturing date from May 15 to 27 and grain-filling period from 31 days to 42 days, showing that the varietal differences about the 3 traits were remarkable. According to half diallel cross analyses, Dongbori 1 for heading time (late heading) was dominant, but Oweolbori (early heading) was recessive, showing partial dominance with high additive component of genetic variance. Dongbori 1 for maturing time was dominant, but Oweolbori was recessive, showing partial dominance with high additive variance. Reno for grain-filling period (short grain-filling period) was dominant, but Oweolbori (long grain-filling period) was recessive with additive, and partial dominance. There were highly significant mean squares for both GCA and SCA effects on the heading and maturing times, and GCA/SCA ratios for all traits were high, showing the additive gene effects more important. Sacheon 6 and Oweolbori had greater GCA effects for early heading and maturing times, and Dongbori 1 and Reno had greater GCA effects for late times. GCA effects were highly significant in $F_1$ and $F_2$ generations, showing high GCA/SCA ratios (7.02). The heading and maturing times in field were positively correlated with antifreeze proteins concentrations, accumulation, resistance to photoinhibition and winter survival, respectively) but the grain-filling period did negatively correlated with the trails.

Studies on the Rice Yield Decreased by Ground Water Irrigation and Its Preventive Methods (지하수 관개에 의한 수도의 멸준양상과 그 방지책에 관한 연구)

  • 한욱동
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.3225-3262
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    • 1974
  • The purposes of this thesis are to clarify experimentally the variation of ground water temperature in tube wells during the irrigation period of paddy rice, and the effect of ground water irrigation on the growth, grain yield and yield components of the rice plant, and, furthermore, when and why the plant is most liable to be damaged by ground water, and also to find out the effective ground water irrigation methods. The results obtained in this experiment are as follows; 1. The temperature of ground water in tube wells varies according to the location, year, and the depth of the well. The average temperatures of ground water in a tubewells, 6.3m, 8.0m deep are $14.5^{\circ}C$ and $13.1^{\circ}C$, respercively, during the irrigation period of paddy rice (From the middle of June to the end of September). In the former the temperature rises continuously from $12.3^{\circ}C$ to 16.4$^{\circ}C$ and in the latter from $12.4^{\circ}C$ to $13.8^{\circ}C$ during the same period. These temperatures are approximately the same value as the estimated temperatures. The temperature difference between the ground water and the surface water is approximately $11^{\circ}C$. 2. The results obtained from the analysis of the water quality of the "Seoho" reservoir and that of water from the tube well show that the pH values of the ground water and the surface water are 6.35 and 6.00, respectively, and inorganic components such as N, PO4, Na, Cl, SiO2 and Ca are contained more in the ground water than in the surface water while K, SO4, Fe and Mg are contained less in the ground water. 3. The response of growth, yield and yield components of paddy rice to ground water irrigation are as follows; (l) Using ground water irrigation during the watered rice nursery period(seeding date: 30 April, 1970), the chracteristics of a young rice plant, such as plant height, number of leaves, and number of tillers are inferior to those of young rice plants irrigated with surface water during the same period. (2) In cases where ground water and surface water are supplied separately by the gravity flow method, it is found that ground water irrigation to the rice plant delays the stage at which there is a maximum increase in the number of tillers by 6 days. (3) At the tillering stage of rice plant just after transplanting, the effect of ground water irrigation on the increase in the number of tillers is better, compared with the method of supplying surface water throughout the whole irrigation period. Conversely, the number of tillers is decreased by ground water irrigation at the reproductive stage. Plant height is extremely restrained by ground water irrigation. (4) Heading date is clearly delayed by the ground water irrigation when it is practised during the growth stages or at the reproductive stage only. (5) The heading date of rice plants is slightly delayed by irrigation with the gravity flow method as compared with the standing water method. (6) The response of yield and of yield components of rice to ground water irrigation are as follows: \circled1 When ground water irrigation is practised during the growth stages and the reproductive stage, the culm length of the rice plant is reduced by 11 percent and 8 percent, respectively, when compared with the surface water irrigation used throughout all the growth stages. \circled2 Panicle length is found to be the longest on the test plot in which ground water irrigation is practised at the tillering stage. A similar tendency as that seen in the culm length is observed on other test plots. \circled3 The number of panicles is found to be the least on the plot in which ground water irrigation is practised by the gravity flow method throughout all the growth stages of the rice plant. No significant difference is found between the other plots. \circled4 The number of spikelets per panicle at the various stages of rice growth at which_ surface or ground water is supplied by gravity flow method are as follows; surface water at all growth stages‥‥‥‥‥ 98.5. Ground water at all growth stages‥‥‥‥‥‥62.2 Ground water at the tillering stage‥‥‥‥‥ 82.6. Ground water at the reproductive stage ‥‥‥‥‥ 74.1. \circled5 Ripening percentage is about 70 percent on the test plot in which ground water irrigation is practised during all the growth stages and at the tillering stage only. However, when ground water irrigation is practised, at the reproductive stage, the ripening percentage is reduced to 50 percent. This means that 20 percent reduction in the ripening percentage by using ground water irrigation at the reproductive stage. \circled6 The weight of 1,000 kernels is found to show a similar tendency as in the case of ripening percentage i. e. the ground water irrigation during all the growth stages and at the reproductive stage results in a decreased weight of the 1,000 kernels. \circled7 The yield of brown rice from the various treatments are as follows; Gravity flow; Surface water at all growth stages‥‥‥‥‥‥514kg/10a. Ground water at all growth stages‥‥‥‥‥‥428kg/10a. Ground water at the reproductive stage‥‥‥‥‥‥430kg/10a. Standing water; Surface water at all growh stages‥‥‥‥‥‥556kg/10a. Ground water at all growth stages‥‥‥‥‥‥441kg/10a. Ground water at the reproductive stage‥‥‥‥‥‥450kg/10a. The above figures show that ground water irrigation by the gravity flow and by the standing water method during all the growth stages resulted in an 18 percent and a 21 percent decrease in the yield of brown rice, respectively, when compared with surface water irrigation. Also ground water irrigation by gravity flow and by standing water resulted in respective decreases in yield of 16 percent and 19 percent, compared with the surface irrigation method. 4. Results obtained from the experiments on the improvement of ground water irrigation efficiency to paddy rice are as follows; (1) When the standing water irrigation with surface water is practised, the daily average water temperature in a paddy field is 25.2$^{\circ}C$, but, when the gravity flow method is practised with the same irrigation water, the daily average water temperature is 24.5$^{\circ}C$. This means that the former is 0.7$^{\circ}C$ higher than the latter. On the other hand, when ground water is used, the daily water temperatures in a paddy field are respectively 21.$0^{\circ}C$ and 19.3$^{\circ}C$ by practising standing water and the gravity flow method. It can be seen that the former is approximately 1.$0^{\circ}C$ higher than the latter. (2) When the non-water-logged cultivation is practised, the yield of brown rice is 516.3kg/10a, while the yield of brown rice from ground water irrigation plot throughout the whole irrigation period and surface water irrigation plot are 446.3kg/10a and 556.4kg/10a, respectivelely. This means that there is no significant difference in yields between surface water irrigation practice and non-water-logged cultivation, and also means that non-water-logged cultivation results in a 12.6 percent increase in yield compared with the yield from the ground water irrigation plot. (3) The black and white coloring on the inside surface of the water warming ponds has no substantial effect on the temperature of the water. The average daily water temperatures of the various water warming ponds, having different depths, are expressed as Y=aX+b, while the daily average water temperatures at various depths in a water warming pond are expressed as Y=a(b)x (where Y: the daily average water temperature, a,b: constants depending on the type of water warming pond, X; water depth). As the depth of water warning pond is increased, the diurnal difference of the highest and the lowest water temperature is decreased, and also, the time at which the highest water temperature occurs, is delayed. (4) The degree of warming by using a polyethylene tube, 100m in length and 10cm in diameter, is 4~9$^{\circ}C$. Heat exchange rate of a polyethylene tube is 1.5 times higher than that or a water warming channel. The following equation expresses the water warming mechanism of a polyethylene tube where distance from the tube inlet, time in day and several climatic factors are given: {{{{ theta omega (dwt)= { a}_{0 } (1-e- { x} over { PHI v })+ { 2} atop { SUM from { { n}=1} { { a}_{n } } over { SQRT { 1+ {( n omega PHI) }^{2 } } } } LEFT { sin(n omega t+ { b}_{n }+ { tan}^{-1 }n omega PHI )-e- { x} over { PHI v }sin(n omega LEFT ( t- { x} over {v } RIGHT ) + { b}_{n }+ { tan}^{-1 }n omega PHI ) RIGHT } +e- { x} over { PHI v } theta i}}}}{{{{ { theta }_{$\infty$ }(t)= { { alpha theta }_{a }+ { theta }_{ w'} +(S- { B}_{s } ) { U}_{w } } over { beta } , PHI = { { cpDU}_{ omega } } over {4 beta } }}}} where $\theta$$\omega$; discharged water temperature($^{\circ}C$) $\theta$a; air temperature ($^{\circ}C$) $\theta$$\omega$';ponded water temperature($^{\circ}C$) s ; net solar radiation(ly/min) t ; time(tadian) x; tube length(cm) D; diameter(cm) ao,an,bn;constants determined from $\theta$$\omega$(t) varitation. cp; heat capacity of water(cal/$^{\circ}C$ ㎥) U,Ua; overall heat transfer coefficient(cal/$^{\circ}C$ $\textrm{cm}^2$ min-1) $\omega$;1 velocity of water in a polyethylene tube(cm/min) Bs ; heat exchange rate between water and soil(ly/min)

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Behaviors of the High-profile Arch Soil-steel Structure During Construction (높은 아치형 지중강판 구조물의 시공 중 거동 분석)

  • 이종구;조성민;김경석;김명모
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.71-84
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    • 2003
  • The metallic shell of soil-steel structures are so weak in bending moment that it should sustain the applied load by the interaction of the backfill soil around the structures. The shell can be subjected to excessive bending moment during side backfilling or under live-load when the soil cover is less than the minimum value. The current design code specifies the allowable deformation and Duncan(1979) and McGrath et al.(2001) suggested the strength analysis methods to limit the moments by the plastic capacity of the shell. However, the allowable deformation is an empirically determined value and the strength analysis methods are based on the results of FE analysis, hence the experimental verification is necessary. In this study, the full-scale tests were conducted on the high-profile arch to investigate its behaviors during backfilling and under static live-loads. Based on the measurements, the allowable deformation of the tested structure could be estimated to be 1.45% of rise, which is smaller than the specified allowable deformation. The comparison between the measurements and the results of two strength analyses indicate that Duncan underestimates the earth-load moment and overestimates the live-load moment, while McGrath et al. predicts both values close to the actual values. However, as the predicted factors of safeties using two methods coincide with the actual factor of safety, it can be concluded that both methods can predict the structural stability under live-loads adequately when the cover is less than the minimum.

Effects of Salt Treatment on Yield and Physiological Characteristics of Flag Leaf at Heading Stage in Winter Barley (보리 출수기 염처리가 수량 및 지잎의 생리적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 최원열;김영민;박종환
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.47 no.6
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    • pp.409-412
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    • 2002
  • This research was conducted to obtain the fundamental data on salt injury and different responses among cultivars in winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Salts did not affect yield components including number of panicles, stem length, grain number per ear and grain yield while reduced stem dry weight and thousand seed weight significantly with increasing concentrations of salt from 60 to 180 mM. NaCl had less injury effect on barley straw dry weight and thousand seed weight than did $MgSO_4$. Chlorophyll content and relative turgidity in flag leaf were reduced when treated with both salts, while free proline in the salt-treated leaf was increased. Content of proline in salt-treated barley was about 10 folds compared to the control. Based on yield components and physiological traits of flag leaf, the tolerance to salt injury was the greatest in Baegdong, followed by Dongbori#1, Mogpo#55, and Gangbori. The results suggested that salt- stressed barley at reproductive stage had higher free proline content, and that special management in this stage must be considered because salt stress at heading stage affect flag leaf growth as well as yield components Harmfully.