• Title, Summary, Keyword: Health behavior

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Recent Progress in Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Research: A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2008 (설비공학 분야의 최근 연구 동향: 2008년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰)

  • Han, Hwa-Taik;Choi, Chang-Ho;Lee, Dae-Young;Kim, Seo-Young;Kwon, Yong-Il;Choi, Jong-Min
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.21 no.12
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    • pp.715-732
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    • 2009
  • This article reviews the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering during 2008. It is intended to understand the status of current research in the areas of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation, and indoor environments of buildings and plant facilities. Conclusions are as follows. (1) Research trends in thermal and fluid engineering have been surveyed in the categories of general fluid flow, fluid machinery and piping, new and renewable energy, and fire. Well-developed CFD technologies were widely applied in developing facilities and their systems. New research topics include fire, fuel cell, and solar energy. Research was mainly focused on flow distribution and optimization in the fields of fluid machinery and piping. Topics related to the development of fans and compressors had been popular, but were no longer investigated widely. Research papers on micro heat exchangers using nanofluids and micro pumps were also not presented during this period. There were some studies on thermal reliability and performance in the fields of new and renewable energy. Numerical simulations of smoke ventilation and the spread of fire were the main topics in the field of fire. (2) Research works on heat transfer presented in 2008 have been reviewed in the categories of heat transfer characteristics, industrial heat exchangers, and ground heat exchangers. Research on heat transfer characteristics included thermal transport in cryogenic vessels, dish solar collectors, radiative thermal reflectors, variable conductance heat pipes, and flow condensation and evaporation of refrigerants. In the area of industrial heat exchangers, examined are research on micro-channel plate heat exchangers, liquid cooled cold plates, fin-tube heat exchangers, and frost behavior of heat exchanger fins. Measurements on ground thermal conductivity and on the thermal diffusion characteristics of ground heat exchangers were reported. (3) In the field of refrigeration, many studies were presented on simultaneous heating and cooling heat pump systems. Switching between various operation modes and optimizing the refrigerant charge were considered in this research. Studies of heat pump systems using unutilized energy sources such as sewage water and river water were reported. Evaporative cooling was studied both theoretically and experimentally as a potential alternative to the conventional methods. (4) Research papers on building facilities have been reviewed and divided into studies on heat and cold sources, air conditioning and air cleaning, ventilation, automatic control of heat sources with piping systems, and sound reduction in hydraulic turbine dynamo rooms. In particular, considered were efficient and effective uses of energy resulting in reduced environmental pollution and operating costs. (5) In the field of building environments, many studies focused on health and comfort. Ventilation. system performance was considered to be important in improving indoor air conditions. Due to high oil prices, various tests were planned to examine building energy consumption and to cut life cycle costs.

A Study on the Nurse's Due Care in Medical Malpractice (의료과오시(醫療過誤時) 간호사의(看護師)의 주의의무(注意義務)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Kang, Sun-Joo
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.113-136
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    • 1999
  • There are some new trends in judgments concerning medical malpractice. which include emphasis on medical professionals' explanation duty in order to materialize patient's rights of self-determination. Now, patient is not a mere subject of medical and nursing care any more, but a subject, participating in medical practice on equal terms with medical professionals. Legal accountability is no limited to nurses in advanced practice: it is a recognized fact of life for every practicing nurse. whether she is an RN employed as a staff nurse in a hospital, a Certified Nurse-Midwife in independent practice or a patient's home. Therefore, it is essential for nurses to be as familiar as possible with the legal guidelines that govern their patient care responsibilities. However there are only a few studies focused on nursing negligence. To define nurse's civil liability in medical malpractice, it is necessary to indentify both legal nursing behaviors and nurse's due care in those nursing behaviors. So this paper focused on nurse's due care, especially in nursing malpractice. To clarify nurses' due care. chapter II has focused on nursing behavior and the scope of nursing practice based on the medical law and health care related study results. Chapter III deals with the content and scope of nurse's due care. Generally. negligence is defined as not doing something which a resonable person. guided by those ordinary considerations which or dinarily regulate human affairs. would do. or doing something which a resonable and prudent man would not do. Next. it describes how we can set the standard of due care in nursing practice. There is objective factors and subjective factors. And we also discuss about the limitation of due care in nursing practice. Finally. chapter IV deals with the case studies related to nursing negligence in the situation of determination. Now', patient is not a mere subject of medical and nursing care any more, but a subject participating in medical practice on equal terms with medical professionals. Legal accountability is not limited to nurses in advanced practice; it is a recognized fact of life for every practicing nurse. whether she is an RN employed as a staff nurse in a hospital. a Certified Nurse-Midwife in independent practice or a patient's home. Therefore, it is essential for nurses to be as familiar as possible with the legal guidelines that govern their patient care responsibilities. However. there are only a few studies focused on nursing negligence. To define nurse's civil liability in medical malpractice, it is necessary to identify both legal nursing behaviors and nurse's due care in those nursing behaviors. So this paper focused on nurse's intravenous injection. post operation nursing care. blood transfusion. and patient nursing care. The result of this paper is as follows. First. there are several cases dealing with nurse's negligence in nursing practice. however, those cases didn't judge nurse's due care based on individual -specific standard but general-objective standard. Second, there is a tendency to put an emphasis on the principal of belief to distinguish who has the liability in the case of medical malpractice among medical care team. So nurses shoud practice nursing care more actively to protect themselves and patients because there is an effort to form professional nurse system and the scope of nursing practice will be deeper and broader. Third, standard of care is a necessary element in establishing negligence. If a nurse is able to meet the standard of care, no breach will be found.

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Salt-Related Dietary Behaviors and Sodium Intakes of University Students in Gyeonggi-do (경기지역 대학생의 소금 관련 식행동 및 나트륨 섭취량)

  • Chung, Eun-Jung;Shim, Eu-Gene
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.578-588
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    • 2008
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate associations of dietary sodium (Na) intake with salt-related dietary behaviors of 218 university students (95 men; 123 women) living in Gyeonggi area. Dish frequency questionnaire (DFQ) was used to identify salt-related dietary behaviors and to determine Na intakes. In men, systolic & diastolic blood pressures, Na intakes and DFQ-15 scores were significantly higher than in women. High-salt intake group (HS), classified by DFQ-15, had higher scores of high-salt dietary attitude and more Na intakes than low-salt intake group (LS). HS took protein foods and had balanced diets less frequently than LS (p<0.05). HS had fried dishes & fatty meats, and added salt to dishes more frequently (p<0.05). HS and LS had differences in preference of soy-boiled and Chinese or Japanese foods, in intake frequency of bean-paste soup, in use of soy sauce with fried food or raw fish, and in salt addition to dishes at the table (p<0.05). HS, classified by Na intakes, had high-salt dietary attitudes such as preference of seasoned rice & soy-boiled foods and habitual addition of soy sauce or salt to dishes at the table. The subjects using food labels when purchasing had better salt-related attitudes & behaviors, and lower DFQ-15 scores & Na intakes than the non-users (p<0.01). Self-assessed HS (SHS) had worse salt-related attitudes and behaviors (p<0.05). Male self-assessed LS (SLS) had higher Na intakes, which indicated that self-assessment of salt preference did not actually reflect Na intake. In summary, male university students belonged to a high-risk group of salt intakes, and HS preferred soy-boiled foods or fatty dishes, frequently added salt to dishes and rarely had balanced diets. These results suggest that nutrition education programs for university students should include fundamental dietetics and a balanced diet, in addition to a low-Na diet.

ATTACHMENT AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY (애착과 정신병리)

  • Choi, Jee-Eun;Ahn, Dong-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.40-60
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    • 2004
  • Introduction:Research on attachment in view point of the developmental perspective which began in the 1940s progressed during several decades. Many investigators focused mother-child separation in early attachment studies, and moved to the relationship with childhood psychopathology. Recently attachment theory and research are moving forward along the intergenerational transmission of attachment patterns, and adolescents and adult mental disorders in the developmental perspectives. Methods:We surveyed the research papers through Medline search, attachment-related monographs, and review or original papers published in Korean journal. Results:Developmental attachment researches have demonstrated convincingly that insecure attachment in infancy is associated with attachment disorder; several childhood psychopatholgy, such as institutional care and adoption, aggression and behavioral problems, childhood anxiety disorders and depressive disorders, gender identity disorder and feeding disorder, and child abuse and maltreatment; peer relationship and social competency, and parental behaviors. Recently the methodological advances including the Adult Attachment Interview that systematically assesses the adults' recollections of the earlier parent-child relationship they experienced could move beyond attachment researcher's initial concern with infancy to consider attachment processes throughout the life span. We could find that the quality of attachment was associated with several mental disorders in adolescents and adults significantly. Conclusion:Attachment theory would have focused on more specific parent-child relationship than general parental behavior. Recent attachment theory underscores its evolutionary origins to promote development of infant and contribute to human survival in psychobiological bases. Advances in attachment research could unite interests in evolutional biology and developmental psychology in understanding early parent-child relationship, and apply to clinical issues concerning mental health throughout the life span.

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Musical Instrumental Playing Activity using Blues Music Structure for the Improvement of Self-Efficacy in Female Middle School Students who have Depressive Tendencies (우울성향 여중생의 블루스 음악형식을 활용한 자기효능감 증진 연주활동)

  • Koo, Sae Rom
    • Journal of Music and Human Behavior
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.1-17
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    • 2007
  • Huge growth in developmental level, new accomplishment, and The period of adolescents is not only the transition stage but also improvement of academic level. In this level of stage, adolescents have difficulties in development, so they show psychological abnormality such as stress and depression. They could develop mental disorder such as depression or anxiety if they do not overcome the abnormality. According to the situation of the insufficiency of the decent program for adolescents' mental health in the current society, we are strongly requested to develop the psycho-therapeutic program for them. Therefore, in this study, we examined the effect of the musical activities as blues music structure on the improvement of the Self-Efficacy in the female middle school students who have depressive tendencies as well as what they experienced through the activities. The 3 participants were selected out of 70 students in the first year at the "D" middle school in Seoul by being tested with Child Depression Inventory(CDI) and Self-Efficacy Scale(SES). The musical activities were built with 3 steps. Of which, the first one was the introduction to each other, the formation of rapport, and induction of their interests to the musical activities through blues. The second one was letting participants learn the blues music structure by practice and play assigned music(including improvisation) during later 5 sessions with different difficulties at each session. The third one was giving them opportunities to play a music out of the acquired ones during the session or creative music by their own, which results in maximizing musical activities and an acquired experience. As a result, first of all, the scores of CDI test of 3 participants in 10 time sessions showed slight changes, suggesting the negative correlation between CDI and SES even though changes were not big differences. Secondly, the scores of SES test of 3 subjects in 10 time sessions were all changed and especially preference for tasking was significant. Thirdly, the scores of SES for musical playing test of 3 participants in 10 time sessions were all changed and especially preference for musical tasking was significant shown. Finally, according to answers of 3 participants in 10 time sessions for the after questionnaire on musical activities, participants experienced affirmative self-confidence and positive emotion. Taken together, it was suggested that musical activities using blues music structure could be promising therapeutic intervention method.

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A Study on Life Styles, Dietary Attitudes and Dietary Behaviors According to Extracurricular Activities of Elementary Students in Sejong (세종시 일부 초등학생의 과외수강에 따른 생활습관, 식태도 및 식행동에 대한 연구)

  • Oh, Keun-Jeong;Kim, Mi-Hyun;Kim, Myung-Hee;Choi, Mi-Kyeong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.8
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    • pp.1335-1343
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    • 2013
  • Parents in South Korea are known for their high level of educational zeal for their children. As a result, their children usually take extra classes in institutions as well as participate in other extracurricular activities such as sports and music. The purpose of this study was to examine the lifestyle and dietary behaviors of Korean elementary students involved in such activities. The total number of subjects was 550 fourth to sixth graders in elementary schools in Sejong, Korea. Of the total subjects, 88.0% were involved in extracurricular classes or other activities for an average of 7.34 hours/week. The subjects were assigned to one of four groups based on the degree of extracurricular activities: No extra-class (n=66), Low extra-class (1${\leq}$taking time<5 hours/week, n=118), Medium extra-class (5${\leq}$taking time<10 hours/week, n=184), and High extra-class (taking time${\geq}$10 hours/week, n=182). More subjects in the High extra-class group went to bed late (P<0.01), were under stress (P<0.01), and skipped breakfast, compared with those in the other groups. The ratio of students who answered 'I go to an institute without a meal' (P<0.01), 'I prepare a meal for myself' (P=0.053), or 'I eat out before going to an institute' (P<0.01) was higher in the High extra-class group than in the Low extra-class group. The frequency of eating fast food was higher in the High extra-class group, compared with the other groups. These results indicate that a high amount of extracurricular studies may have a negative effect on the children's lifestyles and dietary behaviors. Therefore, this study alerts parents to the potential harm of excessive extracurricular activities to their children's health.

Association between picky eating behaviors and growth in preschool children (유아기 까다로운 식습관과 성장상태 간의 연관성)

  • Shim, Jae Eun;Yoon, Ji Hyun;Kim, Kijoon;Paik, Hee Young
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.418-426
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted in order to investigate the association between picky eating behaviors of preschool children and growth outcomes. In this study, picky eating behaviors were defined as containing four constructs of 'eating a small amount (ES),' 'neophoic behavior (NB),' 'refusal of specific food groups (RF),' and 'preference for specific food-preparation methods (PP).' A 7-point scale was used for the multi-item questionnaire, which consisted of 21 items (three items for ES, two items for NB, nine items for RF, and seven items for PP), in order to evaluate picky eating behaviors of children. Subjects were recruited among visitors at a medical clinic in Seoul. A total of 150 self-administered survey responses from parents of preschool children were analyzed in order to investigate the association between picky eating behaviors of preschool children and growth outcomes. Height for age (HFA) and weight for height (WFH) z-scores were used for assessment of preschool children's growth. The prevalence of ES, NB, RF, and PP was 44%, 57%, 73%, and 53%, respectively. Children with ES had lower HFA (p < 0.05) and WFH (p < 0.0001) than those without ES, while children with NB, RF, or PP had HFA and WFH were similar to their counterparts. The mean HFA z-score of children with ES was less than 0 (p < 0.05) and the mean WFH z-scores of children with ES, NB, RF, or PP were less than 0 (p < 0.05). According to the study results, related growth outcome differed depending on constructs of picky eating behaviors. In particular, picky eating of ES showed a risk of faltering height growth in preschool children. Further comprehensive studies on the reason for ES and intervention approach is warranted.

Eating Behaviors by Breakfast Frequency of High School Students in Yongin Area (용인 일부지역 고등학생의 아침식사 섭취빈도에 따른 식행동)

  • Woo, Lee Jin;Kim, Seong Yeong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.66-75
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    • 2015
  • This study investigated eating behaviors (life-style, breakfast pattern, eating environment, snack pattern, and awareness of breakfast) by breakfast frequency (0~2 times, 3~6 times, and 7 times per week) of high school students (146 males and 165 females) in the Yongin region. The percentage of 'mother' as breakfast preparer increased with elevated breakfast frequency, whereas 'myself' was lower for females (P<0.001). Regarding reasons for skipping breakfast, 'getting more sleep' increased with elevated breakfast frequency, whereas 'loosing appetite' decreased in males (P<0.001). Regarding family reaction to skipping breakfast, 'advising' increased with elevated breakfast frequency in females (P<0.001). Skipping breakfast by eating snacks was higher in females (51.6%) than in males (35.6%), and skipping dinner was higher (53.4%) in females. Awareness of breakfast importance increased with elevated breakfast frequency in males (P<0.05) and females (P<0.001). Perception of correlation between health and breakfast was higher in females (54.8%) compared to males (43.9%), and the most important reason was 'energy supplement'. 'Eating now and will eat' increased with elevated breakfast frequency in males (P<0.001) and females (P<0.001), whereas sum of 'not eating now and will not eat' and 'eating now but will not eat' were 19.2% and 14.2% in males and females, respectively. Therefore, appropriate education programs emphasizing importance of eating breakfast and environmental improvement for regularly eating breakfast for high school students are highly required.

Evaluation of Countermeasures Effectiveness in a Radioactively Contaminated Urban Area Using METRO-K : The Implementation of Scenarios Designed by the EMRAS II Urban Areas Working Group (METRO-K를 사용한 방사능으로 오염된 도시지역에서 대응행위효과 평가 : EMRAS II 도시오염평가분과 시나리오의 이행)

  • Hwang, Won-Tae;Jeong, Hae-Sun;Jeong, Hyo-Joon;Kim, Eun-Han;Han, Moon-Hee
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.108-115
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    • 2012
  • The Urban Areas Working Group within the EMRAS-2 ($\underline{E}$nvironmental $\underline{M}$odelling for $\underline{RA}$diation $\underline{S}$afety, Phase 2), which has been supported by the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), has designed some types of accidental scenarios to test and improve the capabilities of models used for evaluation of radioactive contamination in urban areas. For the comparison of the results predicted from the different models, the absorbed doses in air were analyzed as a function of time following the accident with consideration of countermeasures to be taken. Two kinds of considerations were performed to find the dependency of the predicted results. One is the 'accidental season', i.e. summer and winter, in which an event of radioactive contamination takes place in a specified urban area. Likewise, the 'rainfall intensity' on the day of an event was also considered with the option of 1) no rain, 2) light rain, and 3) heavy rain. The results predicted using a domestic model of METRO-K have been submitted to the Urban Areas Working Group for the intercomparison with those of other models. In this study, as a part of these results using METRO-K, the countermeasures effectiveness in terms of dose reduction was analyzed and presented for the ground floor of a 24-story business building in a specified urban area. As a result, it was found that the countermeasures effectiveness is distinctly dependent on the rainfall intensity on the day of an event, and season when an event takes place. It is related to the different deposition amount of the radionuclides to the surfaces and different behavior on the surfaces following a deposition, and different effectiveness from countermeasures. In conclusion, a selection of appropriate countermeasures with consideration of various environmental conditions may be important to minimize and optimize the socio-economic costs as well as radiation-induced health detriments.

Separation of Nanomaterials Using Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (흐름 장-흐름 분획기를 이용한 나노물질의 분리)

  • Kim, Sung-Hee;Lee, Woo-Chun;Kim, Soon-Oh;Na, So-Young;Kim, Hyun-A;Lee, Byung-Tae;Lee, Byoung-Cheun;Eom, Ig-Chun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.35 no.11
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    • pp.835-860
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    • 2013
  • Recently, the consumption of nanomaterials has been significantly increased in both industrial and commercial sectors, as a result of steady advancement in the nano-technologies. This ubiquitous use of nanomaterials has brought up the concern that their exposure to environments may cause detrimental effects on human health as well as natural ecosystems, and it is required to characterize their behavior in various environmental media and to evaluate their ecotoxicity. For the sake of accomplishing those assessments, the development of methods to effectively separate them from diverse media and to quantify their properties should be requisitely accompanied. Among a number of separation techniques developed so far, this study focuses on Field-Flow Fractionation (FFF) because of its strengths, such as relatively less disturbance of samples and simple pretreatment, and we review overseas and domestic literatures on the separation of nanomaterials using the FFF technique. In particular, researches with Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (FlFFF) are highlighted due to its most frequent application among FFF techniques. The basic principle of the FlFFF is briefly introduced and the studies conducted so far are classified and scrutinized based on the sort of target nanomaterials for the purpose of furnishing practical data and information for the researchers struggling in this field. The literature review suggests that the operational conditions, such as pretreatment, selection of membrane and carrier solution, and rate (velocity) of each flow, should be optimized in order to effectively separate them from various matrices using the FFF technique. Moreover, it seems to be a prerequisite to couple or hyphenate with several detectors and analyzers for quantification of their properties after their separation using the FFF. However, its application has been restricted regarding the types of target nanomaterials and environmental media. Furthermore, domestic literature data on both separation and characterization of nanomaterials are extremely limited. Taking into account the overwhelmingly increasing consumption of nanomaterials, the efforts for the area seem to be greatly urgent.