The purpose of this study was to identify the current problems of school health education policies and practices in Korea, and to establish the strategies to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of school health education program. The severity of adolescents's health problems including obesity, smoking, drug abuse, teen pregnancy, etc has been increased recently and coping strategies to deal with these problems became urgent. The role of school as a key setting for health education should be empathized. However, there were limitations for the effectiveness of school health education in Korea because of the lack of recognition about the importance, guiding principles of the school health education by the school health related law, life skill-focused curriculum, capacity of teachers for health education, and linkage between school and community. In order to improve the effectiveness of school health education, establishment of infrastructure, national and local health education standard, and operating principles for the school health education program should be provided. Life skill-focused health education curriculum should be developed for the effective health education. Teacher training and education also should be the essential component of school health education program. For the improvement of efficiency in school health education practices, cooperation with family and community support system would be necessary.
Park, Eun-Ok;Yoo, Sun-Mi;Cho, Hong-Jun;Lee, Weon-Young;June, Kyung-Ja
Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
Purposes： This review is designed to assess the current status of health education in Korea, to identify problems within the curriculum, and to suggest ways to improve health education in Korea. Results： Korean schools currently lack a regular standardized health education curriculum. Subjects related to health education are presently taught in other disciplines, such as physical education, home management, biology, and other related subjects. The Korean health education curriculum suffers from many significant problems, including a lack of educational goals for health education, absence of designated time for health education, a lack of continuity between contents, knowledge-oriented health education, and an overall disconnect with the needs of the students. Other problems include an exclusion of health education experts in the development of the curriculum, no designated times for health education within the regular curriculum, and a lack of health teachers in schools. Conclusion： To improve health education in schools, standard health education curriculum should be developed. Health education curriculum needs to be sequential, comprehensive, and skill-based. Health education needsto be a essential subject, health teachers need to be trained, and provided with technical support.
The Purpose of this study was to define the School Health Education Concepts, to establish the learning objectives and contents for school health education, and to diagnose the phenomenal aspects related to current school health Education in Korea. The results of its diagnosis indicated that the Education Ministry had never had any open opportunities for the teachers to get health education licence, and. universities had never issued health education teacher′s licence to the perspective students in Korea. Under such condition, there was "Korean nursing teacher′s association" for school health education, which had lectures, for two to three years, in order to learn how to develop, teach and evaluate the school health program. Currently, School boards in cities recommended that all nursing teachers should teach school health education in classes for six hours in a week without any fixed health program. Also, There was only "Korean Society for Health Education" for the purpose of dealing with school health education, which had been publishing annual journal. This study demonstrated how to develop school health education curriculum, which composed of the methods for needs assessment and PRECEDE Model(Predisposing, Reinforcing, and Enabling Causes in Educational Diagnosis and Evaluation).
The method of this study is as follows : First, the interview with the civil servants concerned. Second, the review of the pertinent public ledgers. Third, the review of the existing reference. The results of this study are as follows. 1) The health education system in Korea has only the head. But it does not have the trunk and the limbs that it can move with. 2) Health educator should have the essential work that is the planning and coordinating work of intersectoral health education programs. They should also have the trust works from other sectors. 3) The proposition in the health education policy is as follows: First, the department or section of health education should be made newly in the public health organization. Second, at the level of province(Do) and county(Gun), the health educator should be stationed. Third, most training courses of health care members should involve health education subjects. Fourth, the health center at the level of county(Gun) should have a minimum material and audio-visual equipment of health education. Fifth, regular health education should be put into practice through local broadcast or CATV etc.. Sixth, school health education should be consolidated. Seventh, village health worker(nurse) should be stationed at the level of health center, so that he(she) can work as health educator. 4) The ultimate model of health education system is that of Fig. 5. But it is impossible to change the system synoptically. At first health educator should be stationed at health center. And then the system should be gradually organized.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the past and present status and roles of health education specialists in Korea, and to suggest future directions for developing health education profession. Results and conclusion: The Korean government has made various efforts for people's health. the National Health Promotion Law was enacted in Korea in 1995. As the results of Korean Association for Health Education' intensive efforts, the national certificate of health education specialist bill has been passed the National Assembly on September 29, 2003. According to The National Health Promotion Law, central and local government should recommend health promotion related corporaters, agencies and organizations to hire certified health education specialist. The first national examination for certificate of health education specialists was held in March, 2010. As the result, a total of 2,246 applicants was passed for certificate of health education specialists. It is a serious concern that community residents' knowledge level of health is very low. therefore, the role of health education specialists with the professional ability to carry out health education is essential. It is clear that the activity of health educators is essential, Then, It is necessary articles related to the appointment of health educators in the official appointment regulation or law. Thus the health education specialist must be appointed as a public officer in health centers, operaters or the health department of the government.
The Journal of Korean Society for School & Community Health Education
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to expand of workplace by analyzing the duty and workplace of health education specialist and by presenting professional duty for health education specialist. Methods: 22 papers related to health education experts were finally selected from 1993 to 2017(25 years). The selected literature analyzed the title, researchers, the publishing agency, the publication year, the main contents, and duty and workplace of the health education specialist. Results: The studies on health education specialists comprised 5 cases (22.7%) between 1993 and 1999, 3 cases (13.6%) between 2000 and 2009, 14 cases (63.6%) between 2010 and 2017. Health education specialists core duty were diagnosing health education needs, planning health education programs, developing health education methods and materials, performing and managing health education programs, evaluating and conducting research on health education programs, and health communication. The workplace were 11 for medical institutions (55.0%), 9 for healthcare organizations (45.0%) and 8 for schools (40.0%). Conclusions: In addition to the basic core duty, professional and differentiated duty capabilities such as managing the target, generating health information, encouraging involvement of the target, and mobile health care should be developed.
Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
High school is regarded as the period when many important physical, mental and social developments occur, and when many health-related behaviors are formed. School health education is one of the major learning resources influencing health potential in the home and community as well as for the individual student. High school health education in Korea has a fundamental systemic flaw however, in that health -related subjects are divided and taught under various subjects at school. In order to achieve quality health education, it is essential to assess the learners' and teachers' educational needs. So far, most of the research projects that had been carried out for improving high school health education were limited to only the learners' educational need. They failed to in elude an educational assessment of the teachers. Therefore, in this study the high school health education teachers' needs relating to health education were investigated through a focus on the teachers' health education activity level, health education activity self-efficacy level, and perceived level of importance in health education content. In this study, research instruments these factors were constructed by Yoo(1997) on the basis of the PRECEDE model. The data for this study were collected from a sample consisting of twenty general and vocational high schools in Seoul and Chongju for a two month period beginning in July, 1996. In analyzing the data, an ANOVA test and stepwise multiple regression were accomplished using an SPSS - PC+ program. The results were as follows: The average level of health education activity and self-efficacy among high school health edu cation teachers were found to be low. But, teachers' perceived importance of health education contents was high. Teachers' activity and perceived importance concerning sex education were lower than in other health education areas. Health education activity of Military drill teachers was higher than that of physical education teachers as well as school nurses. But it was not significant. Health education activity self-efficacy of school nurses was higher than that of other teachers(p<.05). Perceived level of importance of health education contents was the most influential variable in teachers' health education activity. Health education activity self-efficacy level was not an influential variable in teachers' health education activity. The significance of this study is that it has diagnosed the needs of high school health education through the teachers' assessment of a variety of health factors related. These findings suggest that the management of an integrated health education, program requiring large changes in the curriculum of health education is necessary.
The Journal of Korean Society for School & Community Health Education
Background: School is a primary health education setting for adolescents and the continuous support should be provided to renew school health education curriculum correspondent to cultural changes in Korean society. Objectives: This study was conducted to identify the principals and teachers' health education needs for their students and to analyze their conceptual map for health education curriculum at school. Methods: The sample size of the preliminary study was 321 of the teachers in elementary, middle, and high school, and that of the main study was 355 middle school principals and teachers over the country. The self-administered mailing survey was conducted to collect the available health education topics in the preliminary study, to identify the factor structure of the health education topics and to analyze the conceptual properties on health education with exploratory factor analysis and multidimensional scaling analysis in SPSS 12.0. Results: A total of 21 health education topics were collected from the preliminary survey and 31 topics were, comprehensively, generated for the main survey. In exploratory factor analysis, seven factors were generated in 1.0 or greater Eigen value standard. The seven factors were 'life health promotion,' 'disease prevention and drug control,' 'bulling and aggression prevention,' 'injury and sexual harassment prevention,' human-efficacy and regulation,' 'health protection for adolescence,' and 'alcohol and tobacco control.' The educational need scores were the highest in 'human-efficacy and regulation' and 'injury and sexual harassment prevention.' The two-dimensional cooperates were generated for the 31 health education topics and the two dimensional properties which divided the conceptual space were 'health-safety' for one and 'public/environmental-individual/personal' for the other. That is, middle school principals and teachers primarily, understand the health education curriculum in the sense of 'health vs. safety' and 'public/environmental vs individual/personal.' Conclusions: Health education curriculum and textbook should be developed based on teachers' needs and conditions for health education in school fields. The field-based health education programs or textbook would make more possible problem-solving health education for youth in real school fields.
Objectives: To investigate the status of health education in elementary schools. Methods: 620 school nurses were surveyed by questionnaires from September to December in 2003. Results: 1) Among the school nurses under inquiry of planning of health education, 3.3% and 9.3% of them did not prepare for teaching plan. 2) The average time for health education by a school nurse was 96.8 hours a year, and handouts for health education were distributed 10.6 times. Among the contents of health education, sex education took the largest portion of health education with 24.6 hours a year. 3) With regard to the contents of health education covered by school nurses, sex education ranked first with 90.2%, next came drug abuse with 78.4%, dental health, CDC, disease control, healthy life and smoking, body structure and function and growth and development safety, alcohol, nutrition and environmental health followed them. 4) The main contents of education were CDC, dental health sex, healthy life and disease control for 1st, 2nd and 3rd grade students, sex, CDC, disease control and safety for 4th grade students, and sex, CDC, drug abuse and smoking for 5th and 6th grade students. 5) 72.6% of school nurses used class room for health education, 20.0% and 7.4% of them used grade and others such as broadcast, respectively. 6) 42.1% of school nurses used blackboard, 37.0% and 18.6% of them used visual media and handout as a teaching aids for health education. 7) 31.6% of school nurses replied that education time was insufficient 9.5% and 15.9% of them replied the contents of health education were inadequate and methods of health education were inappropriate, respectively. Conclusions: For the successful school health education, it would be in need of sufficient time for health education by opening health education course and of modify the various working conditions of school nurses, and those of effective educational materials and media for health education.
Recently the structure of disease is changing its form into chronic disease. Taking into consideration this, the health care system doesn't cope with this tendency. With the health care system for acute disease, it is difficult to decrease medical care cost. At this point, Health education like primary health care can reduce risk factors and possibilities of occurrence of disease. This can cut off the medical insurance finance further more cuts off the rates of insurance cost. This is why health education is the principle part of medical insurance service. Though the law shows health education must be executed in the field of Medical insurance, still it is not enough. In order to carry out health education in the medical insurance organization, the efforts we should make are as follows: 1. Recognize the importance of health education. 2. Set the clear goals in health education. 3. Organize health education system. 4. Train health workers. 5. Systematize health education service. 6. Reform the medical insurance system. 7. Evaluate the effect of health education and practice the model.
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